• Title, Summary, Keyword: exterior degree

Search Result 58, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

COMMUTING ELEMENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE OPERATOR Λ IN INFINITE GROUPS

  • Rezaei, Rashid;Russo, Francesco G.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.53 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1353-1362
    • /
    • 2016
  • Using the notion of complete nonabelian exterior square $G\hat{\wedge}G$ of a pro-p-group G (p prime), we develop the theory of the exterior degree $\hat{d}(G)$ in the infinite case, focusing on its relations with the probability of commuting pairs d(G). Among the main results of this paper, we describe upper and lower bounds for $\hat{d}(G)$ with respect to d(G). Here the size of the second homology group $H_2(G,\mathbb{Z}_p)$ (over the p-adic integers $\mathbb{Z}_p$) plays a fundamental role. A further result of homological nature is placed at the end, in order to emphasize the influence of $H_2(G,\mathbb{Z}_p)$ both on G and $\hat{d}(G)$.

COMMUTING POWERS AND EXTERIOR DEGREE OF FINITE GROUPS

  • Niroomand, Peyman;Rezaei, Rashid;Russo, Francesco G.
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.49 no.4
    • /
    • pp.855-865
    • /
    • 2012
  • Recently, we have introduced a group invariant, which is related to the number of elements $x$ and $y$ of a finite group $G$ such that $x{\wedge}y=1_{G{\wedge}G}$ in the exterior square $G{\wedge}G$ of $G$. This number gives restrictions on the Schur multiplier of $G$ and, consequently, large classes of groups can be described. In the present paper we generalize the previous investigations on the topic, focusing on the number of elements of the form $h^m{\wedge}k$ of $H{\wedge}K$ such that $h^m{\wedge}k=1_{H{\wedge}K}$, where $m{\geq}1$ and $H$ and $K$ are arbitrary subgroups of $G$.

Analysis of the Exterior Spatial Organization and Residents\\\\` Satisfaction Degree to the Apartment Complex in Teagu (대구시 아파트 단지의 외부공간구성 및 만족도에 관하여)

  • 권태식;김영수
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-68
    • /
    • 1990
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the more rational and practical basic theory for the landscape planning in the aparment complex. In this study, the actual conditions of exterior space, the residens' satisfaction degree and the correlation between exterior space and the residents' satisfaction defree were investigated and analyzed on the 13apartment complexes in Taegu City. Through the statistical analysis, the main results were obtained as fellows : It was found that the size of green area ratio in the apartment complexes were in the order of Jugong Apt. (Korean Housing Corporation), Siyoung Apt. (City Operation), Minyoung high-rise Apt. (Private Business) and Minyoung low-rise Apt. (Private Business) complex. The highest ratio of footway and Parking area were shown in Minyoung high-rise Apt. complex. The important factors at the exterior space of apartment complex were composed by 6 major factors, importance degrees of which are Visual, Practical, Convenient, Sentimental, Recreational and Spatial factors for teenagers in orders. The residents' satisfaction degrees to the exterior space were highly correlated with the spatil organization, size of green area and quantity of trees, view, management situation, defensibility of outside noise, rest place, water landscapings by turns. In order to get more than the average satisfaction degree 18 exterior space, the green area should be occupied by 35% of the apartment complex area and more than 76% of the green area (i. e. 16% of the apartment complex area) should be planted with trees. In the Taegu City regulation, the ratio of tree composition is proposed for only the number of tree. But it was shown that the satifaction degree are more correlated with the species and afforestation of trees than the nuts her of trees in this study. therefore, the species of tree and the afforestation of tree should be considered when the landscape planning of the apartment complex begins. It was found that the ratio of afforestation to make the more desirable exterior space In the apartment complex shoule be 8 to 2 in the ratio of arbor to shrub. It was also required that 30 species of arbor and 15 species of shrub should be planted for the more desirable landscape of the apartment complex.

  • PDF

Analysis on Residents Behavior and Determinants of Satisfaction to the Exterior Space in High-rise Apartment complex. (도시 고층아파트단지 주거민의 외부공간 이용행태 및 만족요인 분석)

  • 이현택;이철희
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-93
    • /
    • 1990
  • The purpose of this study is to establish better residential environment in APT. complex. In this study, the actual conditions of exterior space, user behavior and degree of satisfaction are investigated and analyzed on the 5 high-rise story APT complex in Taegu city. The results of this study were as follow ; The size and arrangement of organizational elemnnt to exterior space in APT. complex have been regulated by law and regulations as the buildings coverage and floor space index, but housinghold and accessibility to the racility will be simultaneously considered to raise Quality of the residential environoment. The main user behavior to exterior space in APT. complex was practical activity and the user behavior pattern by week and among APT. complex were found similiarly. In the ratio of use to exterior space in APT. Complex, that of high-rise residents were lower than that of lowrise residents. In the degree of satisfaction by property of variables to exterior environment In APT. comples, physical of buildings, social - psychologic, managerial economical, physical property of exterior space were estimated positively, but properly of facility were estimated negatively. The degee of satisfaction to exterior environment in APT. complex was highly Influenced by green space, site size. As a result of ractor analysis, the four factors were drawn out from exterior environment in APT. complex. and the factors that have an effect on the degree of residents' satisfaction by factorscore were found in the order of importance as fallow ; managemental, physical, environmental, organizalional factor. Therefore, devilopment of APT. complex should be considered in a view of environmental psychology according to physical organization for used in the future. It is recommended that this problems should be necessitated to be more deeply studies in the future.

  • PDF

Examination of the Optimal Insulation Thickness of Exterior Walls for Climate Change (기후변화를 고려한 외벽 최적단열두께 검토)

  • Jung, Jae-Hoon
    • KIEAE Journal
    • /
    • v.11 no.6
    • /
    • pp.81-86
    • /
    • 2011
  • By strengthening the insulation performance of a building, a great deal of energy can be saved and a comfortable indoor environment can be offered to people. On the other hand, the climate, which has a great influence on the indoor environment, is changed by global warming. Therefore, in planning building envelope structure and design, climate change should be considered. In this paper, the optimal insulation thickness of exterior walls was calculated by an economic assessment method using heating degree-days. Additionally, how much influence climate change has on planning building insulation was investigated. The examination showed that heating degree-days have decreased by about 10% due to climate change in the past few decades. It was also shown that the optimal insulation thickness of exterior walls was thin, at about 6%, in three representative Korean cities (Seoul, Daejeon, Jeju).

A Research on the Analysis Method of School Exterior Space Lacking Natural Surveillance (학교 외부공간의 자연적 감시 취약지역 분석기법에 관한 연구)

  • Kweon, Ji-Hoon
    • The Journal of Sustainable Design and Educational Environment Research
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-31
    • /
    • 2012
  • The number of school crime has grown continuously for last ten years and its intensity also has reached to serious condition. The concept of CPTED(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) needs to be focused for improving school environment regarding this context. The exterior space of school environment is variously exposed to school crimes committed by colleague students and also intruders. From the perspective of school CPTED, Natural surveillance as one of the practical strategies requires the micro-scale analysis which clarifies local visibility at each different school exterior space. Thus, the purpose of this research is to develop the analysis method clarifying visibility condition at exterior space of school environment, which supports finding the condition of natural surveillance. The programmed analysis algorithm generated quantitative results clarifying Degree for static visibility and Clustering Coefficient for user tracking visibility. The result of this study produced the analysis method feasible to clarify weak natural surveillance conditions at school exterior spaces. Also, it is expected that the developed analysis method will be used to improve the layout of school exterior space from the perspective of CPTED.

The Reduction of Energy Consumption by the Exterior Horizontal Shading Device during Design for the Retrofit of Public Buildings (공공청사 리트로핏 설계 시 외부 수평 차양 장치에 따른 에너지 소비량 절감 방안)

  • Auh, Jin Sun;Jang, Ji-Hoon;Leigh, Seung-Bok;Kim, Byungseon Sean
    • KIEAE Journal
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.29-34
    • /
    • 2017
  • Purpose: Recently, significant heat loss through the window takes place in buildings. Nevertheless, there exists little literature concerning the exterior horizontal shading devices and the design criteria are not clearly settled yet. Applying the exterior horizontal shading devices is more efficient as compared to the interior shading devices in that solar radiation can be directly blocked before passing through the window or the envelope. The purpose of this study is to reduce the internal load by designing the exterior horizontal shading devices and verify the degree of reduction in energy consumption. Method: This study aims to reduce energy consumption in cooling and heating through proposing proper length and shape of the exterior horizontal shading devices in public buildings. In the process, actual energy data and the Design Builder simulation program are utilized. In addition, economic aspect is considered to figure out the optimal length of the exterior horizontal shading devices that maximizes efficiency. Result: As a result, the proper length and shape of the exterior horizontal shading devices are provided as follows: 1) Energy consumption in cooling and heating is minimized when the exterior horizontal shading devices are designed as 0.5m*2. 2) Electricity bill is the lowest when the exterior horizontal shading devices are designed as 3.3m*2. The gap between maximum and minimum electricity bill is about 7.8~14%.

Analysis on Residents Consciousness about Management of the Exterior Space in Apt. Complex (대단위 아파트 단지의 조경공간 관리에 대한 주민의식 분석 - 대구시 지산지구 아파트단지를 대상으로 -)

  • Lee, Kee Cheol;Lee, Hyun Taek;Kim, Dong Pil;Lee, Jeong
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
    • /
    • v.12
    • /
    • pp.35-49
    • /
    • 1994
  • The Purpose of this study was to establish the belter residential environment in Apt. complex. In this study, the management consciousness of exterior space and the degree of satisfaction were investigated and analyzed on the GI-SAN Apt. complex in Taegu city. The data were obtained through the questionnaire survey about the exterior space of Apt. complex and analyzed by the SPSS/PC. The results of this analysis are as follow; The result of the image analysis were the cleanness factor and the arrangement factor, which have great influenced in residents image of exterior space. The dissatisfaction source of the management conditions were owing to the lake of management techniques and the discord of residents. The subject of management in the residents consciousness was the management office. In additionally, the management form by the residents were highly showed the cleaning and weeding. The main issues of their dissatisfaction about the exterior space was the lake of size, quantity of plants and rest space. The place of the most demand on management was investigated the children playground which was regarded to be the most damaged.

  • PDF

Relationships between depression, anxiety, 'exterior-interior pattern and cold-heat pattern' and Heart Rate Variability in healthy Subjects (건강인의 표리 한열 변증, HRV, 우울, 불안 지표의 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jeong-Chan;Kang, Hee-Chul;Lee, Seung-Gi;Park, Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.482-487
    • /
    • 2006
  • The identification of the exterior-interior pattern and the cold-heat pattern is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods in Oriental medicine. No systematic studies, however, have yet been conducted to determine the emotional and autonomic factors involved in the exterior-interior and cold-heat. In this study, the relationships between depression, anxiety, and the exterior-interior and cold-heat patterns in 100 healthy female volunteers with a mean age of 42.77 were also investigated. The autonomic nervous system's control of human temperature is a well known fact. Thus, this paper also aimed to investigate the correlationof the autonomic nervous system and patterns of the exterior-interior and cold-heat. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), which has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system, was conducted in this study. No relationship was found between the exterior-interior and cold-heat pattern scores and the degree-of-depression scores. But there was a significant difference between the exterior-interior and cold-heat pattern scores of the different anxiety types, and between those of the different anxiety levels. The depression and anxiety levels also had an effect on the HRV indices.

A Study on the Fatty Acid Composition and Malonaldehyde of Dried Yellow Carbina (굴비의 지방산조성과 Malonaldehyde 함량변화에 관한 연구)

  • Yum, Cho-Ae
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.145-149
    • /
    • 1980
  • To study the rancidity of dried yellow carlbina oil by oxidation during the storage period general properties of the oil and composition of its fatty acid were analysed quantitatively with gas chromatography The results indicated that I) The dried yellow carbina oil was involved in drying oil of high degree of unsaturation with IV 138 and consisted of higher-fatty acid with SV 194. 2) The composition of the fatty acids were composed of 18 fatty acids involving 6 unknown fatty acids and comprised poly-unsaturated fatty acid with $C_{18}^{:3}\:and\:C_{22}^{:5}$ 3) After three morths storage of dried yellow carbina the content of malonaldehyde was about 12mg/kg in its exterior part, but 6mg/kg in interior part, which indicateing that the degree of rancidity of poly unsaturated glycerides in exterior part of carbina were two times as much as that of interior part.

  • PDF