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Spreading Processes and Features of School Environmental Education in Korea, the People's Republic of China and Japan (한.중.일 학교 환경교육의 전개와 특색)

  • Suwa, Tetsuo
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2005
  • Korea, China and Japan show distinct features in their school environmental education, which are derived from their own spreading processes. Japanese school environmental education has developed as a result of assimilating of anti-pollution education and nature education, and has a feature that makes much of nature experiences. The introduction of 'Period for Integrated Study' in 2002 seems to begin activating Japanese school environmental education. Chinese school environmental education started in higher education institutions around the middle of 1970's, and has a feature that makes a point of scientific approach, even in primary education schools. The two government ordinances,'National Action Program for Environmental General Knowledge ($1996{\sim}2010$)' and 'Educational Scheme of Environmental Theme Study for Elementary and Secondary School Students' issued in 2003, gradually promote school environmental education in China. It is remarkable that Science and Technology Centers for Youth and also increasing environmental NPOs often support environmental activities in elementary or secondary schools. The most notable feature of Korean school environmental education is that 'Environment' has already offered as a regular elective subject in junior high school, and official 'Environment' textbook has published since early 1990's. Though, the adoption rate of 'Environment' is not yet so high. Each country's peculiar issues are as follows. Japan: (1) Students often lack basic knowledge about environmental important problems. (2) 'Period for Integrated Study' is now threatened with cutting hours by the idea of increasing periods for basic subjects to keep high achievement. China: (1) There are large regional differences and school distinctions in operation of environmental education. (2) Adult environmental education needs to be expanded, because the most part of Chinese have no experience of school environmental education. Korea: (1) The relationship between the administrative division which plans school environmental education and teachers group is not quite well. The adoption rate of 'Environment' in junior high school needs to be improved. The training of many teachers for environmental education instructors may be the most important and effective cooperative action among Korea, China and Japan, and for that purpose we ought to work on making a better handbook for instructors, at first.

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Effectiveness of Environmental Play Teaching Program using the Plant in Neighborhood Learning Gardens (교재원 식물을 활용한 환경놀이 프로그램 개발 및 적용)

  • Choi, Don-Hyung;Yim, Eun-Young;Cho, Seong-Hoa
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.35-53
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this research is placed on the development and application of environmental play programs for elementary school students their utilizing the neighborhood learning gardens in their districts to find its effectiveness. The research questions drawn to attain the purpose of the research are as follows. Initially, analyze the contents related to the plant appearing in the textbooks of wise life, science and practical arts of the 7th elementary school curriculum. Secondly, develop a plant utilizing environmental play program targeted towards the 4th grade elementary school students with the results of the textbook analysis as the foundation. Third, apply the plant utilizing environmental play program into the classroom to verify its effectiveness. Based on the conclusion of this research, the following is to be proposed. First, the revitalization of regional environmental education utilizing the various surroundings of the region is essential. Also, the current method of education, which is focused on theoretical knowledge, and being operated in most of the schools need to be changed over to diverse environmental education programs that are linked with the region. For this, an internet based database, information sharing and exchange program centralized around the regional environmental education center needs to be prepared. Moreover, since this research had developed an environmental play program utilizing plants that focused on the 4th grade elementary school students to verify its effectiveness, the development for environmental play programs dealing with various themes for each grades is required. Lastly, although this research has verified the effectiveness in the variables of ecological knowledge, environmental susceptibility, environmental attitude, environmental concern, environmental function and responsible environmental behavior amongst the variables of environmental literacy but there requires a succeeding research considering the variables that haven't been included in this research.

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Environmental Education in Agricultural and Rural Development (농업 및 농촌 개발에서의 환경교육)

  • 이용환
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 1996
  • The objectives of the study were to. 1) explain the seriousness of environmental problems and the importance of environmental education in rural development , and 2) explore more effective and efficient ways of environmental education for agriculture and rural development in Korea. The world has rapidly changed and concepts such as clientele -centered, efficiency, and globalization are flowing under this change. Agriculture or rural development is not an exception. In order for agriculture as an occupation and rural communities to have competitiveness in efficiency and attractiveness, it is important to develop and execute a well-planned program for agriculture and rural development. Otherwise, farmers and rural inhabitants will continue to leave the agriculture and rural areas. Frequent recent reports of newspapers on nit and water pollution, including nutrients and pesticides have brought attention to the seriousness of environmental problems in Korea. Environmental concerns should consider in planning and executing the rural development program. People want to get contamination-free foods, water and fresh air. They can and are willing to pay their money for high quality food, water and a better living environment, as their incomes have been increasing, Agriculture and rural communities may have competitiveness in these aspects. It is irony that environmental concerns makes the possibility of changes in agriculture and rural development in Korea. Environmental education will have an increasingly important role in agriculture and rural development. Environmental problems relate to the human behavior in various aspects. Many environmental problems are mainly rooted to people's ignorance and spending-habits, and lack of technology related to environment. These human behaviors are the focus that environmental education should teach and change. Environmental education has been carried out through various subjects in school education in Korea, but "Environment" in middle school and "Environmental Science" in high school were separated as a regular subject from 1996. Environmental education still has a lot of room for development from a theoretical frame work. Environmental education should be carried out as action-oriented, student-centered programs. Various teaching materials, programs and proper supporting budget should be developed so that environmental education fulfills its necessary role well in agriculture and rural development. A textbook about the environment alone will not guarantee a high quality environmental education.

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A Study on Global Warming Education Contents in Science Textbook of the Korea, Japan and U.S.A. (한국, 일본, 미국 중등학교 과학 교과서에 나타난 지구온난화 교육 내용에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Yun-Jung;Choi, Don-Hung;Cho, Seong-Hoa
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.50-61
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    • 2010
  • As the influence of mankind's actions grows on the earth's climate, the necessity of climate change education is increasing everyday. Therefore, this study will discuss desirable courses about climate changes education that can be used throughout the world. It is meaningful to try to compare the contents and scope of earth global warming education courses of different nations. where education and a research about earth global warming occur simlutaneously. This is key because global warming is not just a national issue, but an international issue. Therefore this study need to understand the status of environmental education is over the world to devise an improvement plan help to solve the problem of climate change on an international level. Therefore, this study compared, the global warming educational contents which appeared in Korean textbooks to Japanese and American textbooks, and analyzed commonalities and differences of each. Also, we will discuss desirable global warming educational instructional strategies. This study analyzed the present situation of nations by looking at common points and differences using an analysis form. Even though the researchers of an each nation analyzed the teaching material through common analysis forms, this study utilized a common analysis method with a colleague researcher regarding environmental education, environment, environmental science to increase the validity of the study in each nation. Also the difference and similarities were aggregated as This study collected the analysis results of each nation. The researchers utilized the results of the analyses to engage in repeated discussion and the sharing of results.

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An Analysis of the STS Content in the Elementary Science Textbooks Developed under the 2007 Revised National Curriculum (2007 개정 교육과정에 의한 초등학교 과학 교과서의 STS 내용 분석)

  • Yang, Chanho;Lee, Jooseok;Noh, Taehee
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we analyzed the proportions of STS content, components, topics, and types of the activities of STS content in the elementary science textbooks developed under the 2007 Revised National Curriculum. The analyses of the results revealed that the percentage of STS content included was 15.9% by the number of pages, and 13.5% by the lesson hour. By the components of the STS content, the proportion of 'application of science', 'science-technology and our life' and 'social problems and issues' were large. Most STS topics were related to the 'effects of technological developments' and 'environmental issue', and the topics of 'family and population' and 'human engineering' were few. By the types of the activities, reading was the most, and investigation and writing were also found. Compared with those of the science textbooks developed under the 7th National Curriculum, the variety of components of the STS content increased, but the proportion of STS content and the variety of activities of STS content decreased in the science textbooks developed under the 2007 Revised National Curriculum.

Content Analysis and Development of Rural Amenity Education Contents for the Textbooks of Agricultural Highschool (농업계고등학교 교과서의 농촌어메니티 내용분석 및 교육내용 개발)

  • Kim, Eun-Ja;Ryu, Cheong-San;Lee, Jeung-Won;Kim, Sang-Bum
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 2010
  • 21st century has begun as an age of green growth. Development paradigms disregarding environmental sustainability are being changed and henceforth, stronger efforts should be made to discover and utilize green values. With the importance of green values, rural amenity which is in the spotlight as a new channel to change the way people think about depressed agriculture and rural community could be the key to discover green values of rural area. This study is to emphasize rural amenity and to rectify prejudiced and distorted contents of agriculture and rural community in agricultural highschool textbooks. By doing this, students of agricultural highschool who will lead agriculture in the future will come to recognize the importance of agriculture and rural area and discovering it's values. This study was done through analysis and development of contents in 39 kinds of textbooks of Agricultural highschool. A content analysis was employed to examine to what extent the contents on agriculture and rural community were reflected in the textbooks of agriculture highschool. And 262 new education contents formulating positive and exact rural amenity concept were developed and 62 of them were included in textbooks.

The Analysis of Inquiry Activities in High School Chemistry II Textbooks on the Revised 2009 Curriculum (2009 개정 교육과정 화학II 교과서의 탐구 활동 분석)

  • Kim, Jiyoung;Han, Jae-Eun;Park, Jongseok
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.928-937
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze inquiry activities in high school chemistry II textbooks on the revised 2009 curriculum. It also compared them to the textbooks based on the 7th curriculum, which were published by the same companies. The results in this study turned out to be as follows: First, the number of the activities and rate of inquiry activities per total pages were quite different from each publisher, and all of them decreased. Second, there were too many activities for specific inquiry process elements. Third, the types of inquiry activities differ slightly between each publisher. Experimenting and thinking were the most used while practicing was the least. Fourth, in the inquiry context, activities in scientific context were prevalent and activities in usual context were the second most common. Comparing to the text book on the 7th curriculum, the use of technical-social context increased, however, the technical-social context as well as the natural-environmental context were not used enough, as they constitute less than 10% of the activities. From these results, chemistry teachers should introduce a variety inquiry activities in chemistry curriculum for resolving those problems. Also, textbook developer should accommodate the results of research about science textbooks.

The Effects of Small-Scale Chemistry Laboratoty Programs in High School Chemistry II Class (고등학교 화학II 수업에 적용한 Small-Scale Chemistry 실험의 효과)

  • Hong, Ji-Hye;Park, Jong-Yoon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.318-327
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of small-scale chemistry(SSC) laboratory activities implemented in high school chemistry II classes on the students' inquiry process skills and science-related attitudes. For this study, 112 students in the 12th grade were chosen and divided into an experimental and a control group. Seven SSC lab programs that can replace the traditional experiments in chemistry II textbooks were selected and administered to the experimental group while the traditional textbook experiments were administered to the control group. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the enhancement of inquiry process skills between the two groups while no significant difference was found in science-related attitudes. Further analysis showed that the difference in the inquiry process skills came from the basic inquiry process skills. The experimental group students thought that the SSC experiments have many advantages compared to the traditional experiments, e.g., individual work, learning lab and theory in parallel, short experiment time, safety, environmental aspects, etc. These results suggest that the SSC lab programs are valuable in high school chemistry classes and developing and distributing various SSC lab programs is needed to replace the traditional experiments in the current textbooks.

An Analysis of STS Contents in the High School Chemistry(II) Textbook (화학II 교과서의 STS 내용 분석)

  • Kim, Jung-Tae;Kim, Yun-Hi;Moon, Seong-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2002
  • The STS contents, emphasized in the 6th curriculum, in the chemistry textbooks(II) were analyzed. The STS contents in textbooks showed average value of 2.7%. The chapter of ‘chemical bond and compound' were included 3.8% of STS contents. And the chapter of ‘atomic structure and periodic table', ‘state of material and solution', ‘science of material', and ‘chemical reaction' contained 3.2%, 2.2%, 1.9%, and 1.9% of STS contents, respectively. When the STS contents were analyzed by STS topics of Piel, the results are as follows; 33.7% on effect of technological developments, 27.5% on environmental quality and utilization of natural source, 19.6% on human engineering, 13.8% on energy, and 5.4% on sociality of science. However, there were no topics on population, space research and national defense. When the STS contents were analyzed by student activities of SATIS, most of the activities were research and case study. There were few field activities of practical investigation, problem solving and decision making, research design and stimulation. There were no activities of role play.

Analysis of Misconceptions on Oceanic Front and Fishing Ground in Secondary-School Science and Earth Science Textbooks (중등학교 과학 및 지구과학 교과서 조경 수역 및 어장에 관한 오개념 분석)

  • Park, Kyung-Ae;Lee, Jae Yon;Kang, Chang-Keun;Kim, Chang-Sin
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.504-519
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    • 2020
  • Oceanic fronts, which are areas where sea water with different properties meet in the ocean, play an important role in controlling weather and climate change through air-sea interactions and marine dynamics such as heat and momentum exchange and processes by which properties of sea water are mixed. Such oceanic fronts have long been described in secondary school textbooks with the term 'Jokyung water zone (JWC hereafter) or oceanic front', meaning areas where the different currents met, and were related to fishing grounds in the East Sea. However, higher education materials and marine scientists have not used this term for the past few decades; therefore, the appropriateness of the term needs to be analyzed to remove any misconceptions presented. This study analyzed 11 secondary school textbooks (5 middle school textbooks and 6 high school textbooks) based on the revised 2015 curriculum. A survey of 30 secondary school science teachers was also conducted to analyze their awareness of the problems. An analysis of the textbook contents related to the JWC and fishing grounds found several errors and misconceptions that did not correspond with scientific facts. Although the textbooks mainly uses the concept of the JWC to represent the meeting of cold and warm currents, it would be reasonable to replace it with the more comprehensive term 'oceanic front', which would indicate an area where different properties of sea water-such as its temperature, salinity, density, and velocity-interact. In the textbooks, seasonal changes in the fishing grounds are linked to seasonal changes in the North Korean Cold Current (NKCC), which moves southwards in winter and northwards in summer; this is the complete opposite of previous scientific knowledge, which describes it strengthening in summer. Fishing grounds are not limited to narrow coastal zones; they are widespread throughout the East Sea. The results of the survey of teachers demonstrated that this misconception has persisted for decades. This study emphasized the importance of using scientific knowledge to correct misconceptions related to the JWC, fishing grounds, and the NKCC and addressed the importance of transferring procedures to the curriculum. It is expected that the conclusions of this study will have an important role on textbook revision and teacher education in the future.