• Title, Summary, Keyword: ethnopharmacology

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Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Curcuma aeurigenosa Roxb.

  • Srivastava, Sharad;Nitin, Chitranshi;Srivastava, Sanjay;Dan, Mathew;Rawat, A.K.S.;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2006
  • Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. (FamilyZingeberaceae), commonly known as 'pink and blue giner' is widely used in Indian system of medicine since time immemorial. The plant is found well in wild habitat and cultivated in southern India. The plant is distinguished by red corolla lobes and ferruginous or greenish-blue rhizome. Rhizoma is used medicinally as anti-diarrheal, anti-fungal; external use as astringent for wounds. A detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of its rhizome showed total ash 6.1%, acid insoluble ash 1.20%, alcohol soluble extractives 3.70% , water soluble extractives 14.50%, sugar 20.93%, starch 41.85%, and tannins 0.68%. Oh hydro distillation, the rhizomes and sessile tubers yielded 0.17% oil.

Action of Asparagus racemosus Against Streptozotocin-Induced Oxidative Stress

  • Govindarajan, Raghavan;Vijayakumar, Madhavan;Rao, Chandana Venkateshwara;Kumar, Vivek;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2004
  • Antidiabetic treatment with tubers of Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae) extract (l00 and 250 mg/kg body weight) for three weeks showed significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) in both liver and kidney. The treatment with A. racemosus significantly altered the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-R to be comparable with the control group. A. racemosus and glibenclamide treated rats showed decreased lipid peroxidation that is associated with increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT). The ability of A. racemosus on tissue lipid per oxidation and antioxidant status in diabetic animals has not been studied before. The result of this study thus shows that though, A. racemosus possesses moderate antidiabetic activity, but it exhibits potent antioxidant potential in diabetic conditions.

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.

  • Agnihotri, Adarsh Kumar;Khatoon, Sayyada;Agarwal, Manisha;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Mehrotra, Shanta;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.168-172
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    • 2004
  • In India, Gymnema sylvestre due to the unique property of the plant to antagonize the sweet taste is known as 'Gur-mar'. It has several ethnomedicinal values as various tribals/traditional communities and rural peoples of India find diverse medicinal uses viz. antidiabetic, stomachic, diuretic, and is useful in cough and throat troubles. Besides, it has strong effect on reducing blood sugar. The present communication deals with the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of the aerial parts of G. sylvestre collected from three places of the country-Varanasi (U.P), Panchmarhi (M.P), Salem (Tami Nadu) and commercial sample procured from local market. The botanical and physico-chemical parameters of all the samples were quite similar though little variations were observed in foaming index, alcohol and water soluble extractives of local sample. The microscopic characteristics of the drug are horse shoe shaped petiole with 3 amphicribal vascular bundles, sieve tubes well developed; anomocytic stomata only on the abaxial surface of the leaf, the fan shaped amphicribal vascular bundle, presence of intraxylary phloem. The TLC fingerprint profile of all the samples was more or less similar only the quantity of some of the compounds varied.

Free Radical Scavenging and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Potential of Hygrophila auriculata

  • Vijayakumar, Madhavan;Govindarajan, Raghavan;Shirwaikar, Arun;Kumar, Vivek;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Mehrotra, Shanta;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2005
  • Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine is a wild herb commonly found in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches and paddy fields throughout India and is one of the main sources of Ayurvedic 'Rasayana' drug. The free radical scavenging potential of 50% aqueous alcoholic extract of H. auriculata (HAEt) was studied for DPPH scavenging activity, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and ferryl bipyridyl complex scavenging activity along with lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity inhibition using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rat liver homogenate. Integral antioxidative capacity was determined by photochemiluminescence assay. HAEt showed good radical scavenging activity at various concentrations $(200-1000\;{\mu}g/ml)$ against 1,1 diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (32.32-77.02%) with moderate scavenging activity against Nitric oxide (12.46-52.84%), hydroxyl radical (11.69-55.26%), ferryl bipyridyl complex (17.66-58.67%) and lipid peroxidation (0.829-0.416nmoles/mg protein). The above results indicate HAEt to be very effective antioxidant. It was suggested that the varied therapeutic activities claimed for the plant in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine may be in the part due to the free radical scavenging and/ or potent antioxidant activity.

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Leucas aspera Link.

  • Rai, Vartika;Agarwal, Manisha;Agnihotri, A.K.;Khatoon, S.;Rawat, A.K.S.;Mehrotra, S.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2005
  • Leucas aspera Link. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal plant in indigenous systems of medicine in India and commonly known as 'Thumbai'. It has various ethnomedicinal values as various traditional communities find diverse medicinal properties. It is used as antipyretic, stimulant, expectorant and diaphoretic drug. The present communication deals with the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of whole plant of L. aspera collected from five different geographical zones of the country-Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal and Gujarat. The botanical characters and TLC fingerprint profile of all the samples were quite similar but some variations were observed in physicochemical parameters. However, some microscopical characters and TLC profile can be used as diagnostic characters for identification of L. aspera, for example amphistomachic leaves and two types of trichomes-abundant, non glandular, uniseriate, 1-3 celled and few glandular, 2-5 celled stalk with rounded tip. Presence of some components at $R_fs-0.56$, 0.65 and 0.76 under UV 366 and at $R_fs-0.31$, 0.43, 0.60, 0.76 and 0.82 under visible light after derivetization in TLC profile may also be used as diagnostic character.

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of an Antioxidant Plant - Acorus calamus Linn

  • Govindarajan, Raghavan;Agnihotri, Adarsh Kumar;Khatoon, Sayyada;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Mehrotra, Shanta
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 2003
  • The rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn. is commonly known as "Vacha" in indigenous systems of medicine. It is distributed in marshy tracts of Kashmir, Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh), Manipur and the Naga hills. It is regularly cultivated in Koratagere Taluk in Karnataka and other parts of India. This study deals with the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of the dried rhizomes of Acorus calamus collected from DehraDun (Uttaranchal), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). The commercial sample procured from Delhi market was also evaluated to observe the difference between collected and market samples. Dried rhizome is vertically compressed, pale yellow to dark brown and occasionally orangish brown in colour. Transverse section showed two distinct region with scattered, concentric vascular bundles surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath. Some vascular bundles just beneath the endodermis devoid of bundle sheath. Though the botanical and physico-chemical characters of all the samples were quite similar but some variations were observed in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile, the essential oil content and total percentage of asarone which was found to be highest in Lucknow and lowest in Delhi market sample. These variations may be explained due to some edaphic factors or storage conditions. An attempt was also made to test antioxidant activity (in vitro) and it was found to be 88% at 0.2 g/ml concentration.

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Seed of Butea monosperma Kuntze

  • Srivastava, Manjoosha;Srivastava, Sharad Kumar;Khatoon, Sayyada;Rawat, A.K.S.;Mehrotra, Shanta
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2002
  • Butea monosperma Kuntze, commonly known as 'Palash', is employed in various indigenous systems of medicine against several diseases and almost every part of the plant has diversified medicinal properties. The seeds are used as anthelmintic, aperient, digesti and to treat piles, skin diseases and abdominal troubles. They also have the property of reducing 'Kapha' and 'Vata' (in Ayurveda). In the present paper a detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of seeds has been undertaken. The study includes macro- and micro-scopical details, fluorescence powder study and HPTLC fingerprinting. The seed is characterized by finely ridged seed coat and palisade-like malpighian cells, discontinuous transparent linea lucida in upper half of malpighian layer and simple & oblong hilum. The study also concludes that the seed samples procured from different places have similar morphological and physico-chemical characteristics. These observations are also supported by similar TLC profiles. The estimation of heavy metals (to detect permissible toxic limits), and fatty acid composition have been carried out. An attempt has also been made to see the ecological and edaphic variations, if any.

Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of 'Coccinia indica W. &A.' Fruit Juice Powder in Animals

  • Rao, GMM;Rao, Ch V;Sudhakara, M.;Pandey, M M;Rawat, AKS;Sirwaikar, A;Joshi, AB
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.20-23
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    • 2004
  • The fresh fruit juice powder of Coccinia indica W.&A., (Cucurbitaceae, CJP) was studied for the possible activities of antiinflammatory and antinociceptive to rationalize the folkloric use of the plant juice as rasayana. CJP at the doses of 50-200 mg/kg caused a significant (P<0.05 to P<0.001) inhibition of paw edema induced by ${\lambda}$ carrageenin (1%) and histamine $(10^{-3}\;g/ml,\;0.1\;ml)$ in rats. The effect was comparable to the standard cycloxygenase inhibitor brufen at 100 mg/kg and protective percentages were 63.41% and 65.78% respectively. Administration of CJP (50-200 mg/kg) exhibited a moderate increase of the pain threshold on analgesy-meter induced mechanical pain. However CJP significantly prevented the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice and the percentages of inhibitions were 16.98%-35.47%, which is equivalent to 36.67% produced by brufen. These data indicate that the fruit juice of Coccinia indica rationalizes the traditional system of medicine.

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Roots of Pygmaeopremna herbacea (Roxb.) Mold.

  • Rastogi, Subha;Pandey, Madan Mohan;Kumar, Kaushal;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.58-62
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    • 2005
  • Pygmaeopremna herbacea (Roxb.) Mold. (Verbenaceae) is a small herb or sometimes an undershrub arising from a perennial rootstock. The dry roots are dark muddy brown in colour having root nodules. Its extensively developed roots are widely used in tribal medicine. They are used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and ulcers. This study deals with the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of the dried roots and root nodules of P. herbacea which includes macro and microscopic studies, determination of physicochemical parameters and chemoprofiling of the extract using HPTLC fingerprint profiles. It was observed that the roots consist of a well developed cortical region consisting of tangentially elongated thin walled parenchymatous cells and contain polygonal stone cells as well as compound starch grains. Also the pith was parenchymatous. The HPTLC fingerprint profile of the methanolic extract showed the presence of seven major bands. Such an analysis may thus be utilized in identifying P. herbacea and in differenciating it from other species which are similar to it or are used as its adultrants/substitutes under the same vernacular name of Bharangi.

Activity Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Tannoid Principles from Anogeissus latifolia

  • Govindarajan, Raghavan;Vijayakumar, Madhavan;Shirwaikar, Annie;Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh;Mehrotra, Shanta;Pushpangadan, Palpu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.174-178
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    • 2005
  • Oxidative stress is an important causative factor in several human chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, mutagenesis, cancer, several neurodegenerative disorders, and the aging process. Phenolics and tannins are reported to be good antioxidants. Anogeissus latifolia (Combretaceae) bark has been used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine for curing a variety of ailments, but scientific validation is not available till date. Hence the present study was undertaken to isolate antioxidant compounds by activity-guided isolation. Inhibtion of diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and Xanthine oxidase along with photochemiluminescence assay were used as bioassay for antioxidant activity. Activity guided isolation was carried out using silica column and the compounds were quantified using HPLC. Ethyl acetate and butanol fraction exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Bioassay-guided isolation led to isolation of ellagic acid (1) and dimethyl ellagic acid (2) as the main active compounds, which along with gallic acid were quantified by HPLC. Thus we conclude that these three major tannoid principles present in A. latifolia, are responsible for the antioxidant potential and possibly their therapeutic potential.