• Title, Summary, Keyword: electronic nose

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Quality differences of retorted Samgyetangs as affected by F0-value levels (레토르트 삼계탕의 F0값 수준에 따른 품질 차이)

  • Lee, Jin Ho;Song, Gi Chang;Lee, Keun Taik
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.848-858
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine the $F_0$-values of a retort machine at different locations and to evaluate the effects of these $F_0$-values on various quality characteristics of retorted Samgyetang samples. Samples were divided into three groups based on $F_0$-values-T1, 10~20; T2, 20~30; T3, >30. Mineral content in Samgyetang broth and breast meat mostly increased with increasing $F_0$-values. In general, the free amino acid values, hardness, and springiness, except for bone springiness, of Samgyetang decreased significantly at higher $F_0$-values. Protein content of meat and broth of the treated samples were significantly lower than that of the control. An increase in the digestion rate of meat and porridge, as well as the turbidity of the broth was observed in most of the treated samples with increasing $F_0$-values. With increasing $F_0$-values, the $L^*$ and $b^*$ values of meat and the $b^*$ values of broth tended to increase, while the $a^*$ value of broth increased significantly. Electronic nose analysis revealed different flavor patterns for samples treated at different $F_0$-values. For sensory traits, samples treated with higher $F_0$-values tended to receive lower evaluations. Particularly, the color and texture of T3 samples were lower than those of T1 and T2 samples. In conclusion, to improve the quality of Samgyetang, the efficiency and optimization of retort machines as well as the standardization of sterilization techniques are needed.

Practical Approach to the Diagnosis of Pediatric Nasal Bone Fractures (소아 환자의 코뼈 골절 진단을 위한 실제적 접근)

  • Lee, Yulkok;Oh, Sungchan;Cho, Sukjin;Kim, Hyejin;Kang, Taekyung;Choi, Seungwoon;Yoo, Hanbin;Ryu, Seokyong
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Nasal bone fractures are the most common childhood facial bone fractures, with an incidence of about 39%. While taking a nasal bone x-ray is a common modality used in the emergency department, reports have expressed concerns with its low sensitivity and low specificity. Our study was aimed at comparing accuracy of physical and x-ray examination with that of facial bone computed tomography (CT). Methods: Electronic medical records (EMR) were retrospectively reviewed for patients under the age of 15 who visited our emergency department from January 2010 to December 2011with a chief complaint of nasal pain due to trauma and who had also undergone a nasal bone x-ray and facial bone CT. Patients who had not taken facial bone CT, who had been transferred, and who did not have EMR were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups, those who had nasal bone fractures and those without a fracture on their facial bone CT. We analyzed other parameters such as age, sex, and type of fracture to find statistical differences between the two groups. Results: A total of 209 patients were included. The patients with nasal bone fractures on their facial bone CT were older, and their traumas were more violent. Ten patients who had apparent nasal bone fractures on their facial bone CT had no definite signs of a fracture on their plain x-ray. Conclusion: Though facial bone CT is an effective modality in detecting nasal bone fractures, in evaluating younger patients suspected of having nasal bone fractures, prudent use of facial bone CT is needed to reduce unnecessary exposure to radiation.

Flavor and taste characteristic of black pepper by different nonthermal sterilization methods (비가열 살균 후추의 향미특성)

  • Lee, Gwang Min;Shin, Jung Kue
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.551-557
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of flavor and taste characteristics of black pepper treated with three different nonthermal sterilization methods, which are intense pulsed light (IPL), ultraviolet (UV), and cold plasma (CP). Also, the sensorial and instrumental evaluation of black pepper before and after nonthermal treatments were analyzed. As a result of color value, UV and CP treatments did not show chromacity difference (ΔE), but IPL treatment showed a significant difference of 6.58. Piperine contents of sample before nonthermal treatments was 10.7±0.53 mg/g and the piperine contents of all samples decreased after nonthermal treatments. The result of the electronic nose analysis were divided into two groups before and after nonthermal treatments, and divided into three group by principle component analysis. According to the intensity test, after nonthermal treatments, all sample had low flavor and taste, and the intensity was in the order of IPL, CP, and UV. In thirteen sensory attribute languages developed through quantitiative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity value of the samples were low after nonthermal treatments.

Quality characteristics of detoxified Rhus verniciflua vinegar fermented using different acetic acid bacteria (초산균 종류에 따른 무독화 옻식초의 품질 특성)

  • Baek, Seong Yeol;Kim, Ji-Seon;Mun, Ji-Young;Lee, Choong Hwan;Park, Yoo Kyoung;Yeo, Soo-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2016
  • To investigate the effect of different acetic acid bacteria on qualities of detoxified Rhus verniciflua vinegar (DRV), different DRVs were produced by using three acetic acid bacterial strains including Acetobacter pasteurianus KACC16934 (AP), Acetobacter malorum V5-7 (AM), and Gluconoacetobacter entanii RDAF-S (GE). Little difference in pH (2.87~2.90) or titratable acidity (5.33~5.68%) was observed among different DRVs. Acetic acid yields of the AP, AM, and GE strains were 78.6%, 85.3%, and 85.9%, respectively. Organic acid content in different DRVs was in the range of 69.84~73.83 mg/mL. Oxalic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, and fumaric acid were detected in all DRVs. And glutamic acid, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, anserine, and arginine were detected in all DRVs. Arginine and alanine were the predominant amino acids in all DRVs. PCA plots of electronic nose analysis data showed a significant differentiation of DRVs from different acetic acid bacterial strains. A sensory evaluation of all DRVs indicated that DRV fermented using AM was superior in the aspect of flavor, tasted and overall preference.

Relationship of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Lipid Oxidation, and Aroma Pattern of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef under Oxidation-promoted Condition (산화 촉진 조건에서 한우육의 항산화효소 활성, 지방산화 및 향기패턴의 관계)

  • Kang, Sun-Moon;Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Kim, Gur-Yoo;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Park, Beom-Young;Jung, Seok-Geun;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.346-353
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate the relationship of antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and aroma pattern of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef for 8 d at $15^{\circ}C/RH$ 100% under 0% $O_2$/20% $CO_2/80%\;N_2$, 25% $O_2$/20% $CO_2/55%\;N_2$, 50% $O_2$/20% $CO_2/30%\;N_2$, and 75% $O_2$/20% $CO_2/5%\;N_2$-conditions. The reduction of $O_2$ and the induction of $CO_2$ were shown in the 25-75% $O_2$-groups during storage and total change rates of $O_2$ and $CO_2$ were followed in order: 25%>50%>75%. Catalase activity was not significantly different among all groups. During storage, glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by increasing the $O_2$ concentration and was followed at 8 d in order: 0%>25%>50%>75% (p<0.05). From 2 d of storage, TBARS content had significant (p<0.05) differences in order: 0%>25%>50%>75%. The CIE $L^*$ value was higher (p<0.05) in the 25-75% $O_2$-groups, compared with the 0% $O_2$-group. During the first time, the CIE $a^*$ value was higher (p<0.05) in order: 0%<25%<50%<75% but was lower (p<0.05) in the 25-75% $O_2$-groups from 2 d of storage than in the 0% $O_2$-group. The CIE $b^*$ value was higher (p<0.05) in the 25-75% $O_2$-groups than in the 0% $O_2$-group and had significant (p<0.05) differences at 0 and 8 d in order: 0%<25%<50%<75%. Aroma patterns with the electronic nose were clearly discriminated between the 0% $O_2$-groups and the 25-75% $O_2$-groups at 8 d of storage. Therefore, high oxygen reduced stabilities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid oxidation, and color in Hanwoo beef. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid oxidation could affect aroma patterns.

Effect of Dietary Live or Killed Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Gut Microbiota and Meat Characteristics in Broiler Chicken (사료 내 생균 또는 사균 형태 김치 유산균의 첨가가 육계의 생산성, 영양소 이용률, 장내 미생물 및 계육 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeong Heon;Kim, Sang Yun;Lee, Jun Yeop;Ahammed, Musabbir;Ohh, Sang Jip
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Weissella koreensis (Wk), a prominent kimchi lactic acid bacteria supplementation on growth performance, nutrients utilization, gut microbiota and meat characteristics in broiler chicken. Both live and killed Wk was compared to know which could be more efficacious as a feed probiotics. Three Wk supplemented groups and no Wk supplemented group were designated according to supplementation levels and cell status. Those were; Control (no Wk), 0.1 % live Wk (LWk 0.1), 0.5% live Wk (LWk 0.5) and 0.5% killed Wk (KWk 0.5). Body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were improved (P<0.05) by dietary LWk supplementation. KWk did not exert any benefit on growth performance. Crude protein utilizability of KWk supplemented diet was lower (P<0.05) than that of other diets. However, there were no differences among treatments in other nutrients utilization. Serum IgG concentration and relative weight of bursa of Fabricius was highest (P<0.05) in broiler chicken fed KWk 0.5 diet. Cecal anaerobic lactic acid bacteria count of LWk groups were higher (P<0.05) than those of control and KWk 0.5 groups. Dietary Wk supplementation failed to lower the count of cecal and fecal E. coli. There was no effect of dietary Wk on TBARS values and fatty acids profile of broiler leg meat. However, the dietary supplementation of Wk exerted characteristic difference on electronic nose flavor of broiler meat. This study showed that dietary supplementation of LWk was able to improve body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and cecal lactic acid bacterial count in broiler chicken. Further, the result of this study implemented that a live kimchi lactic acid bacteria, LWk, but not killed Wk, could be used as a probiotic feed supplement for broiler.

Increase in Anti-Oxidant Components and Reduction of Off-Flavors on Radish Leaf Extracts by Extrusion Process (압출성형 무청 분말 추출물의 항산화 물질 함량 증가 및 이취 감소)

  • Sung, Nak-Yun;Park, Woo-Young;Kim, Yi-Eun;Cho, Eun-Ji;Song, Hayeon;Jun, Hyeong-Kwang;Park, Jae-Nam;Kim, Mi-Hwan;Ryu, Gi-Hyung;Byun, Eui-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1769-1775
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    • 2016
  • Aerial parts (leaves and stems) of radish are usually discarded due to the distinct undesirable flavors associated with inappropriate preparations, despite their many health benefits. In this study, we examined the role of extrusion process in the removal of off-flavors and elevation of antioxidant activity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves and stems. To optimize the extrusion conditions, we changed the barrel temperature (110, 120, and $130^{\circ}C$), screw speed (150, 200, 250, and 300 rpm), and moisture content (20, 25, and 30%). The polyphenol and flavonoid contents significantly increased in extruded radish leaves and stems (ER) under optimum extrusion conditions ($130^{\circ}C$, 250 rpm, and 20%). Under extrusion conditions, we compared off-flavors (as amount of sulfur-containing compound) levels between ER and non-extruded radish leaves and stems (NER) by an electronic nose. A total of six peaks (sulfur-containing compound) were similarly detected in both ER and NER, whereas the ER showed reduced off-flavors. Levels of glucosinolate (${\mu}g/g$), which can be hydrolyzed into off-flavors during mastication or processing, were significantly decreased in the ER. From these results, extrusion processing can be an effective method to increase anti-oxidant activity and removal of off-flavors in radish leaves and stems.