• Title, Summary, Keyword: enzyme activities

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Controlling environmental factors of soil enzyme activities at three altitudes on Mt. Jumbong

  • Jang, In-Young;Kang, Ho-Jeong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2010
  • Soil microbes perform crucial roles in the nutrient cycles of forest ecosystems, by effecting the decomposition of organic matter. Enzyme activities have been used to evaluate decomposition rates, as well as microbial activities. The principal objectives of this study were to determine the activities of different soil enzymes, to compare enzyme activities at different elevations, and to elucidate the most important controlling variables for enzyme activities. We conducted a field survey at three sites in Mt. Jumbong on a monthly basis from May, 2004 to September, 2005. Enzyme activities did not change substantially over different seasons. However, the spatial differences were distinct; the lowest elevation site evidenced the lowest levels of enzyme activity. Soils at the lowest elevation were nutrient-depleted soils, and enzyme activities appeared to be affected by precipitation and temperature. However, enzyme activities in fertile soils at high elevations were associated with nutrients and organic matter. The enzyme activities detected in this study differed significantly at the three elevations, and their controlling variables also evidenced different factors.

Effect of Light on Development of Microbody Functions in the Cotyledons of Rape (Brassica napus L.) Seedlings (유채 종자의 Microbody 기능 발달에 미치는 빛의 영향)

  • 피문자
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 1982
  • The changes in activities of glyoxysomal and peroxisomal enzymes during the transition from fat degradation to photosynthesis were investigated with the cotyledns of rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. The development and disappearance of glyoxysomal enzyme (isocitrate lyase, EC 4.1.3.1; malate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.37; catalase, EC 1.11.1.6) activities took place independently of light. It is concluded that the mobilization of storage fat is independent of photomorphogenesis. During early periods of development in the dark of light (days 1 through 3), the glyoxysomal enzyme activities were relatively high and the enzyme activities rose to a peak at 3rd day after sowing. Thereafter, the activities decreased gradually. While glyoxysomal enzyme activities were dropping, the peroxisomal enzyme (glycolate oxidase, EC 1.1.3.1) activities were increasing rapidly during the transition period in the light. Moreover, the changes of enzyme activities of the common microbody marker, catalase, indicated both functional patterns. The enzyme patterns in rape cotyledons indicate that the glyoxysomal function of microbodies is replaced by the peroxisomal function of these organelles during the transition from fat degradation to photosynthesis.

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Changes in Availability of Toxic Trace Elements (TTEs) and Its Effects on Soil Enzyme Activities with Amendment Addition

  • Lee, Sang-Hwan;Park, Misun;Kim, Min-Suk
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.134-144
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    • 2020
  • In-situ stabilization is a remediation method using amendments to reduce contaminant availability in contaminated soil. We tested the effects of two amendments (furnace slag and red mud) on the availability of toxic trace elements (TTEs) and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and urease). The application of amendments significantly decreased the availability of TTEs in soil (p < 0.05). The decreased availability of TTE content in soils was accompanied by increased soil enzyme activities. We found significant negative relationships between the TTE content assessed using Ca(NO3)2-, TCLP, and PBET extraction methods and soil enzyme activities (p < 0.01). Soil enzyme activities responded sensitively to changes in the soil environment (pH, EC, and availability of TTEs). It could be concluded that soil enzyme activities could be used as bioindicators or ecological indicators for soil quality and health in environmental soil monitoring owing to their high sensitivity to changes in soil.

Biochemical Study on the Mechanism and Protection of Ginseng Root-Rot Disease (인삼근부병의 기구와 방제에 대한 생화학적 연구)

  • 김병묵;김용환
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 1982
  • In this study it was found that the enzyme activities of diseased ginseng contributed greatly on the development of its root-rot disease. The 4i sensed ginseng showed higher activities of $\alpha$-amylase, p amylase, invertase, catalase, and cellulase than those of fresh one. The increased enzyme activities of diseased ginseng were originated in those from infected pathogens, which showed a proportional relationship between enzyme activities and root-rot power of them. The increases of enzyme activities during incubation of inoculated ginseng could be considerably depressed by controlling culture environments as to temperature below 4$^{\circ}C$, pH 8-9, and relative humidity about 60%, Some metal ions and organic reagents also inhibited the enzyme activities of diseased ginseng. But their inhibitory effects were not so great that they might be used to protect the disease.

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Effect of Dietary Capsaicin on Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Mice

  • Kim, Jung-Mi;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Choe, Suck-Young;Rina Yu
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 1998
  • The effect of dietary capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, CAP) on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups and fed diets containing 0, 5, 20, 100 ppm CAP for 4 seeks. Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminease activities were measured. There was no difference in hepatic alanine aminotransferse and aspartate transaminase activities among the groups. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 in CAP fed groups, but p-nitrophenol hydroxylase and the cytosolic acitivity of glutathione S-transferase activities were decreased in the dietary CAP supplemetned groups compared to the control. These results suggest that the dietary CAP at a low dose differentially modulates drug-metabolizing enzyme acitvities without causing hepatic toxicity.

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Effects of Polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng on Some Microsomal and Mitochondrial Enzymes

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Kim, Shin-Il;Hahn, Dug-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.154-161
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    • 1989
  • Effects of panaxydol, panaxynol and panaxytriol isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on some enzyme activities were determined. Activities of ATPase, membrane-bound enzyme from Sarcoma 180 and rat liver were slightly inhibited by panaxydol. Activities of 5'-nucleotidase, membrane-bound enzyme and succinate cytochrome c reductase in mitochonidria from sarcoma 180 and rat livers were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by panaxynol. The inhibitory effects of panaxydol and panaxynol on succinate cytochrome c reductase activities were more potent than those on 5'-nucleotidase activities and panaxynol was found to be a very potent inhibitor of succinate cytochrome c reductase. Activities of glucose-6-phosphatase in endoplasmic reticulum from Sarcoma 180 and rat livers were not affected by all three polyacetylenes. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects of panaxydol and panaxynol on enzyme activities might contribute to their biological activities.

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Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities of Soybean Hydrolysates: Effect of Enzyme and Degree of Hydrolysis

  • Lee, Ji-Soo;Yoo, Mi-Ae;Koo, Seung-Hyun;Baek, Hyung-Hee;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.873-877
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    • 2008
  • Native soy protein isolate (SPI) was hydrolyzed with 4 different proteolytic enzymes, including bromelain, papain, Neutrase, and Flavourzyme. SPI hydrolysates with the degree of hydrolysis (DH) in range of 6 to 15% were prepared by each enzyme. The angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and the antioxidant activities of the SPI hydrolysates, such as superoxide dismutase-like activity and inhibition of the linoleic acid autoxidation, were evaluated. Overall, as the DH increased, all evaluated bioactivities of the SPI hydrolysates significantly increased. The significantly highest ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities were found in hydrolysates made with papain and bromelain, respectively. SPI hydrolysates by Flavourzyme showed the significantly lowest activity in all tested bioactivities. The results suggested that ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of SPI hydrolysates were determined by the DH and by the enzyme used.

Characterization of yeast cell wall lytic enzyme from Fusarium moniliforme (Fusarium moniliforme이 생산하는 효모세포벽 분해효소의 특성)

  • 장판식;박관화;이계호
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.467-471
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    • 1986
  • Yeast cell wall lytic enzyme was purified from Fusarium moniliforme by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel column chromatography. The lytic activity was found to consist of three enzyme activities which were resolved on Sephadex G-100. The first peak on chromatogram exhibited proteolytic, lytic and laminarinase activities, and the second had both lytic and laminarinase activities, whereas the third peak was shown to contain lytic activity only. Three enzyme activities showed the synergistic effect and reducing agents accelerated the yeast roil wall lysis. This indicates that lytic, proteolytic and laminarinase activity acted cooperatively in the lysis of intact cells. Tannic acid precipitate of crude enzyme constituted of three enzyme activities had a high lytic activity on viable yeast cell and has proved useful in yeast protoplast formation.

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Effects of Lead on the Ultrastructure ana the Electron Transport System of Mitochondria of Mouse Kidney (납(Pb)이 생쥐 신장세포에 미토콘드리아 미세구조 및 전자전달계에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Seung-Sub;Yoo, Chang-Kyu;Choe, Rim-Soon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.55-71
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    • 1987
  • To investigate the effects of lead on the electron transport system and ultrastructure of mouse kidney mitochondria, various lead acetate concentrations were treated in vitro and respiration rate, enzyme activities were measured. Ultrastructural changes at state IV respiration were also observed. To compare with in vivo experiments, mouse were injected intraperitoneally of 100 mg lead acetate per kg body weight and state IV respiration rate and enzyme activities were measured. Ultrastructure of renal proximal tubular cells were also observed. In in vitro treatement, decreased state IV respiration, decreased enzyme activities, ruptured membranes and inhibition of condensed to orthodox transformation were observed. In in vivo treatment, decreased state IV respiration and decreased enzyme activities were observed after 24 hrs of i.p. injection. Cytochrome c oxidase activity showed twice the inhibition compared to NADH-CoQ reductase activity at 24 hrs. Continuous decreased state IV respiration was observed after 48 and 72 hrs of injection, however, the enzyme activities were increased to control level. Lead-protein complex which probably inhibits the toxic effects of lead appeared. To conclude, dominant effect of lead on the electron transport system appeared at cytochrome c oxidase activity, and the increased enzyme activities may be a result of appearance of lead-protein complex.

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Enzyme Activity of Cenococcum geophilum Isolates on Enzyme-specific Solid Media

  • Obase, Keisuke;Lee, Sang-Yong;Chun, Kun-Woo;Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.125-128
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    • 2011
  • Enzyme activities of Cenococcum geophilum isolates were examined on enzyme- specific solid media. Deoxyribonuclease, phosphatase, and urease were detected in all isolates, whereas cellulase was not detected in any of the isolates. Variations in enzyme activities of amylase, caseinolysis, gelatinase, lipase, and ribonuclease were observed among isolates.