• Title, Summary, Keyword: emulsification

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Mathematical model and sensitivity analysis for describing emulsification in ASP flooding

  • Zhang, Chengli;Wang, Peng;Song, Guoliang
    • Geosystem Engineering
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 2018
  • Alkali-surfactant polymer flooding has become an important technique to improve oil recovery following the development of oil fields while the function of emulsification in enhanced oil recovery is rarely considered in the existing mathematical model for numerical simulation. In this paper, the mechanism of improving the recovery of the emulsification was analyzed in ASP flooding, and a relatively perfect mathematical model with deep filtration-theory was established, in which oil-water volume equation, saturation equation, viscosity equation, and permeability reduction equation are included. The new model is used to simulate the actual block of an oil field; the simulated results of the new model and an old model without considering the emulsification are compared with the actual well history. It is found that new model which is easy to be realized in numerical simulation has a high precision fitting, and the effect of adding oil and decreasing water is obvious. The sensitivity of emulsification was analyzed, and the results show that the water reducing funnel becomes wider and the rate of water cut decreases rapidly with the increase of emulsifying capacity, and then the rate of recovery slows down. The effect of increasing oil and decreasing water is better, and the degree of recovery increases. The emulsification of the ASP flooding is maintained at a moderate level, which corresponds to ${\Phi}=0.2$ in the new model, and the emulsification is applied to realize the general mathematical quantitative description, so as to better guide the oilfield development.

Effect of Direct Emulsification Method and Invert Emulsification Method On Droplet Size of O/W Emulsion (O/W 에멀젼 입자의 크기에 미치는 Direct 유화법과 Invert유화법의 효과)

  • 김철훈;박재길
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.64-81
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    • 1994
  • O/W emulsions with mixed nonionic surfactants(polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monostearate/sorbitan sesquioleate), liquid paraffin, water prepared by direct inversion emulisification method and continuous inversion emulsification Method. The one-step, two-step and three-step phase inversion emulsification method were used in experiments. Effect of added water on droplet size of final O/W emulsions which is prepared by phase inversion emulsification method were investigated. In direct inversion emulsification method(two-step emulsification method), fine and homogeneous droplets of OIW emulsions were formed after phase inversion steps i.e. ,W/O - (W/O) If double emulsion - O/W emulsion. In continuous inversion emulsification method(three-step emulsification method), fine and homogeneous O/W emulsion were formed after phase inversion steps i.e., W/O - pseudomicroemulsion - O/W. By latter method, more Fine and homogenuous droplets were formed than former method. 10-10, 8 HLB region of mixed non-ionic surfactants could produce most fine droplets. This HLB region had maximum values of solubilization water and This HLB value of mixed nonionic surfactants produced fine and homogenuous droplets.

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Emulsification Activity of Acinetobacter sp. 2-3A Isolated from Petroleum Oil-Contaminated Soil (유류오염 토양에서 분리한 Acinetobacter sp. 2-3A의 유화활성)

  • Lim, Ji-Hyun;Jeong, Seong-Yun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1261-1270
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    • 2009
  • Fifty hydrocarbon-metabolizing microorganisms were isolated from soil samples polluted by the petroleum oils in Gamman-dong, Busan. Among them, strain 2-3A, showing strong emulsification activity, was selected by oil film-collapsing method. This bacterium was identified as Acinetobacter sp. and designated as Acinetobacter sp. 2-3A. The optimum temperature and pH on the growth of Acinetobacter sp. 2-3A were $25^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0, respectively. The carbon and nitrogen sources for the most effective emulsification activity were 3.0% olive oil and 0.5% peptone, respectively. The 0.15% potassium phosphate was the most effective emulsification activity as a phosphate source. The optimum emulsification activity condition was $20^{\circ}C$, pH 7.0, and 2.0% NaCl. The optimum time for the best production of biosurfactant was 27 hrs. The emulsification stability was maintained at the temperature range from $4^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$, pH range from 6.0 to 10.0, and NaCl range from 0% to 10%. For the oil resolvability of the biosurfactant, the residual oils were investigated by gas chromatography. As a result, it was verified that the biosurfactant decreased and decomposed crude oils from $_nC_{10}$ to $_nC_{32}$.

Stabilization of Ascorbic acid with Nonaqueous Emulsification (비수 유화법을 이용한 아스코르빅산의 안정화)

  • Lee, Chung Hee;Shin, Jae Dong;Bae, Su Hyun;Kang, Ki Choon;Pyo, Hyeong Bae
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2012
  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) becomes unstable in the aqueous phase by oxygen, light and alkali, etc. The properties are limited in application to cosmetics. The most important factor that determines the destabilization of ascorbic acid in the aqueous phase was tried to understand considering its molecular deformation and degradation. In this study, we changed the polyols and emulsification technique for the stability of ascorbic acid. Then we observed the color and concentration change of ascorbic acid at room temperature and high temperature ($42^{\circ}C$) for 6 weeks and identified the stability using HPLC regularly. As a result, we found that glycerin was the most appropriate polyol for stability of the ascorbic acid. Also the technique of nonaqueous emulsification stabilized ascorbic acid than P/S emulsification. Also, P/S emulsification, glycerin was more stable than propylene glycol. By the results we suggest that ascorbic acid could be stabilized by nonaqueous emulsification method and this data could be applied to stabilization methods for cosmetic products.

The Study of the Printability on the Phenol Free Heat-Set Web Inks(III) - Effects of the Emulsification of Ink on Print Quality - (Phenol Free Heat-Set 윤전 잉크의 인쇄적성에 관한 연구 (제3보) - 잉크 유화가 인쇄품질에 미치는 영향 -)

  • Ha, Young-Baeck;Oh, Sung-Sang;Lee, Won-Jae
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2012
  • The lithographic process depends on a satisfactory ink-in-water emulsion being formed during printing and the speed of wet presses makes the choice of fountain solution vitally important as the ink and fount must react quickly to form a stable emulsion. Ink and water come into contact with each other on the rolls of the press and are forced together in the roll nips. The water is not soluble in the ink since it is slightly fat. Instead, an emulsion is formed, a heterogeneous mass consisting of small water drops mixed into the ink, if the water feed is too great. This emulsification can affect the properties of an off-set ink and negatively affect the printability. So we investigated the effects of the emulsification of phenol free heat-set ink and existing heat-set ink on printed quality, such as amount of ink transfer, printed density, print-through and uniformity. We used Duke emulsification tester for the emulsification of inks, and used IGT printability tester for printed quality. The printed quality were measured by densitometer and were evaluated by the image analysis system. Compared to conventional printing ink, phenol-free ink showed better results of the printability at the emulsification.

Effect of dampening agents on emulsification for lithography ink (축임물의 성분에 따른 평판인쇄잉크의 유화량에 미치는 영향)

  • 권대환;김성빈;조진우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Printing Society Conference
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2001
  • Laboratory test method which determines the emulsification rate of dampening solution and ink has been described In lithography using the mutual repellence of oil and water, the emulsification is produced by dispersion of dampening water and ink because of the printing pressure on a practical press. Rheological properties of Ink-Water balance are the important factors in lithographic printing. The emulsification theory and laboratory test method deduced from Surland and Kim. It is shown that the emulfisication curves relate to the rates of change in the emulsifide ink\`s flow properties, to the shear stability of the emulsion formed To study on the factors determining the emulsion velocity, we have measured water pickup and calculated emulsification velocity constant \`k\` and activation energy.

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Effects of Chemical Characteristics of Oily Soil on Detergency of Particulate Soil in Oily/Particulate Mixed Soil System -Dispersion Stability of Particulate Soil and Emulsification Stability of Oily Soil- (지용성/고형 오구의 혼합 오염 계에 있어 고형 오구의 세척성에 영향을 주는 지용성 오구의 화학적 특성 -고형 오구의 분산안정성과 지용성 오구의 유화안정성-)

  • Kang, In-Sook
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2009
  • This study was a preliminary examination on the interactions between chemical characteristics of oily soil and detergency of particulate soil in oily/particulate mixed soil system, which enable to understand the detergent process of particulate soil in interfacial chemical aspect. The dispersion stability of particle increased with oily soil in colloidal dispersion, and decreased with increasing amount of oily soil and decreasing surfactant concentration, but the influence of polarity of oily soil on dispersion stability was low. And emulsification power of polar oily soil was higher than those of nonpolar oily soil, and increased with decreasing amount of oily soil and increasing surfactant concentration. This results showed that chemical characteristics of oily soil such as polarity effect of oily soil exerts on emulsification power than the dispersion stability. But the trend of dispersion stability of particle are similar to emulsification power of oily soil.

Isolation and Characterization of a Bioemulsifier-Producing Bacterium for Marine Oil Spill Bioremediation (해양유류오염 방제를 위한 생물유화제 생산세균의 분리 및 특성)

  • 손홍주;차미선
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.473-480
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    • 1997
  • Microorganisms producing bioemulslfiler were isolated from the sea water In Pusan coastal area. The isolated strain which had the highest emulsification activity and stability was identified as the genus Achetobacter from the results of morphological. cultural and biochemical tests and named Achetobacter sp. EL-C6 for convenience. The compositions of optimum medium for emulsification of crude oil by Acinetobacter sp. EL-C6 were crude oil 2.0%, NH4NO3 0.2%, $K_2HPO_4$ 0.01%, $MgSO_4$.$7H_2O$ 1.o%, $CaCl_2$.$2H_2O$ 0.1% and NaCl 3.0% at initial pH 7.5 and 3$0^{\circ}C$, respectively. The cultivation for emulsification of crude ell was carried out in 500m1 shaking flask containing 100m1 of the optimum medium at 3$0^{\circ}C$. The highest emulsification was observed after 5 days. The utilization on the various hydrocarbon of the Achetobacter sp. EL-C6 showed that utilization of n-alkane compounds were better than that of aromatic compounds. Among the petroleum compounds, crude ell was best utilized by the Achetobacter sp. EL-C6.

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Preparation and Properties of W/O Emulsion by D Phase Emulsification (D상 유화물을 이용한 W/O 유화물의 제조와 특성)

  • Kim, H.J.;Jeong, N.H.;Yun, Y.K.;Park, K.S.;Nam, K.D.
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1998
  • The emulsion stability of W/O emulsion prepared by D phase emulsification during storage and handling is studied by using phase diagrams. The process of D phase emulsification begins with the formation of isotropic surfactant solution, followed by formation of oil-in-surfactant (O/D) gel emulsion by dispersion of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane(OMCS) in the surfactant solution. Polyols were essential components for this purpose. To understand the function of polyols, the solution behavior of nonionic surfactant/oil/water/polyol systems were investigated by the ternary phase diagrams of polyoxyethylene oleyl ether/OMCS/propylene glycol(PG) aqueous solutions. The addition of PG increased the solubility of oil in the isotropic surfactant phase. D phase emulsification method has been applied to a new type of cosmetics. By using this emulsification technique, O/W emulsion were formed without a need for adjust of HLB. Fine and stable W/O emulsions were prepared by D phase emulsion.

Nano-sized Polymer-dispersed Liquid Crystal with Strong Scattering Intensity Made by Emulsification Process

  • Jin, Yan;Lee, Burm-Young;Kwon, Soon-Bum;Lee, Ji-Hoon
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.655-656
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    • 2009
  • Here we report a nano-sized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (NPDLC) with an excellent scattering effect due to the maximized Mie scattering. We used a modified emulsification method combined with a limited coalescence mechanism. The fabrication process is simpler to obtain uniform nano-sized droplets rather than the conventional polymerizationinduced phase separation method.

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