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Screening of Antimicrobial Activity among the Therapeutic Herbal Extracts on Dental Pathogens

  • Baek, Dong-Heon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 2007
  • The periodontal diseases and dental caries are major infectious diseases in oral cavity. Many of the preventive and therapeutic dental products contain the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory components. But some of these antimicrobial have weak points such as coloration, burning sensation and insolubility in water. We have screened the therapeutic herbal extracts of the Plant Extract Bank for the antimicrobial activity on the major dental pathogens by growth inhibition assay. For the Porphyromonas gingivalis, 8 herbal extracts had an antimicrobial activity, 11 herbal extracts for the Prevotella intermedia, 43 herbal extracts for the Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans and 61 herbal extracts for the Streptococcus mutans. Among these extracts, 6 herbal extracts had an antimicrobial activity for more than 3 species of dental pathogens. These extracts are Araliae Cordatae Radix, Crassirhizomae Rhizoma, Mori Radicis Cortex, Psoraleae Semen, Pini Ramulus and Sieges- beckiae Herba. All of effective extracts were CA group, ethanol extracts. Among these 6 herbal extracts, only Crassirhizomae is known to have a antibacterial effects. Therefore these herbal extracts have a possibility to be a candidate for a major antibacterial components in dental products.

Insurance Coverage on the Sasang Constitutional Herbal Medicine Extracts (사상처방엑기스제의 한방보험 급여화에 대한 제안)

  • Yu, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.8-11
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    • 2011
  • 1. Objectives: Sixty eight kinds of single herbal medicine extracts and fifty six kinds of mixed herbal medicine extracts have been used under a national health insurance since 1987. The number of herbal medicine extracts under an insurance coverage remains unchanged. The demand for covering complex herbal medicine extracts and Sasang Constitutional medicine extracts in a national health insurance increases. This study is to investigate the needs for the insurance coverage. 2. Methods: Advantages and disadvantages between herbal medicine decoction and extracts were explained and Sasang Constitutional medicine extracts according to Sasang constitution were surveyed in production nowadays. 3. Results: Herbal medicine decoction has many advantages of treating patients but herbal medicine extracts have advantages of the rapid adminstration and being easy to carry. From eleven to twenty two products of Sasang Constitutional medicine extracts have been in production in several factories. There are eleven kinds of Soyangin medicine extracts, nine kinds of Taeeumin medicine extracts and five kinds of Soeumin medicine extracts. 4. Conclusions: Complex herbal medicine extracts and Sasang Constitutional medicine extracts have to be in use under a national health insurance as soon as possible.

A Comparative Study of Pyeongwi-san, Ijin-tang and Pyeongjintang Extracts on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Mice (Indomethacin으로 유발된 생쥐의 위점막 손상에 대한 평위산(平胃散), 이진탕(二陳湯) 및 평진탕(平陳湯)의 비교연구)

  • Ji, Hyeon-Chyol;Baek, Tae-Hyeun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.102-117
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the protective and treating efficacy of Pyeongwi-san, Ijin-tang, and Pyeongjin-tang extracts to the mice with gastric mucosal lesions induced from indomethacin. Methods: In order to verify protective and treating efficacy of Pyeongwi-san, Ijin-tang, and Pyeongjin-tang extracts to the mice with gastric mucosal lesions induced from indomethacin, I administered the extracts of these prescriptions to three group, and induced gastric mucosal lesion by indomethacin, and then I observed the gastric mucosal morphology of stomach, changes from stress resulting from HSP70, changes of gastro-protection (mucous barrier, COX-1). After I observed the anti-oxidant effect, and anti-inflammation effect (IKK mRNA, iNOS mRNA, COX-2 mRNA) in vitro, I induced gastric mucosal lesion by indomethacin, and administered the extracts of each prescriptions to three group, and then I observed the gastric mucosal morphology, anti-inflammation effect to mucosa (NF-${\kappa}$B, iNOS, COX-2) in vivo. Results & Conclusions: 1. Hemorrhagic erosion and damaged mucus secreting cell, positive responses to HSP70 were decreased in all the before-gastric-mucosal-lesion-induced groups, compared to non-extract administered group. The effects were good in the order of Pyeongwi-san extracts administered group, Pyeongjin-tang extracts administered group and Ijin-tang extracts administered group. 2. In all the before-gastric-mucosal-lesion-induced groups, gastro- protection functions (mucous barrier, COX-1) were significant. The effects were good in the order of Pyeongwi-san extracts administered group, Pyeongjin-tang extracts administered group and Ijin-tang extracts administered group. 3. Anti-oxidant effect was significant in Pyeongwi-san extracts, Ijin-tang extracts and Pyeongjin-tang extracts. The effects were good in the order of Pyeongjin-tang extracts, Pyeongwi-san extracts and Ijin-tang extracts. 4. The anti-inflammation effects in vitro were good in Pyeongwi-san extracts, Ijin-tang extracts and Pyeongjin-tang extracts. Especially Pyeongjin-tang extracts showed the most prominent results. Damaged mucus secreting cells and the positive reactions of NF-${\kappa}$B, iNOS, COX-2 in vivo were decreased in after-gastric-mucosal-lesion-induced groups compared to non-extract administered group. The effects were good in the order of Pyeongjin-tang extracts administered group, Pyeongwi-san extracts administered group and Ijin-tang extracts administered group. These results show that Pyeongwi-san, Ijin-tang and Pyeongjin-tang are effective on both in protecting and treating the gastric mucosal membrane. Pyeongwi-san is more effective than other prescriptions, in protecting gastric mucosal membrane, and Pyeongjin-tang is more effective in treating gastric mucosal lesion.

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Tomato Extracts

  • Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.649-654
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    • 2006
  • The objective of present study was to investigate the anti oxidative and hepatoprotective effects of tomato extracts. Total antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant response were 5.5 and $19.8{\mu}g$ Trolox equivalent per mg of tomato extract, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity of tomato extracts ($10mg\;ml^{-1}$) was 70% as compared to 100% by pyrogallol solution as a reference. The effect of the tomato extracts on lipid peroxidation was examined using rat liver mitochondria induced by iron/ascorbate. Tomato extracts at the concentration of $0.5mg\;ml^{-1}$ significantly decreased TBARS concentration. Tomato extracts prevented lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the tomato extracts on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was examined using cell-free system induced by $H_2O_2/FeSO_4$. Addition of $1mg\;ml^{-1}$ of tomato extracts significantly reduced dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. Tomato extracts caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the increase in DCF fluorescence, indicating that tomato extracts significantly prevented ROS generation in vitro. The effect of tomato extracts on cell viability and proliferation was examined using hepatocyte culture. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated with 1mM tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) for 90 min in the presence or absence of tomato extracts. MTT values by addition of tomato extracts at the concentration of 2, 10, and $20mg\;ml^{-1}$ in the presence of t-BHP were 13, 33 and 48%, respectively, compared to 100% as control. Tomato extracts increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that tomato extracts suppressed lipid peroxidation and t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity and scavenged ROS generation. Thus antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of tomato extracts seem to be due to, at least in part, the prevention from free radicals-induced oxidation, followed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

A Study on Korean Oriental Medical Doctors' Use of Uninsured Herbal Extracts and How to Promote the Insurance Coverage of Such Herbal Extracts (한의사의 복합과립제 사용 실태 조사 및 복합과립제 건강보험 급여 시행방안에 대한 연구)

  • Son, Chi-Hyoung;Kim, Yong-Ho;Lim, Sabina
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.64-78
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: To research Korean oriental medical doctors' use of uninsured herbal extracts and how to bring about the insurance coverage of such herbal extracts. Methods: We surveyed Korean oriental doctors about the following issues from October 17th to November 15th, 2008: (1) Korean oriental medical doctors' knowledge about herbal extract insurance and the circumstances of oriental medicine in Korea, (2) their opinion on the coverage of currently uninsured herbal extracts and the dispensing of herbal extracts from pharmacies rather than from their clinics, (3) their use of herbal extracts, and (4) how to bring about insurance coverage of uninsured herbal extracts. Results: Over 70% of the respondents said that herbal medicine prescriptions have been reduced recently and that the existence of herbal medicine is in danger. In addition, 63.64% respondents agreed with expanding insurance coverage to include currently uninsured herbal extracts in spite of the fact that patients might have to obtain herbal extracts from pharmacies rather than from Korean oriental medical clinics. The average patient number per month of uninsured herbal extracts was 13.64 people, the average dosage was 5.64g, the average cost per day was 3,859 won, and the average prescription period was 2.65 days. Korean oriental medical doctors asked an average of 12,486 won for the medical examination-prescription fee and 3,292 won in fees for prescriptions obtained outside the hospital. If insurance coverage expands to include these herbal extracts, their usage is expected to increase 2.31 times. Conclusions: This study shows Korean oriental medical doctors' use of herbal extracts and their opinions about execution of herbal extracts' insurance. A periodic study such as this one will hopefully aid in establishing polices for uninsured herbal extracts' insurance.

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Color Development of combination Dyeing of Indian Indigo and Turmeric Extracts, Gardenia Extracts (인도쪽과 울금 및 치자의 복합염색에 의한 색상 변화)

  • 정진순;설정화
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.325-336
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    • 2002
  • This study investigated color change of combination dyeing silk fabrics dyed with Turmeric extracts and Gardenia extracts after dyeing of Indian indigo. Experimental variables include the condition of dyeing time and concentration of Turmeric extracts, Gardenia extracts, arid dyeing cycle of Indian indigo. Surface color of silk fabrics dyed with Turmeric 77tracts after one cycle dyeing, two cycles dyeing, four cycles dyeing of Indian indigo was changed from 5.1GY to 0.3GY, 1.5G to 3.5GY and 6.5G to 5.8GY by increase of concentration of Turmeric extracts. On the other hand, Surface color of silk fabrics dyed with Gardenia extracts after one cycle dyeing, two cycles dyeing, four cycles dyeing of Indian indigo was changed from 7.5Y to 3.9Y, 1.2GY to 6.7Y and 4.0GY to 8.6GY by increase of concentration of Gardenia extracts. Its range of surface color was changed to green and yellowish green by increase of dyeing time with concentration of Turmeric extracts. On the other hand, its range of surface color was changed to yellowish and yellow by increase of dyeing time with concentration of Gardenia extracts.

Herbal Extracts Classification and Application in Terms of Sasang Constitution (한방보험제제의 사상의학적 분류 및 운용)

  • Yoo, Jun-Sang;Hong, Sun-Gi;Choi, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.40-48
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    • 2010
  • 1. Objectives Herbal Extracts are used in Korean Oriental Medicine clinics. The sixty eight kinds of single herbal extracts and fifty six kinds of mixed herbal extracts has been using since the first year of execution of Korean medicine national insurance policy in 1987. This paper was performed to make a guideline of using herbal extracts. Single herbal extracts and mixed herbal extracts were discussed and classified according to Sasang constition. 2. Methods The sixty eight single herbal extracts were classified into four categories according to Sasang Constitution and fifty six mixed herbal extracts were classified by six Korean oriental medical doctors. Mixed herbal extracts were considered in terms of drug roles[sovereign, minister, assistant and courier(君臣佐使)] or most included ingredient herb. 3. Results Sasang constitutions which were suitable for fifty six mixed herbal extracts were Soeumin(46.4%), mixed constitution(39.2%) and Soyangin(8.9%), Taeeumin(5.3%). Sasang constitutions which were suitable for sixty eight single herbal extracts were Soeumin(47.1%), Soyangin(32.4%) and Taeeumin(20.6%). 4. Conclusions The rate of Soeumin herbal extracts was the most highest among all constitutions. It is regarded that warming and enforcing herb medicine were most used in all prescriptions.

Antioxidant Effects of the Extracts of Acanthopanax senticosus (가시오갈피 추출물의 항산화효과)

  • Jin, Li-Hua;Han, Sang-Sup;Choi, Yong-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.359-363
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    • 2002
  • Antioxidant properties of the extracts of Acanthopanax senticosus were investigated. The dried roots, stems or leaves were extracted with hot water or ethanol each. The ethanol extracts exhibited higher potency than aqueous extracts in scavenging free radicals and in inhibiting microsomal lipid peroxidation: the aqueous extracts of stems showed higher anti-oxidant effects than the root extracts. Copper-mediated LDL oxidation was also protected by the ethanol exlracts: antioxidant effects of the extracts tested were stronger than ascorbic acid, but not butylated hydroxytoluene. The activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was effectively suppressed by the aqueous extracts of the stems. However, in vivo antioxidant properties of the ethanol extracts of the stems did not seem to be significant, judged from the lipid peroxide values of serum and liver in normal mice. Thus, the ethanol extracts of the stems were shown to be more potent for protecting biological systems against various oxidant stresses in vitro, but not in vivo.

Improvement of Functional Properties of Extracts from Hydrothermal Cooked Fish Meat by Plastein Reaction (Plastein 반응에 의한 고온조리 어육추출물의 기능성 개선)

  • 이근태;박성민;이상호;류홍수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 1998
  • In order to improve the functional properties of several fish meat extracts as an alternate protein source, theri basic plastein reactions were evaluated. The UV absorption at 270 and 290 nm indicated that plasteins had higher amount of hydrophobic peptide or amino acid than the fish meat extracts. The water solubilities of the extracts were reduced at acidic pH. Values for the emulsifying capacity of the extracts and plasteins were over 30% although the latter showed the higher ones than the former. The osmolalities of the extracts at 1.0% concentration were 39(loach), 33(bastard halibut), 30(jacopever) and 24(crucan carp) milliosmole. Generally the slightly higher osmolalities were noted in the plasteins to be compared with the extracts. Both the extracts and plasteins exhibited a higher antioxidative effect than tocopherol. The hydrophobic amino acid which had been introduced at plastein reaction attributed the stronger antionxidative effect of its product than the extracts.

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Studies of biological activities of tree extracts for conservation of wooden cultural properties (목재문화재 보존을 위한 수목추출물의 부위별 생리활성 탐색)

  • Kang, So-yeong;Choi, Yun-a;Chung, Yong-jae
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.59-73
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    • 2007
  • Wooden artifacts are biologically damaged by animals, insects, and micro-organisms. We focused on the evaluation of the antifungal and insecticidal activities of tree extracts to control deterioration of wooden cultural properties. 12 kinds of methanol extracts from 9 species of tree were investigated for their biocidal activities against two micro-organisms and two spices of insect. Most tree extracts showed fungicidal activities to Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. Among 12 different tree extracts, the strongest antifungal activity against T.palustris and T.versicolor was observed from the extracts of Pinus densiflora stem-bark extract and Pinus koraiensis leaf extracts. However, in the insecticidal activity test, Pinus densiflora stem-bark extracts against termite was relatively effective. Chemical compositions of methanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As a result, it was confirmed that development of biocide based on the natural extracts can be expected to conservate of wooden cultural properties.

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