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Study on In Vitro Development of Mouse Embryos (생쥐 수정란의 핵이식후 체외발달에 관한 연구)

  • 박희성;이효종;최상용;박충생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 1990
  • Single nuclei from two-, four- and eight-cell mouse embryos were transplanted into enucleated two-cell mouse embryos by micromanipulation and sendai virum mediated fusion. no significant difference in successful injectin rate and fusion rate was found between the cell stages of nuclear donor embryos. There nuclear transplant embryos receiving different cell stage nuclei were cultured in vitro for 96 hours. 75.3% of 255 embryos receiving 2-cell nuclei, 68.2% of 236 embryos reciving 4-cell nuceli and 46.9% of 228 embryos receiving 8-cell nuclei were developed to blastocyst, respectively. The number of blastomeres was significantly(P<0.05) reduced in the embryos receiving 8-cell nuclei, compared with the embryos receiving 2-cell, 4-cell nuclei or the intact embryos. Also the size of blastocysts was significantly(P<0.05) smaller in the embryos receiving 8-cell nuclei, compared with the intact or other nuclear transplant embryos. These results suggest that single nuclei introduced into the enucleated two-cell embryos are able to support the in vitro development of the reconstituted embryos to blastocysts. The prominant retardation of blastocoele formation and cell division was shown in nuclear transplant embryos receiving eight-cell nuclei when they were cultured in vitro.

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Systems for Production of Calves after Embryo Transfer of Nuclear Transplant Embryos (소 핵이식 수정란에 의한 산자 생산에 관한 연구)

  • 황우석
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1995
  • Production of calves after transfer of nuclear transplant embryos is the latest technology to be applied in commercial livestock breeding. The objective of this study was to establish an efficient procedure to produce offsprings from nuclear transplant embryos. The fusion rates (72.7% vs. 80.8%), cleavage rates (62.5% vs. 71.4%) and rates of development in vitro (12.0% vs. 15.2%) of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between 30 and 40h maturation age of cytoplast. The in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos as nuclei donor were used in this system of bovine nuclear transplantation. Fusion rates of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos (73.0 and 79.2%, respectively). The percentage of embryos reaching the morulae or blastocysts were 21.8% for in vivo-derived embryos and 11.9% for in vitro-derived embryos (p<0.01). Pregnancy rates after embryo transfer of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos (45.9 and 40.5%, respectively). However, calving rates after embryo transfer of nuclear transplant embryos were significantly higher in the in vivo-derived embryos than in vitro (p<0.01). Further research for age of cytoplast and use of in vitro-derived embryos as nuclei donor is required in this system. In conclusion, these results clearly show that the use of in vitro-derived oocytes as recipient cytoplast can improve the nuclear transplant system for genetic progress in cattle.

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Comparison of Microtubule Distributions between Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Parthenogenetic Porcine Embryos

  • Park, Joo-Hee;Kwon, Dae-JinK;Lee, Beom-Ki;Hwang, In-Sun;Park, Choon-Keun;Yang, Boo-Keun;Cheong, Hee-Tae
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to examine the microtubule distributions of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetic porcine embryos. Porcine SCNT embryos were produced by fusion of serum-starved fetal fibroblast cells with enucleated oocytes. Reconstituted and mature oocytes were activated by electric pulses combined with 6-dimethlyaminopurine treatment. SCNT and parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in vitro for 6 days. Microtubule assembly of embryos was examined by confocal microscopy 1 hr and 20 hr after fusion or activation, respectively. The proportions of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage were 25.7% and 30.4% in SCNT and parthenogenetic embryos, respectively. The frequency of embryos showing $\beta$-tubulins was 81.8% in parthenogenetic embryos, whereas 31.3% in SCNT embryos 1 hr after activation or fusion. The frequency of the embryos underwent normal mitotic phase was low in SCNT embryos (40.6%) compared to that of parthenogenetic ones (59.7%) 20 hr after fusion or activation (p<0.05). The rate of SCNT embryos with an abnormal mitosis pattern is about twice compared to that of parthenogenetic ones. The spindle assembly and its distribution of SCNT embryos in the first mitotic phase were not different from those of parthenogenetic ones. The result shows that although microtubule distribution of porcine SCNT embryos shortly after fusion is different from parthenogenetic embryos, and the frequency of abnormal mitosis 20 hr after fusion or activation is slightly increased in SCNT embryos, microtubule distributions at the first mitotic phase are similar in both SCNT and parthenogenetic embryos.

Study on the sexing of preimplantation mouse embryo exposed to H-Y antisera II. Sexing of mouse embryos by immunofluorescence assay (H-Y항체에 의한 생쥐초기배의 성판별에 관한 연구 II. 간접면역형광측정법에 의한 성판별)

  • 양부근;장정순;김정익
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 1988
  • These studies were carried out to examine the sex of preimplantation mouse embryo. For the investigation of sex-ration of mouse embryos, morula and blastocysts stage embryos treated with H-Y antiserum (10%, v/v) and FITC anti-mouse-IgG were divided into the positive and negative embryos. Positive and negative identified embryos were observed the viability according to the in vitro cultured and the sex ratio was also investigated by chromosomal analysis. The results obtained in these studies were summarized as follows: 1. Two hundred sixty-seven recovered embryos of morula or blastocyst stage were incubated in medium containing H-Y antiserum and FITC anti-mouse-IgG. Positively or negatively identified embryos were 139 and 128. This trend indicated the approximal sex ratio was 1:1. 2. Sex ratio was measured using the embryos treated with indirect immunofluorescence assay to examine the relationship between embryo developmental stage and sex ratio. Sex ratio of morula stage embryos was 45.2% positive and 54.8% negative, on the other hand, the ratio switched to 56.4% positive and 43.6% negative embryo in blastocyst stage. 3. Fourty-seven positive and 57 negative embryos were obtained out of 104 morula stage embryos treated with indirect immunofluorescence assay. Survived positive or negative embryos during in vitro culture were 42 and 49, respectively out of 47 and 57 embryos. 4. The numbers of negative and positive embryos were 171 and 92 out of 163 blastocyst embryos which were incubated in the medium containing H-Y antiserum and FITC anti-mouse-IgG. The result of karyotype test showed the successful rate of sexing embryo is positive and negative embryos was63.0% (58/92) and 62.0% (44/71). The final female to male ratio within 58 positive embryos was 22.7:77.6, and the ratio of the 44 negative embryos was 77.3:22.7.

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Studies on Bisection of Bovine Embryos and Embryo Tranfer (소 우정란의 Bisection과 이식에 관한 연구)

  • 정병현;지희준;이상진;이동희;정태영;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 1989
  • These experiments were carried out to develop the practical technique for the production of identical twins in cattle. Morula and blastocyst stage embryos collected from superovulated donors were bisected into halves by micromanipulation. The resulting demi-embryos were transferred to the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of synchronous recipients. The viability of demi-embryos after splitting was also evaluated by culturing demi-embryos with and without a zona-pellucida. The results obtained in these experiments were summarized as follows : 1. Of total 132 embryos collected by superovulation from 29 donors, 37 embryos were morular and 30 at blastocyst stages. 2. Total 111 demi-embryos were produced from 67 embryos by bisection and 98% of those were normal in morphology. 3. The viability of the demi-embryos cultured with zona-pellucida ranged from 70 to 76.5% and that of the demi-embryos without from 53.8 to 69.2%. 4. The viability of demi-embryos obtained from morula was 63.6% and that of demi-embryos from blastocyst was 73.3%, respectively. 5. 35 demi-embryos were transferred to 21 recipients, 7 of which were confirmed to be pregnant by rectal palpation at 55∼60 days after embryo transfer. One of them produced a calf and 6 are still on pregnancy.

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Effects of Freezing on Bisected Mouse Embryos 1. Developmental Potentials of Bisected Mouse Embryos in vitro (절단마우스 이분배의 동결보존실험 1. 마우스 절단이분배의 체외 발육능에 대하여)

  • Hwang Woo-Suk
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 1985
  • Mouse embryos of 8-cell stage and compacted morulae(approximately 16 cells) containing different number of blastomeres were bisected and cultured in vitro to determine the developmental potentials of the divided embryos compared with those of unmanipulated control embryos. The results were as follows. 1. Micromanipulation was performed successfully by means of a simple manipulator which holds a fine glass, needle, without the use of any micro-instruments for support. 2. The percentage of bisected morulae with 7-9 blastomeres that developed to eu-blastocyst was 94.1% while only 64.8% of the bisected 8-cell embryos with 4 blastomeres developed to eublastocysts (p<0.05). 3. The percentage of eu-blastocysts decreased, while that of pseudoblastocysts and trophectodermal vesicle increased as the number of blastomeres decreased in the bisected embryos of the two stages. 4. The time of the blastocoele re-formation of the bisected and control embryos was not significantly different in morulae stage embryos, but it was significantly delayed in the 8-cell stage embryos (Eu-B, Pseudo-B) compared with control embryos (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively).

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A Study on the Splitting Methods in Mouse and Bovine Embryos (생쥐 및 소 수정란의 분할방법에 관한 연구)

  • 조남기
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to obtain the basic information on splitting and culture of mouse and bovine embryos. Two-, four-, eight-, cell and morula mouse embryos were digested with pronase, splitted in vitro by micro-glass needel with hand, and bovine embryos were splitted by micromanipulator. The splitted embryos were cultured under 5% of CO2 gas in air at 37$^{\circ}C$ for 48-72 hours. The results obtained in this study were summarized as follows: 1. The mouse and cattle were superovulated by 5IU of PMS and HCG, and 2500IU of PMS and 25mg of PGF2$\alpha$, respectively. The average number of embryos after superovulation were 32.5$\pm$8.2 and 7.5$\pm$3:1, respectively. 2. Out of total 122 embryos splitted, the successful splitting rate was 75.0%, 66.7%, 68.4% and 71.4% in 2-, 4-, 8- and morula embryos in mouse, respectively. There was no different splitting rate between mouse(71.4%) and bovine embryos(66.7%) in morula. 3. The successful culture rate of splitted embryos was 68.0% and 67.9% in mouse and bovine embryos, respectively.

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Pregnancy of Monozygotic Twins by Bisection of Korean Native Cattle Embryos (수정란 분할에 의한 한우 쌍태의 임신)

  • 손동수;김일화;이동원;최창열;윤상보;류일선;서국현;이광원;유충원
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to produce monozygotic twin calves by transfer of bisected embryos. Four Korean native cattle donors were superovulated with FSH and flushed to collect embryos on day 6 or 7 of the estrus cycle. Morula and early blastocyst embryos showed 1 or 2 grade were bisected with microblade and each set of demi-embryos without zona pellucida were transferred nonsurgically to 10 recipients respectively. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Twenty four demi-embryos (92.3%) were separated from 13 original embryos and among them 20 demi-embryos (83.3%) had normal appearance without severe damage. 2. Four sets of fresh demi-embryos were transferred to 4 recipients and one recipient was twin pregnant 3. Six sets of frozen-thawed demi-embryos were transferred to 6 recipients. Two recipients were pregnant, one of them twin.

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Study on improvement of viability of mouse embryos after bisection (생쥐 수정란의 분할조작후 생존성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-jong;Park, Hee-sung;Kim, Taeg-seog;Choe, Sang-yong;Park, Choong-saeng
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 1989
  • Demi-embryos were successfully produced by bisection of ICR mouse embryos at preimplantation stages. They were microsurgically bisected using a microsurgical blade attached to a micromanipulator after pretreatment with 0.5% pronase in PBS for two minutes or not. Embryos with softened zona pellucida were more easily bisected and less damaged than intact embryos. The highest success rate in bisection has been achieved by selecting blastocysts(94.1% in success rate with intact blastocysts and 100% in success rate with zona softened blastocysts). Demi-embryos without zona pellucida were cultured in D-PBS or M-16 medium at $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ in air for 72 hours for 2-cell stage embryos, 48 hours for 4-to 8-cell stage embryos, 24 hours for morula stage embryos and 6~12 hours for blastocyst stage embryos. For the in vitro culture of 2-cell stage embryos, $100{\mu}M$ 2Na-EDTA was added to the media. M-16 medium was better for the in vitro development of mouse embryos than PBS, and PBS is not considered to be suitable for long-term culture of embryos, especially at early stage of cleavage. In M-16 medium, developing rate of demi-embryos of which pair underwent development to form eublastocysts was 15.8% at 2-cell stage, 16.8% at 4-cell stage, 38% at 8-cell stage, 89.6% at morula stage and 94.4% at blastocyst stage, respectively. The more rapid and efficient production of demi-embryos and higher viability after bisection can be expected by softening zona pellucida with pronase and by selecting morulae or blastocysts rather than embryos at early stage of cleavage.

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Effects of ibaraki virus on viability of preimplantation mouse embryos (Ibaraki virus가 착상전(着床前) 마우스수정란(受精卵)의 생존성(生存性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yong-jun;Jo, Choong-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.343-359
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    • 1989
  • To study the effects of ibaraki virus on preimplantation mouse embryos collected from prepubertal ICR and BALB/cByJ mice (30~40days old) by superovulation, zona pellucidaintact(ZPI) or free(ZPF) embryos(n=774) of 4- to 8-cell and morulae were exposed to $10^{5.8}$ $TCID_{50}$ of the virus up to 96 hours. The embryos were examined morphologically by observing the degeneration and hatching rates, and virologically and immunologically by determining the presence of infection with the virus, in addition, the effect of washing the embryos to remove virus possibly attached to was also investigated. The ZPI 4- to 8-cell embryos and morulae exposed to the virus showed considerably higher degeneration rate than those not exposed, for 96, and for 72 to 96 hours, respectively(p<0.01). The ZPF 4- to 8-cell embryos and morulae exposed to the virus showed considerably higher degeneration rates than those not exposed, throughout the whole culture hours in vitro (p<0.01). The ZPI 4- to 8-cell embryos and morulae not exposed to the virus showed considerably higher rates of hatched blastocyst than those exposed (p<0.01). The virus infection rates of the ZPF 4- to 8-cell embryos and morulae were significantly higher than those of the ZPI embryos according to cell culture system. The viral antigen was detected exclusively on the zona pellucida of ZPI embryos, while the antigen was evenly distributed in the blastomeres of ZPF embryos by the immunofluorescent assay. In the ZPI embryos exposed to ibaraki virus, the virus was detected in the two times-washing groups, but not in the ten times-washing groups. The results indicated that zona pellucida of murine embryos would provide an effective protection and that ten times-washing of the ZPI embryos previously exposed to the virus was effective to remove virus from the embryos.

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