• Title, Summary, Keyword: electronic tongue

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Metabolite profiling of fermented ginseng extracts by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

  • Park, Seong-Eun;Seo, Seung-Ho;Lee, Kyoung In;Na, Chang-Su;Son, Hong-Seok
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2018
  • Background: Ginseng contains many small metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ginsenosides. However, little is known about the relationships between microorganisms and metabolites during the entire ginseng fermentation process. We investigated metabolic changes during ginseng fermentation according to the inoculation of food-compatible microorganisms. Methods: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) datasets coupled with the multivariate statistical method for the purpose of latent-information extraction and sample classification were used for the evaluation of ginseng fermentation. Four different starter cultures (Saccharomyces bayanus, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroide) were used for the ginseng extract fermentation. Results: The principal component analysis score plot and heat map showed a clear separation between ginseng extracts fermented with S. bayanus and other strains. The highest levels of fructose, maltose, and galactose in the ginseng extracts were found in ginseng extracts fermented with B. subtilis. The levels of succinic acid and malic acid in the ginseng extract fermented with S. bayanus as well as the levels of lactic acid, malonic acid, and hydroxypruvic acid in the ginseng extract fermented with lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum and L. mesenteroide) were the highest. In the results of taste features analysis using an electronic tongue, the ginseng extracts fermented with lactic acid bacteria were significantly distinguished from other groups by a high index of sour taste probably due to high lactic acid contents. Conclusion: These results suggest that a metabolomics approach based on GC-MS can be a useful tool to understand ginseng fermentation and evaluate the fermentative characteristics of starter cultures.

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial, frozen, dry, and wet-aged Hanwoo sirloins

  • Kim, Ji-Han;Jeon, Min-Young;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1621-1629
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, sensory and taste characteristics of commercial, frozen, dry, and wet aged Hanwoo sirloin. Methods: Grade 2 sirloin from 6 Hanwoo steers (about 30 months old) were obtained after 5 days postmortem. Samples were assigned to four groups which were commercial beef (CON, control group), frozen beef (Hanwoo frozen, HF; 40 days in $-18^{\circ}C$ freezer), wet-aged beef (Hanwoo wet-aging, HW; 21 days), and dry-aged beef (Hanwoo dry-aging, HD; 40 days). HW and HD were stored in a $80%{\pm}5%$ relative humidity cooler at $1^{\circ}C$. Results: The HF group showed a significantly higher cooking loss and expressible drip with significantly higher pH compared to other groups. In addition, protein and fat contents in the HD group were higher than those in other groups (p<0.05). The shear forces in the HW and HD groups were significantly lower than those in the CON group. The HD group had significantly higher omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with other groups. Glutamic acid levels in the HD group were significantly higher compared with those in other groups. Electronic tongue analysis revealed that sourness of the HD group was lower than that of other groups, whereas the HD group showed significantly higher umami, richness, and saltiness compared to other groups (p<0.05). Sensory test results revealed that the HW group had significantly higher tenderness, while the HD group had significantly higher chewiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Conclusion: These results suggest that both wet- and dry-aging treatments can effectively improve sensory characteristics, and dry-aging was much more useful to enhance umami tastes and meat quality of 2 grade Hanwoo sirloins.

Taste Analysis of Fermented Goat Milk during Cold Storage using an Electronic Tongue (미각센서를 이용한 산양발효유의 저온저장 중 풍미분석)

  • Yang, A-Reum;Kim, Woan-Sub
    • Journal of Milk Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the fermentation forms of goat milk, and the changes in the flavor of goat milk fermented using single and mixed strains of commercial Lactobacilli during storage. The mixed strains reached a lower pH more quickly than the single strains. The mixed strains also had higher rates of Lactobacillus proliferation. The tastes detected in sensory tests can differ depending on the skill levels of the panel, making it difficult to obtain reproducible and objective data when numerous samples are analyzed. Therefore, we measured changes in flavor during storage using taste sensors. The taste sensors measured diverse flavor changes in goat milk fermented using single strains and mixed strains. Notably, this study is the first in our country to measure changes in the taste and composition of fermented milk during cold storage using taste sensors. This work could have great value for the maintenance and monitoring of dairy products within their expiration dates.

Electronic Tongue Composed of Mini-Electrode Array in Flow Cell (소형전극 어레이로 구성한 흐름계형 전자혀)

  • Shim, Jun Ho;Shim, Jae Hoon;Seo, Sung Seok;Oh, Hyun Joon;Han, Jong Ho;Nam, Hakhyun;Cha, Geun Sig
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2004
  • A taste sensor system composed of mini electrode array was built in a flow cell. Potentiometric signals from 9 electrodes were collected for drinking waters and alcoholic beverages which were diluted in a low concentration buffer solution (0.005 M Tris-$H_2SO_4$ pH 7.2) for the measurement. The measured results were treated with the principal component analysis (PCA), and grouped on a two or three dimensional PCA coordinate to discriminate the tastes of each beverage. It is demonstrated that the taste sensor system of this work may be used for the quality control of beverages in production or the examination of their taste variation in the market.

Yawn Recognition Algorism for Prevention of Drowsy Driving (졸음운전 방지를 위한 하품 인식 알고리즘)

  • Yoon, Won-Jong;Lee, Jaesung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.447-450
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes the way to prevent drowsy driving by recognizing drivers eyes and yawn using a front camera. The method uses the Viola-Jones algorithm to detect eyes area and mouth area from detection face region. In the eyes area, it uses the Hough transform to recognize eye circle in order to distinguish drowsy driving. In the mouth area, it determines whether for the driver to yawn through a sub-window testing by applying a HSV-filter and detecting skin color of the tongue. The test result shows that the recognition rate of yawn reaches up to 90%. It is expected that the method introduced in this paper might contribute to reduce the number of drowsy driving accidents.

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Fabrication of low-stress silicon nitride film for application to biochemical sensor array

  • Sohn, Young-Soo
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.357-361
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    • 2005
  • Low-stress silicon nitride (LSN) thin films with embedded metal line have been developed as free standing structures to keep microspheres in proper locations and localized heat source for application to a chip-based sensor array for the simultaneous and near-real-time detection of multiple analytes in solution. The LSN film has been utilized as a structural material as well as a hard mask layer for wet anisotropic etching of silicon. The LSN was deposited by LPCVD (Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition) process by varing the ratio of source gas flows. The residual stress of the LSN film was measured by laser curvature method. The residual stress of the LSN film is 6 times lower than that of the stoichiometric silicon nitride film. The test results showed that not only the LSN film but also the stack of LSN layers with embedded metal line could stand without notable deflection.

Characteristics of Red Wines Fermented with Different Strains of Dry (건조 효모와 포도 품종에 따른 적포도주의 발효 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Hong-Sik;Yook, Cheol;Sung, Chang-Keun;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Seok-Ho;Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Ki-Yeol;Lee, Jae-Wung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.306-310
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of 3 different strains of my yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Montrachet (UCD #522), S. bayanus Pasteur Champagne (UCD #595), and S. cerevisiae Epernay (CEG) and two grape varieties (Tamnara and M.B.A) on the quality of red wines. During fermentation, sugar content decreased and alcohol content increased Addition of my yeast increased fermentation speed for both grape varieties. Sensory quality tests and tests with an electronic tongue showed that red wine made from M.B.A grapes was superior to that made from Tamnara grapes and that red wine made without the addition of my yeast was better than that made by using dry yeast.

Multianalyte Sensor Array using Capillary-Based Sample Introduction Fluidic Structure: Toward the Development of an "Electronic Tongue"

  • Sohn, Young-Soo;Anslyn, Eric V.;McDevitt, John T.;Shera, Jason B.;Neikirk, Dean P.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.378-382
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    • 2004
  • A micromachined fluidic structure for the introduction of liquid samples into a chip-based sensor array composed of individually addressable polymeric microbeads has been developed. The structure consists of a separately attached cover glass, a single silicon chip having micromachined channels and microbead storage cavities, and a glass carver. In our sensor array, transduction occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are covalently attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. Data streams are acquired for each of the individual microbeads using a CCD. One of the key parts of the structure is a passive fluid introduction system driven only by capillary force. The velocity of penetration of a horizontal capillary for the device having a rectangular cross section has been derived, and it is quite similar to the Washburn Equation calculated for a pipe with a circular cross section having uniform radius. The test results show that this system is useful in a ${\mu}$-TAS and biomedical applications.

Patterns of Cancer: A Study of 500 Punjabi Patients

  • Bal, Manjit Singh;Bodal, Vijay Kumar;Kaur, Jaspreet;Kaur, Mohanvir;Sharma, Swati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.5107-5110
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    • 2015
  • The State of Punjab has been in focus because of aperceived increasing rate of cancer. Both print and electronic media have created an impression that Punjab, especially the cotton belt of Malwa Region, has become a high incidence cancer region. Actually the increased number of cancer patients might be at least partly because of increasing population and heightened health awareness and reporting. The purpose of this study is to find out the pattern of cancer amongst patients registered in Mukh Mantri Punjab Cancer Rahat Kosh Scheme (MMPCRKS), under cancer registry at Rajindra Hospital Patiala from the various districts of Punjab. The study covers 500 cancer patients registered under MMPCRKS at Rajindra Hospital Patiala, for free cancer treatment. Information regarding age, gender, religion, method of diagnosis and affected sites was obtained. Results were analyzed statistically. Of the 500 patients, 65% were females and 35% were males. The most affected female age groups were 50-54 and 60-64; while males in the age groups of 65-69 and 60-64 had the highest risk. The leading cancers in females were breast followed by cervix and ovary where as in males they were were colon followed by esophagus and tongue. The commonest histological type was adenocarcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma. The increasing trend of cancer in Punjab is alarming. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, it could provide a leading role in prevention, treatment and future planning regarding cancer in Punjab.

Food Quality of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Domesticated in Seawater (해수 순치 무지개 송어(Oncorhynchus mykiss)의 식품학적 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ki Hyun;Kang, Sang In;Jeon, You-Jin;Choi, Byeong Dae;Kim, Min Woo;Kim, Dongsoo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.114-121
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    • 2014
  • This study compared the food quality of domesticated(RT-DS) and freshwater (RT-F) rainbow trouts Oncorhynchus mykiss. The proximate composition of RT-DS was 73.8% moisture, 20.6% crude protein, 4.2% crude lipid, and 1.1% ash and was similar to RT-F. No differences were found in the red color, odor and taste intensities, calcium, and potassium between RT-DS and RT-F based on the Hunter a values, volatile basic nitrogen content, odor intensity and using an electronic nose, and taste intensity using an electronic tongue. The crude protein, total amino acid contents, and taurine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and anserine contents in free amino acids were higher in RT-DS than in RT-F. There was no difference in hardness between RT-DS and RT-F.