• Title, Summary, Keyword: exhaustion function

Search Result 29, Processing Time 0.033 seconds

Mechanism of T cell exhaustion in a chronic environment

  • Jin, Hyun-Tak;Jeong, Yun-Hee;Park, Hyo-Jin;Ha, Sang-Jun
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.217-231
    • /
    • 2011
  • T cell exhaustion develops under conditions of antigen-persistence caused by infection with various chronic pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and myco-bacterium tuberculosis (TB), or by the development of cancer. T cell exhaustion is characterized by stepwise and progressive loss of T cell function, which is probably the main reason for the failed immunological control of chronic pathogens and cancers. Recent observations have detailed some of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the severity of T cell exhaustion. Duration and magnitude of antigenic activation of T cells might be associated with up-regulation of inhibitory receptors, which is a major intrinsic factor of T cell exhaustion. Extrinsic factors might include the production of suppressive cytokines, T cell priming by either non-professional antigenpresenting cells (APCs) or tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs), and alteration of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Further investigation of the cellular and molecular processes behind the development of T cell exhaustion can reveal therapeutic targets and strategies for the treatment of chronic infections and cancers. Here, we report the properties and the mechanisms of T cell exhaustion in a chronic environment.

PROJECTIVE LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE OF BANACH FUNCTION ALGEBRAS AS A FRECHET FUNCTION ALGEBRA

  • Sady. F.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.39 no.2
    • /
    • pp.259-267
    • /
    • 2002
  • Let X be a hemicompact space with ($K_{n}$) as an admissible exhaustion, and for each n $\in$ N, $A_{n}$ a Banach function algebra on $K_{n}$ with respect to $\parallel.\parallel_n$ such that $A_{n+1}\midK_{n}$$\subsetA_n$ and${\parallel}f{\mid}K_n{\parallel}_n{\leq}{\parallel}f{\parallel}_{n+1}$ for all f$\in$$A_{n+1}$, We consider the subalgebra A = { f $\in$ C(X) : $\forall_n\;{\epsilon}\;\mathbb{N}$ of C(X) as a frechet function algebra and give a result related to its spectrum when each $A_{n}$ is natural. We also show that if X is moreover noncompact, then any closed subalgebra of A cannot be topologized as a regular Frechet Q-algebra. As an application, the Lipschitzalgebra of infinitely differentiable functions is considered.d.

Paradoxical Lateralization of Convulsive Movements in a Subtle Status Epilepticus (미세 간질중첩증에서의 역설적 편측화)

  • Sohn, Eun-Hee;Jung, Ki-Young;Kim, Jae-Moon
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.137-139
    • /
    • 2002
  • Background : Subtle status epilepticus (SE) is an end-stage of convulsive SE. This phenomenon might be a clinical expression of neuronal exhaustion caused by sustained electrical discharges. As subtle SE may show diverse clinical features, early detection depends on clinical suspicion. Case : A 68-year-old woman was presented with repetitive involuntary movement of right limbs after two generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She experienced right middle cerebral artery infarction 4 months ago, and after the event, left side hemiplegia sustained. These seizures were first-ever after the cerebral infarction. Orientation and verbal responses were fairly preserved but general cognitive function was minimally slowed. During the video-EEG monitoring, repetitive sharp waves were noted in the right hemisphere and these sharp waves occasionally spread to the contralateral side. Her right side involuntary movement was identifiable when the epileptic discharges were found on her right hemisphere. Conclusion : We suggested that this unexpected convulsive movement is a reflection of earlier exhaustion in the right hemisphere or deefferentation of right hemisphere because of preexisting neuronal damage.

  • PDF

Differences in Stress and Burnout of Dancers on Sociological Variable (무용수의 인구사회학적 변인에 따른 스트레스와 탈진 차이)

  • Kim, Sun-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.244-253
    • /
    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between stress factor and burnout of dancers. For this, a survey was performed, of which the subjects were selected out of a great number of dancers in several dance. Finally, a total of 535 completed questionnaires were used for statistical inspections, such as independent t test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: there was a significant difference to burnout of dancers as a function of sex, major, record and position at p<.05 level. there was a significant difference to stress of dancers as a function of sex, record and position at p<.05 level. there was a significant difference to the stress level dancers within the lower factors including demotivation, emotional exhaustion and lack of improvement at p<.01 level. as result above system must be set up for dancers can maintain psychological stability and increase dancer performance.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF q-PSEUDOCONVEX DOMAINS IN ℂn

  • Khedhiri, Hedi
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.54 no.2
    • /
    • pp.543-557
    • /
    • 2017
  • In this paper, we investigate the notion of q-pseudoconvexity to discuss and describe some geometric characterizations of q-pseudoconvex domains ${\Omega}{\subset}{\mathbb{C}}^n$. In particular, we establish that ${\Omega}$ is q-pseudoconvex, if and only if, for every boundary point, the Levi form of the boundary is semipositive on the intersection of the holomorphic tangent space to the boundary with any (n-q+1)-dimensional subspace $E{\subset}{\mathbb{C}}^n$. Furthermore, we prove that the Kiselman's minimum principal holds true for all q-pseudoconvex domains in ${\mathbb{C}}^p{\times}{\mathbb{C}}^n$ such that each slice is a convex tube in ${\mathbb{C}}^n$.

The Algorithm of Improvement of Production cost using Function based cost estimating (기능 분석에 따른 제품 원가 구조개선 알고리즘에 대한 연구)

  • Seo, Ji-Han;Lee, Jea-Myung;La, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.207-213
    • /
    • 2010
  • Now days, the marketing environment is rapidly changed. Therefore, a lot of companies try to reduce production cost. Especially, Design is a important activities in new product development. While the concepts of design for manufacturable and concurrent engineering have made significant advances in integrating the design function with other areas in the firm. There are still major gaps in timely and accurate costing information available to designers. Inappropriate design could result in high redesign cost and delay in product relation. The generation of design and improvement is a time-consuming and mentally exhaustion process. It involves combining design features to generate as many potential design as possible. As not all features combinations are feasible, decision-makers have to narrow down the potential solutions and subsequently select appropriate design for further development. This new study is composed of 3 steps aiming at the Low Cost Design of the product. The three steps are consisted that setting up the target Cost, estimating the current functional cost, the design of a unit's reviewing according to the priority of the difference between the target cost and the functional cost.

Effect of Exercise on the Physiological Changes of Korean Cyclists (한국 사람의 생리적 변화에 미치는 운동의 영향)

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Lee, Beom-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.95-100
    • /
    • 1995
  • Serum electrolyte concentration and body weight were determined before and after exercise for 2h in Korean cyclists. The serum concentration of electrolytes (Na, Ca, Zn, K, P and Cl) was increased but that of Mg was decreased as a result of exercise. The increase of serum K and P concentration was statistically significant after exercise. As the exercise time increased, the loss of body weight also increased due to dehydration and sweat. The loss of body weight ranged 1.0 to 2.3 Kg as a function of exercise time but cyclists showed the exhaustion and muscle fatigue 2h after exercise. As the ambient temperature increased, the loss of body weight was slightly increased. However, frequent drinking water was required because of dehydration and thirst. Although frequent drinking water may reduce weight loss and thirst during exercise, sports drinking beverages simultaneously containing electrolytes and nutrients are more useful to replenish loss of water and electrolytes in an exhausted condition, resulting in the improvement of physical performance.

  • PDF

Literatural Study on the cause of a disease and prescription in migraine (편두통(偏頭痛)의 원인(原因)과 처방(處方)에 대한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Jong-In;Hwang, Chi-Won
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.171-189
    • /
    • 2000
  • By Literatural studying on migraine, The results were obtained as fallow : 1. A different name on migraine were called hemicrania(頭偏痛, 邊頭痛, 偏頭風). 2. In the cause of a disease in migraine, the cases were clasified into the fallowing kind : internal cause were a decline in energy and blood(氣血具虛), external cause were outside evil(外邪) in wind cold heat wetness(風寒暑濕), non internal, external cause were exhaustion. The right side migraine were concerned phlegm heat, the right side migraine were concerned wind decline in blood. 3. Migraine is appeared on the side, For the reason, liver function in excess of normal limits(肝陽上亢), a sudden of liver fire(肝火) is becomeed of invasion upon soyangkuong(少陽經) in internal external cause 4. Usage method of medicines is appeared that order underclothes theraphy(內服法), to pump out in nose theraphy, to join head theraphy(頭點法), heating smoke theraphy(熏煙法) 5. CNIDII RHIZOMA(川芎) is in mostly general use for migraine, in that order LEDEBOURIELLAE RADIX(防風) ANGELICAE DAHURICAE RADIX(白芷) ASARI HERBA CUM RADICE(細辛) NOTOPTERYGII RHIZOMA(羌活) GLYCYRRHIZAE RADIX(甘草) CHRYSANTHEMI FLOS(菊花) BUPLEURI RADIX(柴胡) SCUTELLARIAE RADIX(黃芩) ANGELICAE GIGANTIS RADIX(當歸) GYPSUM FIBROSUM(石膏) MENTHAE HERBA(薄荷) GLYCYRRHIZAE RADIX(炙甘草) VITICIS FRUCTUS(蔓荊子), nature is in mostly general hot warm(辛溫), bitter cold(苦寒), guikuong(歸經) is in mostly general liver gall kuong(肝膽經), efficacy is in mostly general to remove wind pain (祛風止痛) and to down fire(瀉火).

  • PDF

A Study on activation way of vocational education training for construction skill manpower problems solution (건설기능인력난 해결을 위한 직업교육훈련의 활성화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Jae;Oh, Sangl-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.133-137
    • /
    • 2006
  • Can examine cause that the construction industry is faced in crisis of skill exhaustion in two sides. One is the tribe of actuality production manpower by entry evasion and graying of young man class specially new manpower to the tribe of skill manpower. Another is qualitative decline of skill manpower. Generally, problem of the systematic knowledge tribe and the picking up tribe about new technology etc, exists because learn skill for shoulder beyond in spot. In cutting phenomenon of skill that is depended on personal relationships availability with skilled worker in hereafter, problem that worker who is old or enter through rain skilled worker does not learn all life skill is detected. These problems institute entry of young man class and necessity of systematic vocational education training specially new human strength strongly. This study does presentation of way to promote construction industry entry of young man class and improvement way of vocational education training system that can do to train these by function manpower by purpose.

  • PDF

A Study on the Noise Characteristics of Subway Train (도시철도 전동차 소음 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Yong-Woon;Koo, Jeong-Seo;You, Won-Hee;Koh, Hyo-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.329-334
    • /
    • 2009
  • Subway is used as a useful transportation method to solve the metropolitan traffic problem for its advantages of being not only accurate, safe and massive, but also of not producing any exhaustion gas in compare with the other ground transportation systems. However, noise inside the car due to concrete based rail track and tunnel structure has become a social problem. So, an analysis on the noise characteristics according to their routes and locations was made on the basis of the actually measured results from the trial run. To reduce the interior noise of subway train, the side part of rolling stock should have a noise blocking system fur low band frequency noise, the floor of it should have that for medium range frequency noise and the side part as well as lower part of it should have good noise reduction and absorption function.