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Inhibition of Ethanol Absorption by Rhodiola sachalinensis in Rats

  • Kim, Moon-Hee;Park, Chan-Koo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 1997
  • We used a herbal medicine, roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis (RS) to assess whether RS extract can decrease blood ethanol concentrations in rats fed ethanol and if so, to elucidate the mechanism by which RS extract reduces blood ethanol levels. Rats were fed ethanol orally 1 hr after the oral administration of various doses of RS extract. In another experiment, rats were injected intraperitoneally with ethanol following the intake of RS extract via gastric catheter to eliminate possible inhibition of ethanol absorption in the gastrointestine by RS extract. The administration of RS extract remarkably lowered blood ethanol levels in a dose-dependent manner in rats given ethanol orally. However, the intake of RS extract did not reduce ethanol levels in rats injected with ethanol intraperitoneally. The activities of two main hepatic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), involved in ethanol metabolism, were not affected by the administration of RS extract in rats fed ethanol. In addition, the intake of RS extract reduced serum triglyceride levels elevated by ethanol to the normal level. We conclude that the administration of RS extract lowers blood ethanol concentrations by inhibition of ethanol absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts of ethanol-fed animals.

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The Effect of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract on the Immunotoxicity of Diethylstilbestrol in ICR Mice (마우스에 있어서 Diethylstilbestrol의 면역독성에 미치는 홍삼 Ethanol 유출물의 영향)

  • 이덕행;안영근
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.6 no.1_2
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 1991
  • The effect of red ginseng ethanol extract on the immunotoxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was studied in ICR mice. ICR male mice were divided into S groups (10 mice/group), and red ginseng ethanol extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt., respectively) and DES (1 mg/kg body wt.) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to ICR mice once a day for 2 weeks. Mice were sensitized and challenged with sheep red blood cells (S-RBC). Immune response were evaluated by humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, non-specific immunity, and circulating leukocyte counts. The results of this study were summarized as followings: 1. The DES-treated control group as compared with normal group showed the tendency to decrease body weight rate and relative liver weight, decreased both humoral and cellular immune responses, phagocyte activity, and circulating leukocyte counts, but increased the natural killer (NK) cell activity. 2. Compared with the DES-treated control group, DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups significantly decreased the body weight rate (P<0.01). Relative liver weight was significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly increased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). Relative spleen and thymus weights were significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (200 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). 3. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. 4. Phagocyte activity and circulating leukocyte counts were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. NK cell activity was significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50 and 200 mg/kg)-treated groups (P<0.01).

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Inhibition of Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation and Stimulation of Alcohol Metabolism by the Herbal Extract Containing Phaseoli radiati semen in Rats Fed Ethanol (급성 알콜 투여 흰쥐에서 녹두 함유 복합생약제제의 간 중성지방 축적억제 및 알콜대사 촉진 효과)

  • Kim, Moon-Hee;Kwon, Oh-Hyep;Park, Chan-Koo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 1996
  • An ethanol administration causes hepatic triglyceride accumulation in rats. To assess whether the herbal extract containing Phaseoli radiati semen(herbal extract) inhibit s the triglyceride accumulation in the liver, we determined the hepatic triglyceiide levels in rats fed ethanol and the herbal extract. In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations and the activities of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH) were measured to determine the effects of the herbal extract on alcohol metabolism in rats. The administration of the herbal extract markedly reduced the triglyceride levels elevated by ethanol in the liver as well as in the serum. The herbal extract remarkably lowered blood ethanol concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The ADH activities decreased by ethanol were recovered to the normal level by the herbal extract treatment. Moreover, the ALDH activities slightly decreased by ethanol increased beyond the normal level by the herbal extract treatment. We conclude that the herbal extract inhibits the hepatic triglyceride accumulation and stimulates alcohol metabolism by preventing ADH and ALDH from inhbition by the ethanol administration in the rat liver.

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Oenanthe javanica extract accelerates ethanol metabolism in ethanol-treated animals

  • Kim, Jong-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Hoon;Lee, Youn-Ju;Lee, Seung-Ho;Park, Jong-Cheol;Nam, Doo-Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.482-485
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    • 2009
  • The effect of water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica DC) extract in eliminating ethanol was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbit and ICR mice. When a hot-water extract of water dropwort extract and ethanol was injected into New Zealand white rabbit, the plasma ethanol level was rapidly reduced, similar to metadoxine treatment. Specifically, the n-butanol fraction of hot-water extract was the strongest in eliminating plasma alcohol in ICR mice. When ethanol was orally ingested, administration of the hot-water extract eliminated up to 44% of the plasma ethanol in mice while the n-butanol fraction eliminated around 70%. Alcohol removal behaved in a dose-dependent manner in response to 50-200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction. These data show O. javanica extract is effective in overcoming alcohol intoxication by the accelerating ethanol metabolism.

Effects of Taxilli Ramulus Extract on Bone Metabolism of Ethanol Treated Rats (상기생이 ethanol을 장기 투여한 흰쥐의 골 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 정주화;정지천
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : To investigate the effect of Taxilli Ramulus (TR) extract on bone metabolism of ethanol-treated animal model. Methods : The changes of serum calcium, calcitonin, estrogen level, a1ka1ine phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone content and urine calcium level were observed with ethanol treatment for 60 days. The results were compared with an ethanol- TR extract double treatment group. Results : We observed increment of serum osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone content, alkaline phosphatase activity and urine calcium level by chronic ethanol feed and they were recovered to near normal level with Taxilli Ramulus extract treatment. Weight gain, serum calcium level, calcitonin and estrogen content were remarkably reduced with ethanol treatment and their levels were normalized by Taxilli Ramulus extract. Conclusions : These results showed that Taxilli Ramulus extract have the ability to recover to normal in the body an abnormal calcium metabolism process due to external factors. These results suggested that Taxilli Ramulus extract have preventive effects on calcium concentration loss and osteoporosis.

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Preparation and Evaluation of Dry Alcohol Containing Red Ginseng Extract (홍삼 엑기스를 함유한 분말주의 제조 및 평가)

  • 이사원;최한곤;박정일;김종국
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2000
  • To develop a dry alcohol containing red ginseng extract, dry alcohols composed of ethanol, water, dextrin and sodium lauryl sulfate were prepared using spray dryer, and their ethanol contents and encapsulation efficiencies were determined. An optimal dry alcohol containing red ginseng extract was chosen and the feeling for its oral administration was evaluated. Dextrin at dextrin/water weight ratios below 1.6/l and ethanol at ethanol/water weight ratios below 1/1 remarkably Increased both the ethanol contents and encapsulation efficiencies of dry alcohols. However dextrin at dextrin/water weight ratios above 1.6/1 and ethanol at ethanol/water weight ratios above 1/1 slightly decreased the both parameters. It might be due to the low solubility of dextrin in ethanol and limited diffusion coefficient of ethanol to the dextrin shell. furthermore, 0.5% (w/w) sodium lauryl sulfate gave the maximum ethanol content of dry alcohol. The more increased amounts of red ginseng extract were added, the more increased amounts of ginsenoside Rb1 but the more decreased amounts of ethanol were encapsulated in dry alcohols. A dry alcohol containing red ginseng extract was prepared with dextrin/ethanol/water (1/1/1, w/w/w) mixed solution, in which 0.5% (w/w) sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% (w/w) red ginseng extract were dissolved. It contained the ethanol contents of31.17$\pm$ 1.33% (w/w) and ginsenoside Rbl of 243.0$\pm$7.0 $\mu$g/g. It gave the moderate taste of red ginseng extract at Its oral administration with or without water Thus, the dry alcohol containing red ginseng extract can be further developed as a more convenient dosage form for red ginseng extract.

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Antioxidant activity and phenolic acid content of Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves according to extraction conditions

  • Ko, Hyun Min;Eom, Tae Kil;Kim, Ju-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2019
  • This study was intended to provide basic data for a health functional food study by exploring antioxidant activity of reflux extract according to the concentration of ethanol and the extract of ultrasonic waves extracted and reflux extracted under the same solvent conditions. In the same solvent condition, the reflux extract ($75.10{\pm}1.99mg$) showed a higher total phenol content than the ultrasonic wave extract ($51.74{\pm}2.28mg$). Flavonoids also had a higher reflux extract ($25.05{\pm}1.53mg$) than did ultrasonic extracts ($16.23{\pm}1.95mg$). Reflux extract according to ethanol concentration was found to have a higher phenol content than the 70% ethanol extract ($40.60{\pm}1.49mg$) in 60% ethanol extract. Flavonoid content was also similar to phenol content in reflux extract as determined by ethanol concentration from 60% ethanol ($25.05{\pm}1.53mg$) to 70% ethanol extract ($6.60{\pm}0.46mg$). In addition, the antioxidant activity (DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, ORAC) of the reflux extract in the same solvent conditions tended to be higher than that of ultrasonic extracts. Also, 60% ethanol extract had better antioxidant activity than 70% ethanol extract. However, an analysis of phenolic acid content through HPLC showed that the ultrasonic extract had a higher content in the same solvent condition than did the reflux extract. Not only the presence of phenolic acid, but also those of other compounds are believed to be attributed to the activity of antioxidants. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify this phenomenon.

Antioxidant Activities of Ulmi cortex Extracts According to Ethanol Contents (에탄올 함량변화에 따른 유백피 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Dong-Seon;Lim, Sun-Mi;Sung, Yoon-Young;Chun, Jin-Mi;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to find best extraction solvent for application of Ulmi cortex to food or herbal medicine as an antioxidant only using water, ethanol and their mixtures. Methods : The Ulmi cortex extracts were prepared using water and 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% (v/v) ethanol, and were evaluated yields, total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation activities, and catechin and epicatechin contents. Results : Among the Ulmi cortex extracts, the yield was highest in water extract (8.9%) and lowest in ethanol extract (3.8%). The yield of 30% ethanol extract (8.5%) also was very high to similar with water extract. The total polyphenol content was highest in the 30% ethanol extract ($253.6{\mu}g/mg$ extract) and lowest in water extract ($109.0{\mu}g/mg$ extract). The DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest in ethanol extract (IC50, $8.53{\mu}g/ml$), ABTS radical scavenging activity was highest in 60% ethanol extract (IC50, $3.08{\mu}g/ml$), and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was highest in 70% ethanol extract (IC50, $7.96{\mu}g/ml$). As ethanol content of extraction solvent increased from 0% to 30%, the antioxidant activities were remarkably increased whereas from 30% to 100%, the antioxidant activities were increased or decreased a little. Conclusions : The findings of the present study suggest that 30% ethanol is best solvent for extraction of Ulmi cortex, considering yield, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities with extraction cost.

Effects of Hijikia fusifome Ethanol Extract on Antioxidative Enzymes in Ethanol-induced Hepatotoxicity of Rat Liver (톳 에탄올 추출물이 알코올을 투여한 흰쥐의 항산화효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 고무석;신길만;이명렬
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2002
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of Hijikia fusiforme (Harvey) Okamura ethanol extract on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of rat administered orally experimental diets for 6 weeks. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 100 g were divided into 4 groups; normal group (NOR), ethanol (35% ethanol 10 mL/kg b.w/day) treated group (CON), ethanol and Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract 200 mg/kg (HE1) and 400 mg/kg (HE2) concomitantly treated group, respectively. Each group was examined for the growth rate, feed efficiency ratio (FER), activities of antioxidative enzymes and contents of TBARS and glutathione. Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract showed increasing effects of the growth rate by 43%, and FER was gradually increased by Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract treatment, compard with ethanol treatment. Ethanol elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of rat liver markedly as compared to normal group, but those activities were significantly decreased in Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract treatment by 56%, 38% and 25%, respectively. Xanthine oxidase activity elevated by ethanol was not affected by Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract. The content of TBARS increased by ethanol treatment was signigicantly decreased in HE2, and the glutathione content depleted by ethanol treatment was increased by Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract administration adjacent to normal level. These results suggest that Hijikia fusiforme ethanol extract is believed to be a possible protective effect for the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of rat liver.

Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water and Ethanol Extracts from the stem of Sorbus commixta Heal (마가목 줄기 열수 및 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Doh, Eun-Soo;Chang, Jun-Pok;Kil, Ki-Jung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : In order to investigate the possibility of Sorbus commixta Heal. stem (SC) as a natural material, antioxidant activities of the hot water and ethanol extracts were examined. Methods : The samples of SC were pulverized, and fractions were extracted repeatedly three times from hot water and 70% ethanol at room temperature for 2 hours. The antioxidant activities were analyzed from total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, $Fe2^+$ chelating, and nitrite scavenging activity. Results : Total polyphenol contents were significantly higher in ethanol extract group ($504.39{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) than in hot water extract group ($364.64{\mu}g/m{\ell}$). Total flavonoid contents were also significantly higher in ethanol extract group ($160.09{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) than in hot water extract group ($124.59{\mu}g/m{\ell}$). DPPH, ABTS, $Fe2^+$ chelating were slightly higher in ethanol extract gorups than in hot water extract groups, and increased in a dose-dependent manner. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (18.42~23.61%) of ethanol extract groups were shown to be approximately twice higher than that (7.63~10.37%) of hot water extract groups at $12.5{\sim}50{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ concentration. Nitrite scavenging activities of both ethanol and hot-water extract groups were shown to be higher in a dose dependent manner at the concentration of $12.5{\sim}50{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ at pH 3.0 than at pH 1.2, and ethanol extract groups (86.55~96.64%) had higher activity than the hot water extract groups (42.59~92.63%), which was higher than that of the control group antioxidant BHT (72.96~80.11%). Conclusions : The extracts of SC displayed antioxidant activities which suggested a natural material can be developed to functional material.