• Title, Summary, Keyword: elimination

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An ab initio Study on the Molecular Elimination Reactions of Methacrylonitrile

  • Oh, Chang-Young;Park, Tae-Jun;Kim, Hong-Lae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1184
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    • 2005
  • Ab initio quantum chemical molecular orbital calculations have been performed for the unimolecular decomposition of methacrylonitrile ($CH_3C(CN)=CH_2$), especially for HCN and $H_2$ molecular elimination channels. Structures and energies of the reactants, products, and relevant species along the individual reaction pathways were determined by MP2 gradient optimization and MP4 single point energy calculations. Direct four-center elimination of HCN and three-center elimination of H2 channels were identified. In addition, H or CN migration followed by HCN or H2 elimination channels via the methylcyanoethylidene intermediate was also identified. Unlike the case of crotonitrile previously studied, in which the dominant decomposition process was the direct three-center elimination of HCN, the most important reaction pathway should be the direct threecenter elimination of $H_2$ in the case of methacrylonitrile.

Delayed Elimination After High-dose Methotrexate in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (소아 급성림프모구백혈병 및 비호지킨림프종 환자에서 고용량 methotrexate 투여 후 배설지연)

  • Yoon, Hye Won;Ree, Yoon Sun;Song, Hyo Sook;Kim, Jae Song;Son, Eun Sun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2019
  • Background: High doses of methotrexate (MTX) are often used in various chemotherapy protocols to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in children, but its delayed elimination increases the occurrence of adverse events, such as bone marrow suppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination of MTX at 24 and 48 hours. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records of ALL or NHL pediatric patients who received $5g/m^2$ MTX infusion over 24 hours (between June, 2012 and July, 2018) at the Yonsei University Health System, Korea. The delayed elimination of MTX concentrations was assessed with 100 or $150{\mu}M$ MTX at 24 hours, and 2 or $5{\mu}M$ at 48 hours. Results: Among the 85 MTX cycles administered, 23 cycles were classified in delayed elimination group, and 62 cycles showed normal elimination. At 24 hours, the delayed elimination group with MTX concentration > $100{\mu}M$ showed higher percentage than group with MTX concentration < $100{\mu}M$ (45.8% vs. 19.7%, p = 0.015). However, no differences were observed at $150{\mu}M$ MTX (p = 0.66). At 48 hours, the delayed elimination was higher than the normal elimination at both concentration baselines (p < 0.001 at $2{\mu}M$, p = 0.024 at $5{\mu}M$). Conclusions: MTX concentrations greater than $100{\mu}M$ show high probability of delayed elimination at 24 hours. When MTX levels are above normal, leucovorin and hydration regimens should be continued to prevent delayed elimination.

A study on learning needs about altered elimination of spinal cord injury patients : A comparison patients에 and nurses에 perceptions (척수손상환자의 배설장애에 대한 학습요구 : 환자 대 간호사 지각 비교)

  • 김인자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study determine and compare spinal cord injured(SCI) patients’ and nurses’ perceptions of SCI patients’ learning needs about altered elimination and then provide nursing data for more effective SCI patients’ learning process. Data collection was done from September 3 to October 2, 1993. For this study, 36 SCI Patients(12 paraplegia, 24 quadriplegia) and 20 nurses who were working neurosurgery or rehabilitation unit in 3 general hospitals in C and I city were selected. Data collection was accomplished by Questionnaire method and the instrument developed by the investigator, elicited information about learning needs about altered elimination of SCI patients from SCI patient, nurse, rehabilitation doctor, nursing professor, nursing graduate students. The questionnaire composed altered urinary elimination part with 10 categories and altered bowel elimination part with 10 categories. The results of this study were as follows : 1. There was no significant difference in learning needs about altered urinary elimination of the paraplegic SCI patients’ perceptions and nurses’ perceptions of the paraplegic SCI patients. But there was significant difference in learning needs about altered urinary elimination of the quadriplegic SCI patients and nurses’ perceptions of the quadriplegic patients(t=2.48, p=.017). 2. There was no significant difference in learning needs about altered bowel elimination of the paraplegic SCI patients’ perceptions and nurses’ perceptions of the paraplegic SCI patients. But there was significant difference in learning needs about altered bowel elimination of the quadriplegic SCI patients and nurses’ perceptions of the quadriplegic patients(t=-3.00. p=.005). 3. Degree of paraplegic SCI patients’ perceived learning needs about altered urinary elimination was 2.4083 and quadriplegic SCI patients’ perceptions were 2.0750. Degree of paraplegic SCI patients’ perceived learning needs about altered bowel elimination was 2.3972 and quadriplegic SCI patients' perceptions were 2.181.

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A Fast Multilevel Successive Elimination Algorithm (빠른 다단계 연속 제거 알고리즘)

  • Soo-Mok Jung
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Industry Society
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    • v.4 no.10
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    • pp.761-767
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, A Fast Multi-level Successive Elimination Algorithm (FMSEA) is presented for block matching motion estimation in video coding. Motion estimation accuracy of FMSEA is equal to that of Multilevel Successive Elimination Algorithm(MSEA). FMSEA can reduce the computations for motion estimation of MSEA by using partial distortion elimination technique. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was verified by experimental results.

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SOME GEOMETRIC CONSEQUENCES OBTAINED FROM PARTIAL ELIMINATION IDEALS

  • Ahn, Jeaman
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.487-494
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    • 2010
  • In [9], M. Green introduced the partial elimination ideals defining the multiple loci of the projection image of a closed subscheme in ${\mathbb{P}}^n$. In this paper, we give some geometric consequences obtained from partial elimination ideals.

A Global Optimization Algorithm Based on the Extended Domain Elimination Method (영역 제거법의 확장을 통한 전체 최적화 알고리듬 개선)

  • O, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Byeong-Chae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.240-249
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    • 2000
  • An improved global optimization algorithm is developed by extending the domain elimination method. The concept of triangular patch consists of two or more trajectories of local minimizations is introduced to widen the attraction region of the domain elimination method. Using the an-]c between each of three vertices of the patch and a design point, we measure the proximity, between the design point and the patch. With the Gram-Schimidt orthonormalization, this method can be extended to general n-dimensional problems. We code the original domain elimination algorithm and a patch-based algorithm. Then we compare the performance of two algorithms. Through the well-known example problems. the algorithm using patch is shown to be superior to the original domain elimination algorithm in view of computational efficiency.

The Trade Effect of Korea-EU FTA on the Fishery Sector (한국-EU 자유무역협정의 수산부문 무역효과 추정)

  • Kim, Nam-Doo;Hwang, Sang-In
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.49-65
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    • 2010
  • We have analyzed the trade effect of Korea-EU FTA on the Korean fishery sector, after reviewing the trade pattern and the tariff barriers of fishery sector between Korea-EU. For the trade effects, we have categorized into three cases: 1) the complete tariff elimination of all items, 2) the half tariff reduction on top ten valued items, with complete tariff elimination of other items, and 3) the complete tariff elimination, except unbinding top three valued items. The effect of the complete tariff elimination of all items implies the effect of the full achievement of FTA. For other two cases, these effects imply the effects of the transitional phenomenon of FTA since the complete tariff elimination happens gradually over more than ten years. For the complete elimination of tariff, we found that imports are increased by 1.1 billion dollars which is 12.9% increase in average imports during years 2006-2009. Also, exports are increased by 1.3 billion dollars which is 14.5% increase in average exports during same years.

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Clinical Experience with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy as a Method of Extracorporeal Elimination and as performed by Emergency Room Physicians for Patients with Poisoning (체외제거가 필요한 중독환자에서 응급의학과 의사에 의해 시행된 지속적신대체요법에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Ahn, Jung-Hwan;Choi, Sang-Cheon;Jung, Yoon-Seok;Min, Young-Gi
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.150-155
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Extracorporeal elimination of drugs is a critical part of managing poisonings, although the indications and optimal method remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to report our clinical experiences with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), as performed by emergency room physicians, as method of extracorporeal drug elimination in patients with poisoning. Methods: This study was a retrospective study of the consecutive patients who underwent CRRT, as performed by an emergency room physician, for acute poisoning. The patient characteristics, the kinds of drugs and the method of extracorporeal elimination were analyzed by reviewing the patients' charts. Results: During eleven months, 26 patients with acute poisoning underwent extracorporeal elimination (2 patients; intermittent hemodialysis, 24 patients; CRRT). The mean time from the decision to performing extracorporeal elimination was $206.0{\pm}36.8$ minutes for intermittent hemodialysis, $62.9{\pm}8.5$ minutes for continuous venoveno-hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and $56.6{\pm}6.8$ minutes for charcoal hemoperfusion. For the patients with CRRT, CVVHDF was conducted in 10 patients (3 patients; valproic acid, 2 patients; Lithium, 1 patient; salicylates, 1 patient; methanol) and charcoal hemoperfusion by using CRRT was done in 14 patients (13 patients; paraquat, 1 patient; dapsone). For the 12 patients who required hemodialysis due to severe poisoning, 7 patients underwent CRRT because of their unstable vital signs. Conclusion: CRRT was an effective method of extracorporeal drug elimination in patients with acute poisoning, and especially for the cases with unstable vital sign and for those patients who required an early start of extracorporeal elimination according to the characteristics of the drug. (ED note: the writing of the abstract was not clear. Check it carefully.)

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Heavy Metal Interactions during Accumulation and Elimination of Cadmium and Copper in the Liver of Juvenile Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

  • Kim Seong-Gil;Kim Sang-Gyu;Kang Ju-Chan
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 2002
  • Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of metal interaction on the accumulation and elimination of Cd and Cu in the liver of flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic Cd (0, 5, 10, 50, 100 ${\mu}g/L$)/Cu $(10 {\mu}g/L)$ mixture. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in the liver of flounder for exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation increased linearly with exposure time. Cu accumulation profiles were similar to those of Cd. Cd concentration in the liver significantly decreased at the 10th depuration period and elimination rate was $66.20\%,\;86.22\%$ in 50 and $100 {\mu}g/L$at the end of depuration periods, respectively. Although, Cu elimination was similar to Cd elimination phase, Cd elimination rate was higher than that of Cu. Co-relationship of Cd and Cu have a positive correlation coefficient r=0.8620 (P<0.001) and support the strong relationship between Cd and Cu accumulation. As increase with the Cd exposure concentration, there were significant (P<0.001) differences between Cd and Cu accumulation.

Monitoring of Termite in Haeinsa Temple and Control method (해인사의 흰개미 모니터링 및 방제 방안)

  • Jeong, So-Young;Lee, Kyu-Shik;Chung, Yong-Jae
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.77-93
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    • 2002
  • There are several methods of pest control for the prevention of wooden cultural properties from damages caused by insects, especially termites. Those are as follows; physical control, chemical control, biological control, and integrated pest management. In Korea, we primarily use mvestigation of monitoring, fumigation, treatment of insecticidal and antiseptic chemicals, soil termiticide treatment, and termite colony elimination system. As damages by termites were detected at Eunghyanggak and Saundang of Haeinsa temple in June, 1998, we carried out monitoring with wooden device, in order to investigate damages of wooden building by termite and paths of termite invasion. According to the result of investigation of monitoring from1999 to 2002, we found that termites were inhabiting continually at forests around Haeinsa and that wooden buildings such as Saundang, Cheonghwadang were damaged by termites. So we thought that control methods such as soil termiticide treatment and termite colony elimination system would be effective. Especially, to investigate efficacy of termite colony elimination system, we carried out efficacy test of termite colony elimination system in Jongmyo during 17 months(2000.7.~2001.11.). The result of efficacy test showed that termite colony elimination system eliminated termite colonies gradually(over 12 months from installation of colony elimination system to elimination of termite colony).

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