• Title/Summary/Keyword: epidemiology

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Intake of Antioxidant Nutrients and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome according to Degree of Stress in Rural Korean Women (한국 농촌 여성의 스트레스 정도에 따른 항산화 영양소 섭취와 대사증후군 위험도)

  • Yoon, Jungwon;Shin, Yoonjin;Kang, Bori;Byeon, Suji;Kim, Soo A;Kim, Yangha
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.868-875
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    • 2017
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant nutrient intake and risk of metabolic syndrome based on stress level in rural Korean women. Subject were participants from the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, which was a part of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. According to scores of the Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short-Form, a total of 10,111 subjects were classified into 'low stress group (n=8,015)' from 0 to 26 points and 'high stress group (n=2,096)' above 27 points. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemical analysis. Dietary nutrient consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. High stress group showed lower intake of antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, zinc, and carotene compared to the low stress group. Intake of fruits and vegetable was lower in the high stress group compared to the low stress group. Subjects with high stress showed higher risk of hypertension [odd ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.226 (1.112~1.351)] and hypertriglyceridemia [OR, 95% CI=1.227 (1.110~1.356)] than subjects with low stress. High stress group had a significantly greater odds ratio for metabolic syndrome compared with the low stress group [OR, 95% CI=1.216 (1.101~1.342]). Thus, the present study suggests that high stress might be associated with low intake of antioxidant nutrients and high risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Korean women.

Prevalence and Treatment Pattern of Korean Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders (한국인 턱관절장애 환자의 유병률과 진료 양태)

  • Yang, Hee-Young;Kim, Mee-Eun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.63-79
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    • 2009
  • While previous epidemiological studies on temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been based on a given health center or population sample, no study has been performed on general population of Korea, especially concerning about treatment pattern such as clinician’s specialty involved in TMD treatment, types and amount of prescription medication and cost. This study aimed to investigate magnitude of health visits and treatment patterns for Korean patients with TMD through the computerized database of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRAS). Inclusion criteria were all patients registered on the HIRAS database over 3 years' period from 2003 to 2005 and the medical records of patients with TMD as a main diagnosis were extracted. Information collected was as follows; distribution related to gender, age and region and type of hospital the patients visited, treatment duration, clinicians' specialty involved in treatment, cost, types of prescription medication and surgical treatment. The results of this study indicated that 0.15% of the population yearly sought TMD treatment, presenting with increase of incidence over the three years. Most of TMD patients were women (99.8%) and the biggest age group was second and third decades and decreased with age. Seoul and Kyeonggi province presented with higher incidence of TMD compared to the other regions of Korea, which seems to be related with magnitude of population. 56% of TMD patients visited primary care sector and the numbers of treatment visits was the highest in dental clinic (38.4%), followed by orthopedics (28%) and ENT (13.6%) clinics in order. Duration of prescription medication was the longest for anti-inflammatory analgesics, followed by antipsychotic drugs and muscle relaxants. Inpatient care related to TMD was primarily performed in dental hospital compared to medical hospital. Medical database of HIRAS provided comprehensive and vast information on epidemiologic characteristics and treatment patterns for patients seeking TMD treatment, which can be more reliable data to expect medical demand for TMD in condition that accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is delivered in clinical settings.

Toothpick-Aided Detection of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in the Turfgrass Leaf Canopy, Thatch, and Soil in Relation to Dollar Spot Infection Centers (이쑤시개를 이용한 잔디층, 대취층, 및 토양층에서 동전마름병 전염원의 검출)

  • Lee, Jung Han;Min, Gyu Young;Shim, Gyu Yul;Kim, Dong Soo;Sang, Hyunkyu;Jung, Geunhwa;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.376-382
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    • 2015
  • Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the major disease in cool-season turfgrasses. Understanding the distribution of this pathogen in soil and thatch is important to developing disease control strategies. In this study, toothpicks were used to detect S. homoeocarpa in the turfgrass canopy, thatch, and soil at different distances from dollar spot infection centers. The effect of penetrant and contact fungicide applications with different water volumes on distribution of S. homoeocarpa was also investigated. S. homoeocarpa was detected in 100% of samples taken from the leaf canopy, 83.3% in thatch area, and 0% in the soil from within the infection center. S. homoeocarpa was isolated in 100% of samples taken from the edge of the infection center, but was only detected in 13% of the samples taken at 1.5 cm away from the infection center edge. S. homoeocarpa was isolated at a higher frequency in the propiconazole treated plots than those treated with chlorothalonil and was not detected in leaf canopy samples when either fungicides was applied with 6.78 L of water. In conclusion, the toothpick-aided detection technique has improved our understanding of S. homoeocarpa epidemiology and could be used as a diagnostic tool to detect for fungicide resistance on golf courses.

Analysis of Foodborne Pathogenic Contamination of Cooked Hams and Sausages in Korean Processing Facilities (가열 햄 및 소시지류 제조공장에서 식중독 세균에 대한 오염 분석)

  • Park, Hyun-Jung;Go, Eun-Kyung;Wee, Sung-Hwan;Yoon, Ha-Chung;Heo, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Young-Jo;Lee, Hee-Soo;Moon, Jin-San
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to examine foodborne pathogenic contamination from 1,080 samples of cooked hams and sausages at 10 Korean processing facilities in 2010. The samples were collected from the six primary and additional sterilization products in same lot. To detect Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens in those products (n=1,080), the domestic standard method for Processing and Ingredients Specification of Livestock Products was used. As a result, Salmonella spp. was not detected in all 636 ham and 444 sausage samples. However, L. monocytogenes was detected in four (0.6%) ham and eight (1.8%) sausage samples from five manufactures. S. aureus was also only detected in 4 (0.6%) ham samples from two manufacturers, and C. perfringens was detected in 3 (0.5%) ham samples from three manufacturers, the contamination levels of these pathogens were less than 100 CFU/g. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the additional sterilization step of processing manufacturers could not assist to control the foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

Analysis of Molecular Epidemiological Properties of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Domestic Animals and Human Patients by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction을 활용한 국내 동물과 사람환자에서 분리한 Staphylococcus aureus 분리주의 분자역학적 특성분석)

  • Woo Yong-Ku;Kim Shin
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.24-37
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to analyze the molecular epidemiological properties and to select the most efficient and reliable PCR method on 116 of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from Korean cattle, black goat, pig, dog, chicken, mouse and also human clinical cases from hospital. The distribution patterns of SSG [species specific genes; coagulase (coa), protein A (spa), nuclease (nuc) and aroA (RsaI) gene] were analyzed by PCR method. Among the SSGs, the nuc-gene was found in all strains $(100\%)$ tested and followed by coa-gene $(87.9\%)$, spa-gene $(91.4\%)$ and aroA-gene $(26.7\%)$, in order. The genetic subtyping by RFLP method was performed on the coa [AluI] and aroA-gene [RsaI] PCR products. The mecA-gene PCR and PCR-RFLP techniques were chosen to detect and verify of MRSA strains. Only the human strains $(12.1\%)$ were detected the positive mecA-gene products (533 bp), which were divided into two specific bands [201 & 332 bp] by HhaI enzyme digestion. On coa-gene and spa-gene typing, coa-gene was typed with ten kinds of genotype and coa-3 type were determined as the most predominant genotype, while spa-gene was divided into eleven kinds of genotype and also spa-7 type were selected the most prevalent genotype based on their genetic variations. On the aroA and coa-gene subtyping by PCR-RFLP, aroA-gene products were discriminated with only seven types of genotype, while coa-gene products were further divided into an eleven genotype, respectively. In comparison of SID values of five PCR based typing methods, the coa-PCR-RFLP (SID0.894) was evaluated the most efficient and reliable tools and followed by coa-PCR (SID0.883) and aroA-PCR-RFLP (SID0.462), in order. In conclusion, we could determined that the coa-PCR-RFLP method was the most suitable genetic analysis tool for S. aureus and MRSA strains from domestic animals and humans.

Epidemiology of central venous catheter related blood stream infections in pediatric patients (중심정맥 도관 관련 감염의 역학 고찰)

  • Kim, Jung Hyun;Eun, Ho Sun;Choi, Kyung Min;Kim, Dong Soo;Young, Dong Eun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogens of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections and search for the association among the insertion site, the duration and the underlying conditions with the prevalence of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections under 15 years old. Methods : A retrospective study was performed from Jan, 2003 to Dec, 2003 in Severance Hospital on 112 patients who undertook central venous catheter insertions. Results : We examined 112 patients who undertook central venous catheter insertion. The mean age of patients was $4.77{\pm}4.12$ years old. Coagulase negative Staphylococci was the most common organism of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections accounting for 33.9 percent, followed by Eenterococcus faecium(9.3 percent), and Staphylococcus aureus(7.5 percent), The most common insertion site was the right femoral vein, followed by the right jugular vein and the left femoral vein. The mean insertion period was $14.17{\pm}12.00$ days. Conclusion : Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections were not only related to the underlying conditions, but also to the insertion site. We need to study the clinical importance of coagulase negative Staphylococci as it is part of the normal flora of the skin. In future, more studies are needed to take preventive measures and improve treatment methods.

A STUDY ON THE TRAUMATIC INJURY OF PATIENTS IN DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, KANGNUNG NATIONAL UNIVERSITY DENTAL HOSPITAL (강릉대학교 치과병원 소아치과에 내원한 외상 환자에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Won;Lee, Kwang-Soo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 2001
  • There is a growing tendency for injury and it is essential to know about the epidemiology of the injured teeth for proper and timely treatment. Through empirical data analysis of 120 children who came to pediatric dentistry of Kangnung National University Dental Hospital, this study purposes to give an understanding about the injury and analyzes the frequency by children's sex and age, the number of injured teeth according to the area in the mouth, the types of injury, causes and places of injury, the frequency occurred by month and hour, the position of injured teeth, and the elapse of time. The main findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1. The frequency analysis by sex shows that the rate of boys is more likely to be higher than girls(1.6:1). 2. The frequency analysis by age shows that the ratio of children between aged 2~4 and 8~10 are high. 3. The number of injured teeth is generally one(51.7%). 4. Periodontal tissue injury is the main cause for the primary teeth. In case of permanent teeth, the ratio of hard tissue injury which is much increased than the case of the primary teeth, is similar to that of periodontal tissue injury. 5. The main cause of injury is fall for both dentition; In case of permanent dentition, the ratio of injury by sports is increased. 6. The place of injury for primary teeth is mainly home(38.8%); Street and school for permanent teeth(42.5% and 35%, respectively). 7. The frequency by month shows that the injury is most frequently occurred in July. 8. The frequency analysis by hour shows that injury for primary teeth mostly happens in the morning; in the afternoon for permanent teeth. 9. The position of injured teeth according to the area in the mouth is mainly maxilla anterior in both case of primary and permanent teeth and especially the ratio of central incisors is high, 10. More than half(59.2%) of patients came to the hospital within one day and the seriously injured were likely to come within one day than the slightly injured.

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Studies on the Epidemiology and Control of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice in Korea (한국에 있어서의 벼흰빛잎마름병의 발생생태와 방제에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Kyung-hee
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.14 no.3 s.24
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    • pp.111-131
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    • 1975
  • The study has been carried out to investigate the occurrence, damage, characteristics of the pathogen, environmental conditions affecting the disease outbreak, varietal resistance, forecasting, and chemical control of bacterial leaf blight of rice in Korea since 1964. Bacterial leaf blight of rice became a major disease in Korea since 1960. A correlation was found between the annual increase of epidemics and increase of cultivation area of susceptible varieties, Jinheung, Keumnampung etc. Areal damage within the country showed that the more was at southern province, Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and western coast, and at flooded rice paddy. Yield reduction directly related with the amount of infection on upper leaves at heading stage. Fifty per cent of reduction resulted when the lesion area was more than 60 per cent. Less than 20 per cent of lesion area, however, was not affected so much on yield loss One hundred and six isolates collected from all over the country were classified as 8 strains by using 4 different bacteriophages in 1973. It was, however, only two in 1965. There were some specificities on varietal distributions among the strains such as that the Jinheung attacked mainly by strain A, B, C and I, those attack Kimmaze were A, B, H and I. Most strains were found from Tongil except D and E, whereas Akibare was only variety that attacked by strain E. Low temperature, high humidity, heavy rainfall and insutficient daylight favored the disease epidemics. Especially, typhoon and flooding at heading stage were critical factors. The earlier transplanting the more disease was resulted, and more nitrogen fertilizer application accerelated the diseased development in general. The resistance to the disease varied by growing stage of the sane plants. All of recommended varieties in Korea were susceptible to the disease except Norm No. 6 and Sirogane which moderately resistant. The pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae, was detectable from extract of healthy seedlings that were grown in the field with an heavy infection previous year. The more bacteriophage in irigation water resulted the more disease outbreak, and the existence of more than 50 bacteriophages in 1ml. of irrigation water were necessary to initiate the disease out break. The curves representing occurrence of bacteriophages and disease outbreak were similar with 15 days interval. The survey of bacteriophage occurrence can be utilized in forecasting of the disease two weeks ahead of disease outbreak. Three applications of chemicals, Phenazin and Sangkel, in weekly intervals at the early satage of out-break depressed the symptom development, and increased yield by 20per cent. Proper period for the chemical application was just before the number of bacteriophage reaches 50 in 1ml. of irrigation water.

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A Review of Statistical Methods in the Korean Journal of Orthodontics and the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (대한치과교정학회지(KJO)와 미국교정학회지(AJODO)에서 사용된 통계기법의 비교분석 및 고찰(1999-2003))

  • Lim, Hoi-Jeong
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.34 no.5 s.106
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    • pp.371-379
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes and types of statistical methods used in the Korean Journal of Orthodontics (KJO) and the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) from )999 to 2003. The frequency of use, transitions, assumption check of statistical methods and types of advanced statistical methods were examined from each journal. The study consisted of 247 articles published in the KJO and randomly chosen 50 articles per year which were original articles and used statistical methods T-test, analysis of variance(ANOVA), correlation analysis, nonparametric analysis. regression analysis chi-square test. factor analysis, were the order of statistical methods most frequently used in the KJO, while t-test. ANOVA, nonparametric analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, chi-square test. factor analysis. were the order of statistical methods used in the AJODO The changes of statistical methods observed in the KJO were not significant $(X^2=17.4\;p=0.5881)$ but the changes observed in the AJODO was seen to be significant $(x^2=42.4,\;p=0.0397)$ Some of the studies examined had overlooked the assumptions of the statistical methods employed. Data investigation such as outlier should be performed before analysis and alternative statistical approaches are applied for a small sample size. Types of advanced statistical methods were factor analysis and discriminant analysis in the KJO and Intention-To-Treat (ITT) analysis in clinical trials through multi-center, survival analysis and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) in the AJODO. Appropriate analysis approaches and interpretations should be applied for the correlated and repeated measurements of the orthodontic data set.

Literature Review on the Incidence and Risk Factor of Oral Cancer (구강암의 발생현황과 원인)

  • Han, Ji-Hyoung;Kim, Eung-Kwon;Lim, Soon-Hwan;Kim, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.451-458
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to examine pervasive trends in oral cancer in different countries in an effort to discuss what to do to prevent cancer and drop a death rate. The materials of the study were selected from among articles of oral cancer by searching risk factor and epidemiology at a website (www.oraloncology.com). As a result of analyzing the selected literature, it's found that in our country, the percentage of oral cancer in total cancer dropped but the number of oral cancer patients was on the rise every year. In foreign countries, the number of oral cancer patients was on the increase as well, whereas the lethality dropped. In terms of demographic characteristics, the incidence rate of oral cancer was higher among men than women overall. The incidence rate of oral cancer was larger among older people. The major causes of oral cancer were smoking and drinking. To reduce the incidence rate of oral cancer, every possible institutional, administrative and legal measure should be taken to ensure of anti-smoking policies, and publicity of moderation in and abstinence from drinking should be reinforced. The additional causes of oral cancer were demographic characteristics by country and region. The incidence of oral cancer was under the influence of that was affected when the level of personal economy and education was low. Therefore it's important to redress social imbalance within a country and among countries to remove socioeconomic divide. As the oral cancer patients has increased every year, the incidence rate of it should accurately be grasped, and sustained research efforts should be made in consideration of demographic characteristics. Early diagnosis, public oral health education and preventive policies are all required to decrease the incidence rate of oral cancer.