• Title, Summary, Keyword: endochondral ossification

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The Ultrastructure of Osteogenesis in Distal Extremity of the Distal Phalanges of Human Fetus (인태아 수지말절골의 골화에 관한 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Yoon, Jae-Rhyong;Kim, Sang-Yong;Nam, Kwang-Il
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.177-195
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    • 1996
  • Fine structure of the processes of intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification at the tip of the distal phalanx of human fetuses was studied by electron microscopy. In 50 mm fetus, intramembranous ossification of the tip of cartilaginous phalanx was first noted. The osteoblasts of the perichondral zone of tip of cartilaginous phalanx started to lay down a thick membranous bony lamella. Most of the hypertrophied chondrocytes in the marginal parts of tip of the distal phalanx remained viable after being embeded in mineralized cartilaginous septa. The tuberosity of the distal phalanx was formed by membranous bony trabeculae on the exterior of the subperiosteal cap at 80 mm fetus. At this stage endochondral ossification was first observed in distal extremity of the distal phalanx. The maority of hypertrophied chondrocytes in the center of distal extremity appeared to be disintegrating. Resorption of calcified matrix was undertaken by perivascular cells and chondroclasts. From the periosteum, zone of calcification, vascular sprouts expanded within a recently opened lacunae, and the invading osteoblasts laid down osteoid and bone. After 120 mm fetus, endochondral and subperiosteal ossification proceeded in only one direction, just proximally. These findings demonstrate that intramembranous ossification, calcification, and endochondral ossification start at tip of the distal phalanx instead of at the center of the shaft, as was the case in other long bones.

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The Fine Structure of the Femoral Epiphysis of Growing Mouse: Endochondral Osteogenesis (생쥐 대퇴골단(大腿骨端) 골형성(骨形成)에 관(關)한 전자현미경적(電子顯微鏡的) 연구(硏究))

  • Yoon, Jae-Rhyong;Kim, Yong-Joo;Oh, Chang-Seok
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.59-76
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    • 1994
  • Fine structure of the distal femoral epiphysis of growing mouse was studied by electron microscopy. The first morphological evidence of developing secondary center of ossification in the distal femoral epiphysis was found at newborn mouse. Ossification center was in the form of multiple foci of calcification and its cells were represented by remnant of degenerated cells within large lacunae that were separated by mineralized cartilaginous septa. Endochondral ossification beneath the articular cartilage proceeded in a less orderly manner than metaphyseal endochondral ossification. Columns of hypertrophied chondrocytes were not distinctly parallel to intercellular mineralized septa in all direction. Hypertrophied chondrocytes in the inner zone of the epiphseal center of ossification showed disintegrated. Resorption of mineralized cartilaginous septa was undertaken by perivascular cells and multinucleated chondroclasts. Resorption of the calcified cartilage was restricted to the region of ruffled border of the chondroclast. Growth along the metaphyseal side of the epiphyseal center of ossification was different from that along the articular surface. As the secondary center expanded toward the metaphyseal side, many vascular buds penetrated unmineralized cartilaginous septa and invaded viable chondrocytes. Many hypertrophied chondrocytes bodering the metaphyseal side of bone center remained viable after they became embedded in mineralized cartilaginous septa. This result suggested that the hypertrophied.

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Histochemical study on the endochondral ossification of the native Korean cattle femur (한우 대퇴골의 연골내골화에 관한 조직화학적 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-myung;Yang, Hong-hyun;Paik, Young-ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.143-154
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    • 1991
  • The present study was undertaken to provide basic data on fetal endochondral ossification for the native Korean cattle femur. This study was determined to the both earliest stages of chondrification and ossification by histochemical methods. The forty-five pairs of femur, from a series of embryos and fetuses ranging from 11 to 100mm in crown-rump(C-R) length, were used. These samples were divided into 9 groups. The groupings were based on C-R length, as the first grouping being 11~20mm, the second grouping being 21~30mm and so on. The results were as follows: 1. Alcianophility and PAS reaction were markedly increased in the perichondrium and interterritorial matrix in the 3rd group(C-R length 31~40mm). These reactions were decreased in the territorial matrix and in the adjacent area to the cartilage canal in the 5th group(C-R length 51~60mm). 2. Calcium deposits and collagen substances were observed initially in the 3rd group(C-R length 31~40mm). The calcium deposits and calcified cores were observed in the trabeculae of the proximal epiphyseal plate of the femur in the 8th group(C-R length 81~90mm).

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A histological study on the development of scapula in the Korean native cattle (한우 태자의 견갑골 발생에 관한 조직학적 연구)

  • Park, Moon-euk;Yang, Hong-hyun;Paik, Young-ki;Lee, Han-kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.309-319
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    • 1992
  • This study was undertaken to establish the sequence of development of ages and its time of the fetal endochondral ossification in the scapula of the Korean native cattle. This study was also designed to confirm through histological observation the earliest stages of both chondrification and ossification. Thirty eight scapulae, a series of embryos and fetuses from the pregnant Korean native cattle ranging from 11 to 110mm in crown-rump (C-R) length, were used. The following results were obtained. The ossification center was observed in the supra- and infra- spinous fossa in the 5th group (CRL 51-60mm), that was markedly ossified in the 6th group (CRL 61~70mm) by Alizarin red S stain. The chondrogenic center of scapula was observed in the 1st group (CRL 11~20mm). The primary ossification center was presented in the 4th group (CRL 41~50mm). In the 5th group(CRL 51~60mm), the endochondral ossification progressed actively. Alcianophility was markedly increased in the interterritorial matrix in the 3rd group (CRL 31~40mm. However this reaction was markedly decreased in the interterritorial matrix the adjacent portion to the marrow cavity and trabecula in the 5th group (CRL 51~60mm).

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Histological and histochemical study on the growth plate of the axis in developing Miniature Schnauzers (성장중인 소형개 (Miniature Schnauzers)에 있어서 축추골의 골성장판에 대한 조직학적, 조직화학적 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-myung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 1993
  • The present study was undertaken to provide basic data on endochondral ossification for the axis in developing Miniature Schnauzers. This study was determined to the morphological features and development of growth plast in the axis of this experimental animals by histological and histochemical methods. The axis from 2 healthy Miniature Schnauzers(postnatal 6hr, 5week) was used. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In 5-week-old Miniature Schnauzer, the axis consisted of 4 separate ossification centers : centrum l, intercentrum 2, centrum 2 and epiphysis. Intercentrum 2 was intercalated between centrum 1 cranially, centrum 2 caudally. 2. The space of centrum 1 was more broader than the other ossification centers. 3. The zone of reserved chondrocytes was more extensive than the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, trabeculation was weakly observed, however, the proximal epiphyseal plate of axis was actively trabeculation observed in the zone of calcified chondrocytes. 4. Eighteen columns of chondrocytes were observed in the centrum 1 and five to seven columns of chondrocytes were observed in the centrum 2 of Miniature Schnauzer(postnatal 5 week) 5. A positive reaction to alcianophility was observed in all the territorial matrix at the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes in this experimental animals.

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Biology and Potential Use of Chicken Bone Marrow-derived Cells

  • Ko, Dongwoo;Lim, Jeong Mook
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2018
  • Developmental aspects of chicken embryos showed dramatic difference compared with those of mammals and consequently, such difference in various developmental events leads to different feasibility in both clinical and industrial application. We have concentrated on the studies for using of chicken bone marrow cells and currently we found number of unique cellular properties. Through this article, we reviewed characteristics and cell signaling of osteogenic cells during endochondral ossification in chicken long bone.

Ectopic Bone Formation Induced By BMP - Fibrous Collagen Membrane Composite (BMP-교원질 섬유막 복합체에 의한 이소성 골형성)

  • Shin, Hong-In;Suh, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.68-79
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the efficiency of a fibrous collagen membrane(FCM) composed of bovine skin type I atelocollagen as a carrier for BMP, partially purified bovine BMP/FCM($0.3mg/10{\times}5{\times}1mm$) composites were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of rats. FCM alone was also implanted as a control. The implants were harvested at 1, 2, 3, and 10 weeks after implantation, then prepared for routine light microscopic observation. The FCM alone did not induce osteogenesis and revealed no specific foreign body reaction nor was there any definite resorptive evidence for 10 weeks after implantation, while the BMP/FCM composites induced favorable bone formation in a process that resembled an endochondral and direct ossification mode. At 10 weeks, the well formed bone confined to embedded collagen fibers revealed hematopoietic marrow between bony trabeculae without evidence of resorptive or degenerative changes . These findings support the suggestion that BMP may induce undifferentiated mesenchymal cells into either chondroblasts or osteoblasts or both independantly according to the chemico- physical characteristics of the carrier, which develops the endochondral and/or direct bone formation process, and suggest that the FCM may be a favorable carrier for BMP.

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A morphological study on the sternal development of Korean cattle (한우의 흉골 발생에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Lee, Han-kyoung;Yang, Hong-hyun;Paik, Young-ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 1989
  • This study was undertaken to obtain basic data of the sternal development in Korean native cattle from the earliest sternal formation to the ossification using histological and histochemical methods. Thrity three sterna were collected from a series of embryos and fetuses ranging from 11 to 225mm (estimated age 37~120days) in crown rump length. The bilateral sternal bars were observed in the 2nd group(CRL 21~3mm) of Korean cattle embryos. Those bars initiated to be fused in the 3rd group (CRL 31~4mm) and completed in the 7th group(CRL 71~80mm). The ossification centers were detected in the 8th group(CRL 81~90mm) also bilateral ossification centers were found in the same group. The typical epiphyseal plates, endochondral bone and calcium deposit were found in the 9th group(CRL 91~100mm). Osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and myeloid cells appeared in ossification centers in the 10th group(more than CRL 101mm). The alcianophility responded markedly in the 9th group that was decreased and showed slightly positive reaction in territorial matrix of the 10th group. Marked positive reaction to PAS was observed in bony trabeculae in the 10th group. The positive reaction to calcium deposit by trichrome stain was observed initially in the hypertrophied zone of epiphyseal plate in the 9th group and was conspicuous in the calcified zone of epiphyseal plate in the 10th group. The 1st positive reaction to the von Kossa stain was observed in the 9th group.

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Use of mandibular chin bone for alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients

  • Park, Young-Wook;Lee, Jang-Ha
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.38
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    • pp.45.1-45.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: We evaluated and compared the outcomes of different ossification processes in patients with alveolar cleft in whom correction was performed using endochondral bone graft or intramembranous bone graft. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: the endochondral bone (iliac bone or rib bone) graft group and the intramembranous bone (mandibular bone) graft group. Medical records and radiologic images of patients who underwent alveolar bone grafting due to alveolar cleft were analyzed retrospectively. Through postoperative and follow-up radiologic images, the height of the interdental bone septum was classified into four types based on the highest point of alveolar ridge. Then, the height of the interdental bone septum and the area of the bone graft were evaluated according to the type of bone graft. In addition, the occurrence of complications and the need for an additional bone graft, the result of postoperative orthodontic treatment, and the eruption of impacted teeth were investigated. Results: Thirty patients were included in this study. There was no significant difference in the change of the interdental bone height and the area of the bone graft according to the type of bone. There was no significant difference in the success rate of the surgery according to the type of bone. One patient underwent an additional bone graft surgery during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The outcomes of alveolar bone grafting were not significantly different according to the type of bone graft. If appropriate to the size of the recipient site, the chin bone is a useful graft material in alveolar cleft, as is the iliac bone.

Metastatic Malignant Mixed Tumor of Mammary Glands in an Irish Setter Dog : A Case Report (개의 악성유선혼합종의 전이 예)

  • Kang Boo-Hyon;Seo Il-Bok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 1992
  • An 11 years old Irish Setter bitch was euthanlzed and necropsied because of clinical findings such as severe purulent nasal discharge and formation of large tumor mass, 8 ${\times}$8cm in size, in the abdominal cavity. A complete unilateral mastectomy had been carried out twice 14 and 22 months before necropsy. The surgically removed masess of the mammary glands had been diagnosed as malignant mixed tumor in each time. Grossly, tumor masses were observed in nasal cavity, infralumbar lymph node, lung, abdominal cavityn and brain. Microscopic findings of the surgically removed masses consisted of tumor epithelial cells, tumor hyaline cartilage-like structures and abundant connective tissues. The mass of the lymph node had similar microscopic features to those of the original malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands. The tumor osseous tissue and osteoid were observed in the abdominal cavity, lung, and brain. Myoepithelial cells were frequently found on association with the metastatic tumors. From the results, it was concluded that malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands metastasized to the infralunbar lymph node, abdominal cavity, lung and brain. In addition, the observation in this study supported two theories at the same time that the bone in malignant mixed tumor arises by endochondral ossification of the cartilage formed by the myoepithelial cells and arises by intramembranous ossification of stromal connective tissue or transformed myeopithelial cells. Solid carcinoma of the nasal epielia and granulosa cell tumor were also diagnosed in a mass of the nasal cavity and of the ovaries respectively.

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