• Title/Summary/Keyword: exudate

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Changes of Phosphorylcholine Metabolism in Barley Seedlings during Greening (녹화중 보리유식물에서 Phosphorylcholine대사의 변화)

  • 유경희
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 1988
  • We investigated the activities of choline kinase, CTP: phosphorylcholine cytidyltransferase, and phosphatase during the greening of etiolated barley seedlings. Activities of choline kinase in leaves increased until 6 hours after illumination and decreased considerably after 6 hours, while activities of CTP: phosphorylcholine cytidyltransferase increased after illumination. On the contrary, changes of these two enzymatic activities showed reverse pattern in roots. The activities of phosphatase which hydrolyze phosphorylcholine decreased in leaves but changed little in roots during greening. The concentration of phosphorylcholine increased in xylem exudate and in roots during greening, while decreased in leaves. These results suggested that more phosphorylcholine arrive in leaves from roots as greening of etiolated barley seedlings.

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Studies on Antitumor and Immunopotentiation Activities of Polysaccharides from Trichosanthes Rhizome

  • Chung, Yeoun-Bong;Lee, Chong-Chull;Park, Soo-Wan;Lee, Chung-Kyu
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.285-288
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    • 1990
  • The polysaccharide fraction from the rhizome of Trichosanthes kirilowii (Cu-curbitaceae) showed marked antitumor and cytotoxic activity with immunopotentiating activity. It was evidenced by the increase in the number of circulating leucocytes and peritoneal exudate cells and the recovery of lowered antibody forming activity in mice. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, fructose, manmose and xylose and a small amount of protein.

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Amino Acid-Based Material for the Complementary Therapy of Decubitus Ulcers

  • Nogueira, Frederico;Gouveia, Isabel C.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.747-758
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    • 2017
  • Chronic wounds, pressure sores, lesions, and infections of microbial origin in bedridden, paralyzed, or malnutrition patients remain the object of study of many researchers. A variety of factors behind the development of these disorders are related to the patient's immune system, making it unable to respond effectively to the treatment of the wound. These factors can be properly controlled, giving particular importance to the ethiology and stage of the wound, as well as the time periods corresponding to the replacement of the dressings. The present research reports a novel foam/soft material, ${{\small}L}$-Cys-g-PCL, with an application for decubitus/pressure ulcers, especially for wounds with a difficult healing process due to infections and constant oxidation of the soft tissues. During this work, the interactions between S. aureus and ${{\small}L}$-Cys-g-PCL foam were studied under conditions that simulate decubitus ulcers; namely, pH and exudate. The effects of duration of grafting (1 or 8 h) and pH (7.0 and 8.9) on wettability, surface energy, swelling, and porosity were also evaluated. Results showed an effective microbicidal activity exhibiting an inhibition ratio of 99.73% against S. aureus. This new ${{\small}L}$-Cys-g-PCL soft material showed saftey to contact skin, ability to be shaped to fill in sunken holes (craters) - pressure ulcers stage III - and to act as a smart material responsive to pH, which can be tailored to develop better swelling properties at alkaline pH where exudates are normally higher, so as to address exudate self-cleaning and prevention of desiccation.

Effects of Extruded Acanthopanax Folium Extracts on Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis of Rats (오가엽(五加葉) 압출성형(壓出成形) 추출물의 Complete Freund's Adjuvant로 유발한 흰쥐의 관절염에 대한 효과)

  • Lee, Se-Na;Seo, Il-Bok;Son, Jae-Bong;Kim, Hye-Kyung;Leem, Kang-Hyun
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the effects of extruded Acanthopanax Folium extracts on Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis of rats. Methods: To induce arthritis in the ankle joint of rats, CFA was injected in the proximal part of the tail subcutaneously. After CFA injection, arthritic conditions were examined with macrography. The volume of paw edema and thickness of the ankle joints were checked regularly within 20 days. At 20 days, histopathological examination was performed on the ankle joint. Inflammation levels were determined by total WBC counts and differential WBC counts using a blood analyzer. Tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ and interleukin-1$\beta$ concentration in paw exudate were measured by ELISA method. Results: Several arthritic conditions induced by CFA were alleviated by Acanthopanax Folium treatment. Morphologically, reduction of arthritic conditions were observed and the volume of paw edema and thickness of the ankle joints were significantly decreased. Additionally, cytokines in paw exudate were diminished and histopathological improvement was observed. Conclusions: This study showed that the extruded Acanthopanax Folium extracts have the beneficial effects on the CFA induced arthritis of rats and might be used for chronic arthritis patients.

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T cell phenotype and intracellular $IFN-{\gamma}$ production in peritoneal exudate cells and gut intraepithelial lymphocytes during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice

  • Lee, Young-Ha;Shin, Dae-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2002
  • Although there are many reports on the splenic (systemic) T cell response after Toxoptasma gondii infection, little information is available regarding the local T cell responses of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) and gut intraepithelial Iymphocytes (IEL) following peroral infection with bradyzoites. Mice were infected with 40 cysts of the 76K strain of T. gondii, and then sacrificed at days 0, 1, 4, 7 and 10 postinfection (PI). The cellular composition and T cell responses of PEC and IEL were analyzed. The total number of PEC and IEL per mouse increased after infection, but the ratio of increase was higher in IEL. Lymphocytes were the major component of both PEC and IEL. The relative percentages of PEC macrophages and neutrophils/eosinophils increased signiflcantly at day 1 and 4 PI, whereas those of IEL did not change significantly. The percentage of PEC NK1.1 and ${\gamma\delta}T$ cells peaked at day 4 PI (p < 0.0001), and CD4 and $CD8{\alpha}T$ cells increased continuously after infection. The percentages of IEL $CD8{\alpha}$ and ${\gamma\delta}T$ cells decreased slightly at first, and then increased. CD4 and NK1.1 T cells of IEL did not change significantly after infection. $IFN-{\gamma}-producing$ PEC NK1.1 T cells increased significantly from day 1 PI, but the other T cell subsets produced $IFN-{\gamma}$ abundantly thereafter. The proportion of IEL $IFN-{\gamma}-producing$ $CD8{\alpha}$ and ${\gamma\delta}T$ cells increased significantly after infection, while IEL NK1.1 T cells had similar $IFN-{\gamma}$ production patterns. Taken together, CD4 T cells were the major phenotype and the important $IFN-{\gamma}$ producing T cell subsets in PEC after oral infection with T. gondii whereas $CD8{\alpha}T$ cells had these roles in IEL. These results suggest that PEC and IEL comprise different cell differentials and T cell responses, and according to infection route these factors may contribute to the different cellular immune responses.

Studies on the Technical Development of the Traditional Korean Golden Varnish(Hwangchil) (III) - Main Component Analysis of Korea Golden Varnishes Traditonally Refined from the Exudates of Dendropanax morbifera Lev. - (전통 황칠 도료 개발에 관한 연구(III) - 전통 황칠 도료의 주성분 분석 -)

  • Lim, Kie-Pye;Jung, Woo-Yang;Hong, Dong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 1998
  • In order to reconstruct the traditional technology of Korean golden varnish coatings, this study was carried out to separate and determine some main coloring components of the exudates of D. morbifera and its traditionally refined golden varnishes using a process of solvent extractions, chromatographies and spectrometries. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The exudate and its traditional-refined golden varnishes appear to have a kind of natural polyacetylenes because it has some triple bond peaks in FT-IR spectrometry. 2. Some yellowing spots of the polar-solvent extrats from the exudates and refined varnishes separated on TLC appeared under natural drying condition, but those of non-polar solvent extract such as hexane did not. 3. A traditional refining method for reconstructing a Korea golden varnishes was thought to be better than solvent separation because the former had higher triple-bond peaks than the latter in FT-IR spectrometry. 4. One of main conponents in the hexane-extracts of the traditional-refined varnishes and the exudates had the same molcular weighr of 204, but the fragmentation patterns was a little different between the exudate and the refined. in LC-MS soectrometry.

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A case report of blackleg in a Holstein bull (비육유에서 발생한 기종저의 병리학적 관찰)

  • Hwang, Eui-Kyung;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Yoon, Soon-Seek;Sohn, Hyun-Joo;Cho, Yun-Sang;Yoo, Han-Sang;Park, Kyung-Ae;Jean, Young-Hwa;Choi, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 1998
  • A fourteen-month-old Holstein bull from a private cattle fattening farm at Ansung county in Kyunggi Province Korea was submitted on August 2nd 1997, for examination at the Pathology Division of the National Veterinary Research Institute. The bull died within 24 hours after developing clinical signs of abrupt inertia, complete anorexia high fever(40.3℃) diffuse severe emphysematous swelling of upper part of the right hind leg lateral recumbancy and paralysis. At necropsy diffuse severe subcutaneous redness and influx of serosanguinous exudate containing gas bubbles had accumulated under the thorax right hip and upper region of right hind leg. Muscles in upper right hind leg were blackish to dark red and yellowish brown in color. Muscle bundles were dry and separated by gas bubbles and serosanguinous fluids and muscles sections from affected regions floated in water. Histopathologically muscle fibers were partially or entirely degenerated fragmented and separated by exudate and gaseous substance mixed with polymorphonuclear cells. Blood vascular walls in affected regions showed severe acute fibrinoid necrosis. Typical large rod-shaped bacteria with or without oval central to subterminal spores were frequently observed in tissue sections stained with H-E and Gram stain. The large Gram-positive anaerobic endospore-producing rods were isolated from the suspension of muscle lesions. Isolated bacteria were identified as Clostridium(CL) chauvoei and CL. sordellii by biochemical tests. This case was diagnosed as blackleg based on the typical clinical signs gross finding histopathological observation and bacteriological results. This is the first case report on blackleg associated with Cl. chauvoei and Cl. sordellii in Holstein cattle in Korea.

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Attempts to Transfer Immunity against Clonorchis in Nude and DS Mice (근교계 nude 및 DS 마우스 폐강삼출세포와 혈청의 간흡충 감염에 대한 면역이입의 시도)

  • Choe, Dong-Ik;Jeong, Dong-Il;Gang, Deok-Hui
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 1991
  • The effects of peritoneal exudate cells(PEC) and sera of athymic nude and DS mice infected with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae or sensitized by injection of metabolic products into footpad on transfer of immunity against the fluke to the syngeneic mice were studied. There was no significant difference in eggs per gram pattern between the sensitized and control groups, and between nude and DS mice. However, the worm burdens were slightly greater in nude mice than in DS mice. Also, a few plaque forming cells were found in only DS mice given PEC and serum from Group II DS mice. In the light of these results, it is likely that PEC and sera of nude or DS mice which are deficient, at least partially, in the cellular immune system are unable to transfer immunity against C. sinensis to syngeneic recipients.

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Effects of Samhwangsasim-tang Gamibang on Atopic Dermatitis in Mice (삼황사심탕가미방(三黃瀉心湯加味方)이 생쥐에 유발된 아토피 피부염에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ho-Chan;Jeong, Min-Yeong;Choi, Jung-Hwa;Park, Soo-Yeon
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.337-347
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is chronic skin disease characterized by allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Samhwangsasim-tang Gamibang(SHSST) can treat skin disease by cooling down blood heat, clearing away congenital fever and detoxicating. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of SHSST on AD induced by oxazolone in mice. Methods : We investigated the effects of SHSST on skin tickness, skin lesions, erythema and melanin index, water content and histopathological changes in vivo. The effects on body weights and spleen body weight ratio were also investigated in mice with AD. Results : In our results, oral administration of SHSST ameliorated skin lesion such as flare, erythema, exudate and petechia and lowered skin thickness induced by oxazolone. In addition, SHSST lowered erythema index and elevated water content compared to AD control respectively. In the histopathological observation, oral administration of SHSST prevented epidermal hyperplasia and spongiotic changes which is a hallmark of skin inflammation respectively. Finally, SHSST did not affect spleen/body weight ratio. Conclusions : These data imply that SHSST can ameliorate skin lesion of AD such as flare, erythema, exudate and petechia, and be used to treat AD patients with relative safety.

A Comparative Study of Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Steroid Compounds Utilizing the 'Granuloma Pouth' Technic (육아종낭법(肉芽腫囊法)('Granuloma pouch' technic)을 이용(利用)한 Steroid 화합물(化合物)의 소염작용(消炎作用) 비교(比較))

  • Lee, Sang-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1 s.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1965
  • There are several methods used for screening and evaluating anti -inflammatory agents. Among these, 'Granuloma pouch' technic introduced by Hans Selye is considered as a simple and reliable method. The procedure of 'Granuloma pouch' technic is as follows: Rats were used as experimental animals. An air pocket was produced in the subcutaneous tissue of the mid-dorsal portion between the shoulders by the injection of 25ml of the air which was immediately followed by injection of 1 ml of 1% croton oil as irritant. Inflammatory exudate accumulated in the pouch during the succeeding 14 days. After sacrificing the rats on the last day of the experiment, the amount of the exudate in the pouch and the weight of the granuloma tissue was measured. The author observed and compared the anti-inflammatory activities of the several steroid compounds when they are given by different methods. 1. In the control rats, the amount of inflammatory fluid and the weight of the granuloma tissue after 14 days were 9ml and 3gm respectively. 2. Injection of hydrocortisone 1.5mg subcutanenusly, 24 hours prior to pouch formation into the area where the pouch is to be formed, successfully prevented the inflammatory processes. 3. Injection of hydrocortisone 1.5mg in the air pocket formed 24 hours prior to croton oil injection was ineffective. 4. Injection of hydrocortisone into the pouch at a distance of 5mm apart from the pouch formation did not prevent the development of inflammation. 5. Anti-inflammatory activities of hydrocortisone administered systematically(injected intramuscularly into the area which is not related to the area of pouch formation) for 10 days were proportional to the doses of hydrocortisone administered. 6. DOCA, testosterone, and progesterone did not show the anti-inflammatory activity.

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