• Title, Summary, Keyword: environmental friendly agro-materials

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Assessing Adjuvants and Extractants Applicable to Environment-friendly Organic Agro-materials (친환경 유기농자재에 사용 가능한 첨가제 및 추출제 평가)

  • Lee, Woo-Mi;Yoon, Sung-Ji;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2013
  • This study reviewed the adjuvants or extractants used in environment-friendly organic agro-materials used in a range of advanced countries or institutes. We observed that potassium hydroxide and fermented ethyl alcohol are generally acceptable extractants, and the inert ingredient list 4 of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is applicable for crop production adjuvants.

Population Dynamics of Effective Microorganisms in Microbial Pesticides and Environmental-friendly Organic Materials According to Storing Period and Temperature (저장기간 및 저장온도에 따른 미생물농약 및 친환경 유기농자재 유효미생물의 밀도변동)

  • Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Jee, Hyung-Jin;Shim, Chang-Kee;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;An, Nan-Hee;Lee, Seong-Don;Yoo, Jae-Hong
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2011
  • To work out quality control methods of environmental-friendly organic materials (EFOMs), the reason and basis for EFOM-selection and farmer's favorite formulation type of EFOMs, etc were investigated on farmers who had been practicing environmental-friendly agriculture. EFOMs used were soil amendments, control agents of plant diseases and insect pests, plant growth promotion formulations, in turns. In EFOMs application time, 22.7% of farmers sprayed EFOMs without delay after they were bought, in other hand, 77.3% of farmers used EFOMs which had been bought and stored for some period. Microbial density on seventeen environmental-friendly microbial formulates (EFMFs) including microbial pesticides, a microbial fertilizer, and environmental-friendly organic materials was investigated at different storing temperature and shelf life. When the microbial density of EFMFs was investigated without delay after they were bought, all used microbial pesticides and a microbial fertilizer was confirmed to be optimal for the certified density but two of environmental-friendly organic materials was confirmed not to be optimal. When microbial density of 17 EFMFs were investigated after storing them for six months at $4^{\circ}C$, only one of 9 microbial pesticides was confirmed not to be optimal, the other hand four of seven environmental-friendly organic materials not to be optimal, which each of their microbial density was less than the certified density. Population dynamics of microbial agents was much more influenced in fluctuated temperature (room temperature) than in static temperature condition ($5^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$). Shelf life of microbial agents according to microbial formulation type were high in granule type, liquid wettable type and liquid type in turns.

Acute Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Environmental-friendly Organic Agro-materials Containing Pepper Extract, Cassia Oil, Lavender Oil for Control of Diamondbackmoth (배추좀나방 방제약제로서 후추 추출물, 카시아 오일, 라벤더 오일 함유 친환경유기농자재에 대한 급성 생태독성평가)

  • You, Are-Sun;Jeong, Mihye;Hong, Soon-Seong;Chang, Hee-Seop;Lee, Je Bong;Park, Kyung-Hun;Lee, Young Mook;Ihm, Yangbin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.343-349
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    • 2013
  • Environment-friendly agro-materials tend to be preferred to chemical insecticides recently. For this reason, many studies are conducted to develop environment-friendly insecticides containing natural materials. The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity for pepper extract and cassia oil (11.5+46%, A), pepper extract and cassia oil (23+34%, B), and pepper extract and lavender oil (40+10%, C). They are expected to prevent from pests especially diamondback moth, and can be used for agro-materials. Their formulation was emusifiable concentration (EC). Target species used to assess acute toxicity were aquatic invertebrate (Daphina magna), fish (Cyprinus carpio), honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The $EC_{50}$ value of A, B, and C to aquatic invertebrate were 0.46, 1.9, 0.25 mg $L^{-1}$ respectively and these values were moderately toxic according to standard of USEPA. In case of acute toxicity test to fish, the $LC_{50}$ of A, B, and C were 1.9, 2.9, 3.8 mg $L^{-1}$ respectively. A was category II in acute toxicity of fish and not acceptable to evaluation criteria of environment-friendly agro-materials. B and C were category III and acceptable. Acute contact and oral toxicity test to honeybee were conducted and the $LD_{50}$ of A, B, and C were > 100 ${\mu}g$ a.i. $bee^{-1}$ in both of tests. It indicated they were low toxic to honeybee. In case of acute toxicity test to earthworm, $LC_{50}$ of A, B, and C were 695, 988, and 564 mg $kg^{-1}$. In conclusion, pepper extract+cassia oil 57% EC and pepper extract+lavender oil 50% EC were expected to be used for environment-friendly insecticide materials with low risk against ecosystem and contribute to developing environment-friendly agro-materials.

Evaluation of Insecticidal Efficacy of Plant Extracts Against Major Insect Pests (주요 해충에 대한 식물추출물의 살충력 평가)

  • Kim, Sam-Kyu;Jin, Joon-Ho;Lim, Chun-Keun;Hur, Jang-Hyun;Cho, Sae-Youll
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 2009
  • Insecticidal efficacies of plant extracts and environmental friendly agro-materials against green peach aphids, two spotted spider mites, and diamondback moths were evaluated in the lab condition. Oxymatrine and matrine, derivatives of Sophora flavescens, were effective to all three tested pest insect species. Selected environmental friendly agro-materials available from the market mainly contained active ingredients of nicotine, azadirachtin, and matrine were all effective to control green peach aphids and two spotted spider mites.

Effects of Concentrated Pig Slurry Separated from Membrane Filter and Several Environment-Friendly Agro-Materials Mixtures on the Growth and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Hydroponics (막분리 돈분농축액비와 몇가지 친환경농자재의 혼합액이 수경재배에서 상추의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concentrated pig slurry separated from membrane filter and by environment-friendly agro-materials mixtures on growth of lettuce in hydroponics. The swine waste treatment system having a ultra filtration and a reverse osmosis process was designed in this study. Filtration of pig slurry was necessary to prevent the hose clogging in hydroponics. Primary separation using ultra filter was followed by concentration by RO (Reverse Osmosis). The concentrated pig slurry (CS) was mixed by five different environment-friendly agro-materials mixtures. The chemical nutrient solution was the solution of National Horticulture Research Station for the growth of lettuce. The concentration of nutrient solution in hydroponics was adjusted a range of 1.5 mS/cm in EC. The concentrated pig slurry was low in phosphorus(P), suspended solid and heavy matal, but rich in potassium (K). The concentrated slurry was lowest in the growth characteristics of leaf lettuce. And also SPAD value in leaf was reduced in plot treated with concentrated slurry. But the growth of lettuce in the mixtures plot (CS+BM+AA, CS+BM+AA+SW) in hydroponics was significantly high compared to concentrated slurry. The fresh yield of lettuce was 78, 84% that of nutrient solution as 131.9, 142.2g in plot of CS+BM+AA and CS+BM+AA+SW, respectively. Our studies have shown that it is possible to produce organic culture using concentrated slurry and environment-friendly agro-materials mixture, although growth is slower than when using a conventional inorganic hydroponic solution.

Effect of Bordeaux Mixture on Control of Rice Leaf Blast (벼 유기재배에서 석회보르도액을 이용한 벼 잎도열병 방제 효과)

  • Kang, Beom-Ryong;Kim, Seon-Gon;Kim, Do-Ik;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Choi, Kyong-Ju;Choi, Yong-Soo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2008
  • Recently organic farming practice of rice has been emerged in Korea, but one of the major limiting factor is the no effective environmental-friendly agro-materials to control major plant diseases. Bordeaux mixture has been used effectively as a preventive agro-chemical. The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of Bordeanux mixture on control of rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea which is one of the disruptive rice diseases in world-wide. In greenhouse experiment, pre-treatment of 6-6 type of Bordeaux mixture before inoculation of spore suspension of M. grasea showed 71 % of control value. In field experiment, preventive applications of 4-8 and 6-6 types of Bordeaux mixture showed over 71 % of the control value. Chemical injury on rice leaves were not found in the application concentrations of all types of Bordeaux mixture, but observed in applications of Bordeaux mixtures between 30 and 100 diluted concentrations. This results indicate Bordeaux mixture can be used as an effective environmental-friendly agro-chemical to control rice blast disease in the field.

Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Rotenone in Lettuce and Cucumber (상추, 오이 섭취에 따른 rotenone의 위해성 평가)

  • Choi, Ji Hee;Woo, Hye-Im;Jeong, Ye-Ji;Noh, Hyun Ho;Kyung, Kee Sung;Kim, Doo-Ho;Paik, Min-Kyung;Om, Ae Son
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2013
  • We report the dietary exposure to rotenone in the Korean population and children (1-18) through consumption of lettuce and cucumber. To obtain the residue data, we analyzed using the GC-NPD and HPLC-DAD method. Rotenone residues in samples were as follows; lettuce 0.16-1.15, cucumber < 0.001-0.006. The average dietary intake was determined using result from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. The risk index (RI) was calculated using rotenone residues and dietary intakes. The lettuce and cucumber showed the highest at 18.41%, 0.00, respectively. RI fell below 100 of %RfD showing no risks in these vegetables. Therefore, the risk assessment on the detected rotenone was evaluated as safe level.

Improvement of Evaluation for the 'Public Announcement for Environment-friendly Organic Materials List and Quality Standard' (친환경유기농자재 목록공시기준 및 품질규격 평가개선 연구)

  • Kim, Hyuck-Soo;Ryu, Jong-Hee;Lee, Sang-Min;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.279-280
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    • 2009
  • 우리나라는 1990년대 후반부터 유기농업에 대한 관심이 높아지기 시작해 유기농산물 생산이 매년 증가추세를 보이고 있다. 유기농업의 관심증대는 유기농업에 사용되는 자재에도 영향을 미치게 되었으며, 친환경농업육성법 제7조에 따른 별표1에 유기농산물 생산을 위해 사용이 허용된 자재 119종을 명시하였다. 또한 이를 원료로 한 친환경유기농자재에 대해 농촌진흥청에서 고시한 '친환경유기농자재 목록공시기준 및 품질규격'에 따라 제품을 평가하여 친환경유기농자재목록에 등재하게 되어있다. 본 연구는 우리나라 친환경유기농자재 등록을 위한 안전성 평가 항목을 유럽에서 적용하고 있는 유기 농자재 목록공시를 위하여 요구되는 FiBL(스위스 국제유기농업연구소)의 평가 항목과 미국 OMRI(미국 유기농자재 평가원)의 평가 항목을 비교하여 도입이 가능한 항목을 검토, 제안하기 위해 수행하였다. 조사 결과는 친환경유기농자재 평가항목의 국 내외 기준 평가와 친환경유기농자재 평가의 국제 규격 부합도 평가, 두 가지로 구분되며, 친환경유기농자재 평가항목의 국 내외 기준 평가 결과 선진국의 평가 항목에 비해 평가항목들이 세분화되어 있지 않고 검토과정이 서면으로 이뤄지기 때문에 전문가들의 평가에도 한계가 있었다. 따라서 OMRI 및 FiBL의 평가항목 중 국내에 도입 가능한 항목을 수집하여 평가항목 개선방안(표 1)을 제시하였다. 국제 규격 부합도 평가 결과 친환경유기농자재 관련 법규 및 규정의 분산으로 인해 생산자 및 수요자가 자재 등록 및 사용에 어려움이 따르고 있고, 미국 OMRI의 경우 자재를 자체적으로 분석하여 검토하는 절차에 반해 우리나라의 경우 전문기관과 전문 인력의 부족으로 평가결과에 대해 수요자의 신뢰도가 낮아지고 있다. 환경위해성 및 독성에 대한 안전성 강화를 위해 전문기관과의 협의 및 심의 체계 확립이 필요하며 올바른 관리를 위한 자재 종류별 최소한의 담당 전문가 배치가 필요하다.

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The Yield and Economical Efficiency by Application Methods of Liquid Pig Manure on Forage Crops

  • Ahn, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Woo-Sik;Park, Jee-Sung;Ahn, In
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.563-569
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    • 2013
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of liquid-pig-manure application method (Tr.1: surface appl. LPM 150%, Tr.2: surface appl. LPM 50% + LPM 50%, Tr.3: chemical fertilizer, Tr.4: soil injection LPM 150%, Tr.5: soil injection LPM 50% + surface appl. 50%, Tr.6: no fertilizer) and the economic efficiency of yield on forage crops cultivaion. In barley cultivation experiment, Tr.5 was found to be best, showing the yield of 1,462 kg $10a^{-1}$, and followed by Tr.2(1,226 kg $10a^{-1}$), Tr.3(1,226 kg $10a^{-1}$), Tr.4(1,225 kg $10a^{-1}$) and Tr.1(1,209 kg $10a^{-1}$) in order. In maize cultivation experiment, Tr.4 was found to be best, showing the yield of 2,142 kg/10a, and followed by Tr.1(2,125 kg $10a^{-1}$), Tr.3(2,024 kg $10a^{-1}$), Tr.5(2,011 kg $10a^{-1}$) and Tr.2(1,925 kg 1$10a^{-1}$) in order. The income was showing 1,274,000 ~ 1,591,000 Won $10a^{-1}$ in barley, whereas 766,000-794,000 Won 1$10a^{-1}$ in maize. There was more economical efficiency in barley cultivation than maize cultivation. Rather than the LPM surface application, LPM soil injection was more effective.

Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Loess-sulfur Complex in different pH (황토유황합제의 pH차이에 따른 급성독성평가)

  • Paik, Min-Kyoung;Shim, Chang-Ki;Lee, Je-Bong;Oh, Jin-Ah;Jeong, Mi-Hye;Kim, Doo-Ho;Kim, Min-Jeong;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Choi, Eun-Ji;Cho, Hyeon-Jo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2012
  • Loess-sulfur complex has been widely used as an environmental friendly organic materials for insecticides and fungicides in crop cultivation. However, there are high concerns about skin and eye irritation for farm workers due to the high alkaline properties of loess-sulfur complex. The acute toxicity evaluation was conducted with three samples of loess-sulfur complex in different pH (pH 9, 10, 11) in order to supply the evidentiary data for selecting the optimal product among the test materials. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed $LD_{50}$ of over 2,000 mg/kg b.w. for all three samples of loess-sulfur complex. The calculated acute dermal $LD_{50}$ of all tested materials was over 4,000 mg/kg b.w.. The Skin and eye irritation indicated that all tested materials have no irritation. Consequently, it was suggested that loess-sulfur complex be low in acute toxicity at all different pH values (pH 9~11).