• Title, Summary, Keyword: equivalent truss element

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Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Hybrid Girders by the Equivalent Beam Theory (등가보 이론을 이용한 복합 거더의 정적 및 자유진동 해석)

  • Choi, In-Sik;Yeo, In-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1068-1073
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    • 2007
  • 3D finite element analyses of a corrugated steel web girder and a steel truss web girder are conducted to investigate the static and dynamic behaviour of the hybrid girders. And the analyses results are compared with those by the equivalent beam theory. The equivalent theory is a theory that all section properties of a truss structure are replaced by section properties of a beam including the shear coefficient. When applying the equivalent beam theory, the shear coefficient of the corrugated steel web girder is estimated as the area ratio of total section to web section and that of the steel truss web girder is calculated by the equation proposed by Dewolf. Static deflections and natural frequencies by 3D finite element analyses and the those by the equivalent beam theory are relatively in good agreement.

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Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Hybrid Girders by the Equivalent Beam Theory (등가보 이론을 이용한 복합 거더의 정적 및 자유진동 해석)

  • Choi, In-Sik;Ye, In-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2007
  • 3D finite element analyses of a corrugated steel web girder and a steel truss web girder are conducted to investigate the static and dynamic behaviour of the hybrid girders. And the analyses results are compared with those by the equivalent beam theory. The equivalent theory is a theory that all section properties of a truss structure are replaced by section properties of a beam including a shear coefficient. When applying the equivalent beam theory, the shear coefficient of the corrugated steel web girder is estimated as the area ratio of flange section to web section and that of the steel truss web girder is calculated by the equation proposed by Abdel. Static deflections and natural frequencies by 3D finite element analyses and those by the equivalent beam theory are in good agreement.

Simple method for static and dynamic analyses of guyed towers

  • Meshmesha, H.;Sennah, K.;Kennedy, J.B.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.635-649
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    • 2006
  • The static and dynamic responses of guyed telecommunication towers can be determined by using two models, the space truss element model, and the equivalent beam-column element model. The equivalent beam-column analysis is based on the determination of the equivalent shear, torsion, and bending rigidities as well as the equivalent area of the guyed mast. In the literature, two methods are currently available to determine the equivalent properties of lattice structures, namely: the unit load method, and the energy approach. In this study, an equivalent beam-column analysis is introduced based on an equivalent thin plate approach for lattice structures. A finite-element modeling, using suitably modified ABAQUS software, is used to investigate the accuracy of utilizing the different proposed methods in determining the static and dynamic responses of a guyed tower of 364.5-meter high subjected to static and seismic loading conditions. The results from these analyses are compared to those obtained from a finite-element modeling of the actual structure using 3-D truss and beam elements. Good agreement is shown between the different proposed beam-column models, and the model of the actual structure. However, the proposed equivalent thin plate approach is simpler to apply than the other two approaches.

A new equivalent friction element for analysis of cable supported structures

  • Yan, Renzhang;Chen, Zhihua;Wang, Xiaodun;Liu, Hongbo;Xiao, Xiao
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.947-970
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    • 2015
  • An equivalent friction element is proposed to simulate the friction in cable-strut joints. Equivalent stiffness matrixes and load vectors of the friction element are derived and are unified into patterns for FEM by defining a virtual node specially to store internal forces. Three approaches are described to verify the rationality of the new equivalent friction element: applying the new element in a cable-roller model, and numerical solutions match well with experimental results; applying the element in a continuous sliding cable model, and theoretical values, numerical and experimental results are compared; and the last is applying it in truss string structures, whose results indicate that there would be a great error if the cable of cable supported structures is simulated with discontinuous cable model which is usually adopted in traditional finite element analysis, and that the prestress loss resulted from the friction in cable-strut joints would have adverse effect on the mechanical performance of cable supported structures.

Equivalent moment of inertia of a truss bridge with steel-concrete composite deck

  • Siekierski, Wojciech
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.801-813
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    • 2015
  • Flexural stiffness of bridge spans has become even more important parameter since Eurocode 1 introduced for railway bridges the serviceability limit state of resonance. For simply supported bridge spans it relies, in general, on accurate assessment of span moment of inertia that governs span flexural stiffness. The paper presents three methods of estimation of the equivalent moment of inertia for such spans: experimental, analytical and numerical. Test loading of the twin truss bridge spans and test results are presented. Recorded displacements and the method of least squares are used to find an "experimental" moment of inertia. Then it is computed according to the analytical method that accounts for joint action of truss girders and composite deck as well as limited span shear stiffness provided by diagonal bracing. Finally a 3D model of finite element method is created to assess the moment of inertia. Discussion of results is given. The comparative analysis proves efficiency of the analytical method.

Free vibration analysis of tall buildings with outrigger-belt truss system

  • Malekinejad, Mohsen;Rahgozar, Reza
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.89-107
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    • 2011
  • In this paper a simple mathematical model is presented for estimating the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of a tall building with outrigger-belt truss system. For this purposes an equivalent continuum system is analyzed in which a tall building structure is replaced by an idealized cantilever continuum beam representing the structural characteristics. The equivalent system is comprised of a cantilever shear beam in parallel to a cantilever flexural beam that is constrained by a rotational spring at outrigger-belt truss location. The mathematical modeling and the derivation of the equation of motion are given for the cantilevers with identically paralleled and rotational spring. The equation of motion and the associated boundary conditions are analytically obtained by using Hamilton's variational principle. After obtaining non-trivial solution of the eigensystem, the resulting is used to determine the natural frequencies and associated mode shapes of free vibration analysis. A numerical example for a 40 story tall building has been solved with proposed method and finite element method. The results of the proposed mathematical model have good adaptation with those obtained from finite element analysis. Proposed model is practically suitable for quick evaluations during the preliminary design stages.

Analysis of the non-supported excavation scrummed by truss tower (무지보 흙막이 트러스 구조물의 안정성 검토)

  • Joo, Yong-Sun;Cho, Sung-Keun;Kim, Nak-Kyung;Kim, Young-Suk;Kim, Ju-Hyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.1317-1323
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    • 2009
  • A finite element analysis was performed for new earth retention system that is a kind of truss tower with non-supported excavation. A 2D finite element model was adopted in this study to investigate the behavior of the earth retention system. Just because this non-supported truss tower system is too complex to model in 2D plain-strain condition to itself, so have to simplify it by the conception of equivalent rigidity. The horizontal displacement of the wall and lateral earth pressure distribution on the wall were computed. And it is compared with NAVFAC design manual.

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Structural Stiffness Analysis on Doors having Pyramidal Truss Cores in an Urban Transit Vehicle (피라미드 트러스 심재를 채용한 도시철도차량 출입문의 구조강성평가)

  • Lim, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.697-702
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    • 2017
  • A preliminary study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of replacing honeycomb cores with pyramidal truss cores in the doors of urban transit railway vehicles. The doors in current operation are sandwich structures comprising a honeycomb core and reinforcements between two facesheets. The structural requirements of doors for urban transit vehicle are specified in the KRS and KRT and standards, according to which the deflections from three-point bending tests must be limited. To this end, two types of pyramidal truss cores with equivalent mass to a honeycomb core were designed. The structural stiffness of doors with pyramidal truss cores and honeycomb cores were numerically calculated via finite element analysis. The three-point bending models were constructed and simulated, and then the calculated deflections were compared with the requirements specified in the regulations. The results show that doors with pyramidal truss cores satisfied the stiffness requirements, although their deflections were 2.5% larger than that of the honeycomb cores. Therefore, the pyramidal truss cores could replace the aluminum honeycomb cores, and their multi-functional capability could be exploited.

Vault macro-element with equivalent trusses in global seismic analyses

  • Giresini, Linda;Sassu, Mauro;Butenweg, Christoph;Alecci, Valerio;De Stefano, Mario
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.409-423
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes a quick and simplified method to describe masonry vaults in global seismic analyses of buildings. An equivalent macro-element constituted by a set of six trusses, two for each transverse, longitudinal and diagonal direction, is introduced. The equivalent trusses, whose stiffness is calculated by fully modeled vaults of different geometry, mechanical properties and boundary conditions, simulate the vault in both global analysis and local analysis, such as kinematic or rocking approaches. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the influence of geometrical characteristics and mechanical features on the equivalent stiffness values. The method was numerically validated by performing modal and transient analysis on a three naves-church in the elastic range. Vibration modes and displacement time-histories were compared showing satisfying agreement between the complete and the simplified models. This procedure is particularly useful in engineering practice because it allows to assess, in a simplified way, the effectiveness of strengthening interventions for reducing horizontal relative displacements between vault supports.

Vibration behavior of large span composite steel bar truss-reinforced concrete floor due to human activity

  • Cao, Liang;Li, Jiang;Zheng, Xing;Chen, Y. Frank
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.391-404
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    • 2020
  • Human-induced vibration could present a serious serviceability problem for large-span and/or lightweight floors using the high-strength material. This paper presents the results of heel-drop, jumping, and walking tests on a large-span composite steel rebar truss-reinforced concrete (CSBTRC) floor. The effects of human activities on the floor vibration behavior were investigated considering the parameters of peak acceleration, root-mean-square acceleration, maximum transient vibration value (MTVV), fundamental frequency, and damping ratio. The measured field test data were validated with the finite element and theoretical analysis results. A comprehensive comparison between the test results and current design codes was carried out. Based on the classical plate theory, a rational and simplified formula for determining the fundamental frequency for the CSBTRC floor is derived. Secondly, appropriate coefficients (βrp) correlating the MTVV with peak acceleration are suggested for heel-drop, jumping, and walking excitations. Lastly, the linear oscillator model (LOM) is adopted to establish the governing equations for the human-structure interaction (HSI). The dynamic characteristics of the LOM (sprung mass, equivalent stiffness, and equivalent damping ratio) are determined by comparing the theoretical and experimental acceleration responses. The HSI effect will increase the acceleration response.