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Pedological and Mineralogical Characterizations of Hwangto (Yellow Residual Soils), Naju, Jeollanam-do, Korea (전라남도 나주시 동강면 일대 황토(풍화잔류토)의 토양학적 및 광물학적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Yumi;Bae, Jo-Ri;Kim, Cheong-Bin;Roh, Yul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2014
  • The objectives of this study were to characterize the physicochemical properties and mineralogy of Hwangto (yellow residual soils) from the southwestern part of Korea and to understand the soil-forming processes of the residual soils from their parent rocks. Both the yellowish residual soils as well as the unweathered and weathered parent rocks were obtained from Jangdong-ri, Donggang-myun, Naju, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The soil samples were examined to analyze the said soil's physicochemical properties such as color, pH, and particle size distribution. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed in order to understand the mineralogy, chemical composition, and morphology of the soils. Two thin sections of a parent rock were analyzed to study its mineral composition. A particle size analysis of the soils indicates that the residual soil consists of mainly silt and clay (approximately 95%) and that soil textures are silty clay or silt clay loam. The soil colors of the residual soil are dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) through yellowish red (5YR 4/6). The pH of the residual soil ranges from 4.3 to 5.1. The major minerals of the parent rocks were quartz, biotite, chlorite, and plagioclase. The mineralogy of the sand fraction of the residual soil was quartz, biotite, muscovite and sanidine. The mineralogy of the silt fraction of the residual soil was quartz, biotite, muscovite, Na-feldspar, K-feldspar, and sanidine. The clay mineralogy of the soil was goethite, kaolinite, ilite, hydroxy-interlayed vermiculite(HIV), vermiculite, mica, K-feldspar and quartz. The mineral composition of the residual soil and the parent rock indicates that feldspar and mica in the parent rock weathered into illite, vermiculite and hydroxy-interlayed vermiculite(HIV), and finally changed into kaolinite and halloysite in the yellowish residual soils.

Selecting the Optimal Research Time for Forest Birds Census in Each Season (산새류의 계절별 적정 조사시간 선정 연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Jeong;Lee, Soo-Dong;Kim, Ji-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 2013
  • This research is performed in order to suggest seasonal effective research time that is applied to wild birds research which lives in a forest. The subject area of this research is Mulgun-ri village forest in Samdong-Myeon, Namhe-gun. To investigate suitability of the project, existing land-use, existing vegetation, vegetational structure, and etc. of the subject and whole area are figured out. To suggest adequate research time, based on seasonal sun rise and set time for 3days, repetitive research is performed at hourly intervals. The subject area is connected with a forest and is possible for forest wild birds to flows in and provides various habitats and feeding areas. And also the subject area is a appropriate area for wild birds research and is like a natural forest in that a layer structure development of the forest itself, a distribution of Zelkova serrata and Aphananthe aspera and so on. 105 species which is observed in subject area are categorized and mountain birds are classified. After time-based peak value is selected in each season, hourly species richness, diversity, and index of similarity are analyzed as compared with the appearing number of species and individual bird. As a result, 7~11 hour is the most effective time in spring, and 8~9 hour is the best time. In summer, 6~9 hour is the most appropriate time when whole appearing species are similar to species structure. In fall, 7~11(30~60 minutes after sun rise) when wild birds movements are vigorous is analyzed easy to observe and 8~9 hour is the most appropriate research time because each analysis shows the best values. In winter, 7~12 hour is the most effective time although 10~11 hour is the best time but it is decided that similar results are drawn because hourly deviation is not so big except 1 hour before sun rise. In every four season, it is decided that 30~60 minutes after sun rise is appropriate to research a group of wild birds in the subject area.

The Relationship between the Refractive Power and Nutrient Intake of the Growth Period in Accordance with the Income (소득에 따른 성장기 영양소 섭취와 굴절력과의 관계)

  • Ye, Ki-Hun;Lee, Wan-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.213-229
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The Nutrient intake during the growth period is a critical factor for the development of the vision. In this study, we have analyzed the nutrient that has a correlation with the decrease of induced visual impairment. In addition, we investigated visual acuity and correlation of the nutrient in the higher-income youth and low-income youth. Methods: We used the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 document. The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey didn't show the clear standard of carbohydrates and fats, so we used the data from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety standards with each 330 g, 51 g. In order to compare the correlation of nutrients and refraction, Nutrients has been classified macronutrients(energy, dietary fiber, protein, carbohydrate, fat), fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A), water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin), trace minerals (iron), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium) and water. Results: We investigated the correlation between refraction and nutrients on average about 328 subjects belonging to the high-income group. The fat intake was $54.21{\pm}32.60$ g, and it was about 2~10 times less than the recommended daily intake (112-540 g). Refractive power and fat intake showed a statistically significant correlation (O.D:p=0.033, O.S:p=0.029). We investigated the correlation between refraction and nutrients on average about 309 subjects belonging to the lowincome group. The phosphorus showed higher ingested by the $1118.75{\pm}501.98$ mg, and the sodium showed intake more than three times recommended intake by the $3705.24{\pm}2089.42$ mg. In addition, unlike other macro mineral it showed that was a correlation on the refraction by the 0.031. Conclusions: A broad variety of taking nutrition and good eating habits at the time of growth seems to have an effects to the good growth and vision and the senescence inhibition of vision.ave an effect to the good growth, the good vision and the senescence inhibition of vision.

Comparative Studies on Absorbed Dose by Geant4-based Simulation Using DICOM File and Gafchromic EBT2 Film (DICOM 파일을 사용한 Geant4 시뮬레이션과 Gafchromic EBT2 필름에 의한 인체 내 흡수선량 비교 연구)

  • Mo, Eun-Hui;Lee, Sang-Ho;Ahn, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Chong-Yeal
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2013
  • Monte Carlo method has been known as the most accurate method for calculating absorbed dose in the human body, and an anthropomorphic phantom has been mainly used as a method of simulating internal organs for using such a calculation method. However, various efforts are made to extract data on several internal organs in the human body directly from CT DICOM files in recent Monte Carlo calculation using Geant4 code and to use by converting them into the geometry necessary for simulation. Such a function makes it possible to calculate the internal absorbed dose accurately while duplicating the actual human anatomical structure. Thus, this study calculated the absorbed dose in the human body by using Geant4 associating with DICOM files, and aimed to confirm the usefulness by compare the result with the measured dose using a Gafchromic EBT2 film. This study compared the dose calculated using simulation and the measured dose in beam central axis using the EBT2 film. The results showed that the range of difference was an average of 3.75% except for a build-up region, in which the dose rapidly changed from skin surface to the depth of maximum dose. In addition, this study made it easy to confirm the target absorbed dose by internal organ and organ through the output of the calculated value of dose by CT slice and the dose value of each voxel in each slice. Thus, the method that outputs dose value by slice and voxel through the use of CT DICOM, which is actual image data of human body, instead of the anthropomorphic phantom enables accurate dose calculations of various regions. Therefore, it is considered that it will be useful for dose calculation of radiotherapy planning system in the future. Moreover, it is applicable for currently-used several energy ranges in current use, so it is considered that it will be effectively used in order to check the radiation absorbed dose in the human body.

Foods Use of the Red-Tongued Viper Snake (Gloydius ussuriensis) (쇠살모사 Red-tongued viper snake (Gloydius ussuriensis)의 먹이 이용)

  • Kim, Byoung-Soo;Oh, Hong-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.657-663
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the difference in feeding habits of Red-Tongued Viper Snakes, according to available foods sources and areas. The effects of differences in food sources were found on Red-Tongued Viper Snake inhabited in the Jeju Island and its islet Gapado, from May 2006 to Nov. 2010. The food sources for the Red-Tongued viper snake population in the Jeju Island were found to be as follows: Chinese red-headed centipedes (Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans), Jeju Salamanders (Hynobius quelpaertensis), Japanese tree Frogs (Hyla japonica), Narrow-mouthed Toad (Kaloula borealis), Dybowski's Brown Frogs (Rana dybowskii), Black-spotted Pond Frogs (Rana nigromaculata), Smooth Skinks (Scincella vandenburghi), Asian Keelback Snakes (Amphiesma vibakari), Lesser White-toothed Shrews (Crosidura shantungensis), Hallasan Shrews (Sorex caecutiens hallamontanus), and Jeju Striped Field Mice (Apodemus chejuensis). This implies that Red-Tongued Viper Snakes mainly feed on amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals. Among these, amphibians occupied the highest portion at 55.2% followed by mammals at 20.7%, centipedes at 13.8%, and reptiles at 10.3%. On the contrary, Red-tongued viper snake population in Gapado only feed on Chinese red-headed centipedes and Smooth Skinks (S. vandenburghi). Since only a small amount of nutrient can be obtained from Chinese red-headed centipeds or Smooth Skinks, this feeding habit for Red-tongued viper snake would adversely effect on the growth or regeneration. The reason why Red-Tongued viper snake population in the Gapado mainly feed on Lizard and Centipedes in spite of relatively various available food sources, might be due to the low density of other food sources in the Gapado. Red-Tongued viper snake could be feeding on foods that are low in quality but are easily accessible, to minimize energy consumption on searching for other more nutritious foods. A snake tends to select the size of its food depending on the size of its own head. The positive correlation was found between the size of the heads of Red-Tongued viper snakes from the Jeju island and the diameter of their foods. The head size was larger in the males than females in viper snake population from the Jeju Island, which might effect on their selection of foods. However, no significant difference was found between the sizes of the head and the food in the Red-Tongued viper snake population from the Gapado. The findings of this study would provide meaningful data, which directly shows that even within the same viper species they choose different available food sources according to their inhabitance. This leads to their growth and adaptation to their environment which is beneficial for sustaining of its population.

Evaluation of Ovary Dose for woman of Childbearing age Woman with Breast cancer in tomotherapy (가임기 여성의 유방암 토모치료 시 난소선량 평가비교)

  • Lee, Soo Hyeung;Park, Soo Yeun;Choi, Ji Min;Park, Ju Young;Kim, Jong Suk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. Materials and Methods : The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Results : Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of $64.94{\pm}0.84mGy$ and $37.64{\pm}1.20mGy$ in left ovary part and average of $64.38{\pm}1.85mGy$ and $32.96{\pm}1.11mGy$ in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Conclusion : Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required.

Plasma-assisted Catalysis for the Abatement of Isopropyl Alcohol over Metal Oxides (금속산화물 촉매상에서 플라즈마를 이용한 IPA 저감)

  • Jo, Jin Oh;Lee, Sang Baek;Jang, Dong Lyong;Park, Jong-Ho;Mok, Young Sun
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 2014
  • This work investigated the plasma-catalytic decomposition of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and the behavior of the byproduct compounds over monolith-supported metal oxide catalysts. Iron oxide ($Fe_2O_3$) or copper oxide (CuO) was loaded on a monolithic porous ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ support, which was placed inside the coaxial electrodes of plasma reactor. The IPA decomposition efficiency itself hardly depended on the presence and type of metal oxides because the rate of plasma-induced decomposition was so fast, but the behavior of byproduct formation was largely affected by them. The concentrations of the unwanted byproducts, including acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methane, carbon monoxide, etc., were in order of $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ < $CuO/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ < ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ from low to high. Under the condition (flow rate: $1L\;min^{-1}$; IPA concentration: 5,000 ppm; $O_2$ content: 10%; discharge power: 47 W), the selectivity towards $CO_2$ was about 40, 80 and 95% for ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$, $CuO/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ and $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$, respectively, indicating that $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ is the most effective for plasma-catalytic oxidation of IPA. Unlike plasma-alone processes in which tar-like products formed from volatile organic compounds are deposited, the present plasma-catalyst hybrid system did not exhibit such a phenomenon, thus retaining the original catalytic activity.

An Analysis of BMD Changes With Preoperative and Postoperative Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patient (폐경 전 유방암 환자의 치료 전.후 골밀도 변화 분석)

  • Kim, Su-Jin;Son, Soon-Yong;Choi, Kwan-Woo;Lee, Joo-Ah;Min, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Ma, Sang-Chull;Lee, Jong-Seok;Yoo, Beong-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD(bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value(lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program(version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively(p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement($0.067g/cm^2$) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur(p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

Establishment of a Buddhist Arboretum through a Survey of Temple Managers and Laypersons (사찰림 관리자와 일반인의 인식조사를 통한 불교수목원 조성방안)

  • Yi, Young-Kyoung;Yi, Pyong-In
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.104-114
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    • 2014
  • Nowadays, forests have been recognized as valuable resources for biological diversity and tourism/recreation. Temple forests occupy 1.3% of all the Korean forest and are under weak management although their ecological states are very good. Currently in the Buddhist society, the concern for the Buddhist arboretum has been raised as a good alternative for the practical use of temple forests to secure the sustainability of the temple forests as well as to actively meet the demand of the times for forests. This study aims to suggest establishment measures of Buddhist arboretum. This survey was performed on 105 temple forest managers and 130 laypersons. To summarize the results, the two groups differ in opinion. The temple forest managers more concerned for advertizing Buddhist culture and enhancing the image of the temple, while the laypersons had higher expectations for relaxation and education. However, they are similar in putting more emphasis on the conserving the heritage value of the temple and managing the temple forest. Above all, both groups evaluated the needs higher than the urgency and perceived managing temple forest as the most crucial function of a Buddhist arboretum. They also thought that a Buddhist arboretum should be planned to respond to the ecological characteristics of the temple area as well as to be non-exclusive to its users. Based on the important findings, five suggestions for a Buddhist arboretum were proposed. First, a Buddhist arboretum should be carried forward from a long-term point of view, developing a bond of sympathy between members of Buddhist society as well as conducting promotion and education to the general public. Second, the most significant function of a Buddhist arboretum should be preserving the temple forest, with the emphasis on relaxation and education. Third, in order to provide nonexclusive use, a Buddhist arboretum should provide mixed programs applicable to diverse user groups for high user satisfaction and educational effects. Fourth, the Buddhistic identification could be obtained through variety of plants closely associated with Buddhist culture. Lastly, in the process of collecting plants, it is also crucial to reflect the image of the temple and resource property so as to contribute itself in conservation and management of original temple forests. Thereby all Buddhist Arboretum can be classified into two types; preservation/collection and display/education/rest.

Dehumidification and Temperature Control for Green Houses using Lithium Bromide Solution and Cooling Coil (리튬브로마이드(LiBr) 용액의 흡습성질과 냉각코일을 이용한 온실 습도 및 온도 제어)

  • Lee, Sang Yeol;Lee, Chung Geon;Euh, Seung Hee;Oh, Kwang Cheol;Oh, Jae Heun;Kim, Dea Hyun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.337-341
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    • 2014
  • Due to the nature of the ambient air temperature in summer in korea, the growth of crops in greenhouse normally requires cooling and dehumidification. Even though various cooling and dehumidification methods have been presented, there are many obstacles to figure out in practical application such as excessive energy use, cost, and performance. To overcome this problem, the lab scale experiments using lithium bromide(LiBr) solution and cooling coil for dehumidification and cooling in greenhouses were performed. In this study, preliminary experiment of dehumidification and cooling for the greenhouse was done using LiBr solution as the dehumidifying materials, and cooling coil separately and then combined system was tested as well. Hot and humid air was dehumidified from 85% to 70% by passing through a pad soaked with LiBr, and cooled from 308K to 299K through the cooling coil. computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) analysis and analytical solution were done for the change of air temperature by heat transfer. Simulation results showed that the final air temperature was calculated 299.7K and 299.9K respectively with the deviation of 0.7K comparing the experimental value having good agreement. From this result, LiBr solution with cooling coil system could be applicable in the greenhouse.