• Title, Summary, Keyword: fat-adsorption

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Cholesterol Removal from Milk Fat by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction in coupled with Adsorption (초임계 이산화탄소 추출 및 흡착에 의한 유지방중의 콜레스테롤 제거)

  • Lim, Sang-Bin;Jwa, Mi-Kyung;Kwak, Hae-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.574-580
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    • 1998
  • The technical feasibility of removing cholesterol from milk fat by supercritical carbon dioxide $(SC-CO_2)$ extraction followed by adsorption on different adsorbents and of fractionating milk fat into different fatty acid composition at $40^{\circ}C/276$ bar was investigated. Cholesterol could be selectively removed from milk fat by adsorption on a typical commercial florisil with $SC-CO_2$ extraction. Lower weight ratio of milk fat feed to florisil showed higher reduction of cholesterol, but gave lower yield in the milk fat fractions. The effective capacity of florisil for removing cholesterol from milk fat was 2.0g/g, which is the ratio of the fat feed to the adsorbent for 89% cholesterol reduction with a fat yield of 57.5%. Fatty acid composition showed higher short-chain and lower unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in the extracted fractions. Milk fat fractionation method by supercritical fluid extraction in coupled with adsorption would appear suitable for removing undesirable ingredients such as cholesterol and for enriching short-chain fatty acids in the fractions.

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Effects of Adsorption Condition on Fat-binding Characteristics of Chitosan (흡착조건이 키토산의 지방질 흡착 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • LEE Keun-Tai;SONG Ho-Su;PARK Seong-Min;KANG Ok-Ju;CHEONG Hyo-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2004
  • To study the lipid adsorption characteristic of chitosans with different molecular weights and the degrees of deacetylation, in vitro test and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis have been performed for the measurement of lipid adsorption characteristics of chitosan. The degrees of deacetylation in chitosans were $70{\%},\;85{\%}\;and\;92{\%}$ at different deacetylation times (1 hr, 2 hrs, 3 hrs), respectively. The molecular weight of each chitosan was controlled by enzymatic hydrolysis, and then the molecular weight of the chitosan was 4 kDa. The bulk density, water holding capacity and fat binding capacity of each chitosan powder were $96.2-504.0{\%},\;374.4-1217.9{\%},\;and\;307.0-659.3{\%}$, respectively. The higher molecular weight of chitosan was exhibited the lower bulk density and the higher water and fat binding capacities. Bindinf capacities of chitosan powders to bile salts, cholesterol and linoleic acid were $41.2-63.3{\%},\;40.8-67.4{\%},\;42.6-72.6{\%}$, respectively. In NIR spectrum of lipid adsorbed chitosan the occurrence static eletronical binding between chitosan and lipid was identified by NIR spectrum peak induced from combination of carboxylic group in lipid and amino group in chitosan. In conclusion, the higher degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan showed the higher lipid binding capacity and the lipid adsorption of chitosan were occurred by combination of carboxylic group in lipids and amino group in chitosan.

Several Functional Properties of Freeze-dried Powder of Pre-concentrated Aloe vera gel (농축 전처리된 Aloe vera gel의 동결건조분말의 기능성)

  • Lee, Nam Jae;Lee, Seung Ju
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.216-220
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    • 2009
  • The several functional properties of freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera gel was examined as influenced by pre-concentration degrees of the gel solution. As a pre-treatment prior to freeze drying, the gel solution was vacuum-concentrated by three levels (unit: g-water/g-solids) - high (H), 76; medium (M), 119; low (L), 159. In FT-IR spectra, the sample H showed the highest absorbance in the range of 1600-1550 $cm^{-1}$ and 1450-1400 $cm^{-1}$, which corresponded to level of the acetyl group in glucomannan. The sample H of freeze-dried powder was the highest in polysaccharide content, jack bean urease inhibition rate, and FAC (fat adsorption capacity). It could be inferred that the sample H had an effect on Helicobacter pylori inhibition and fat adsorption suppression according to urease inhibition rate and FAC, respectively.

Studies on the Immobilization of Lipase by Adsorption Method (흡착법에 의한 Lipase의 고정화)

  • Park, Jong-Hack;Lee, Young-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1985
  • To utilize lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea for lipid hydrolysis, methods to immobilize lipase by adsorption and reaction characteristics of the immobilized lipase by adsorption were investigated. Among the tested adsorbents, silica gel was selected as a suitable adsorbent. The optimum condition for adsorption of lipase was when 47.5 units of lipase were adsorbed to 1.6g of silica gel at pH7.0 and $5^{\circ}C$ for 100 min. Optimum pH and temperature for activity of the immobilized lipase were at $37^{\circ}C$ and pH7.0, which were same as the soluble lipase. Optimum enzyme concentration of the immobilized lipase were 30g for milk fat and 80g for olive oil, whereas those of the soluble lipase were 800 units for milk fat and 1200 units for olive oil. The optimum substrate concentrations of the immobilized and soluble lipases were 20% lipid, regardless of lipid types. Rapid hydrolysis of milk fat was observed with the soluble lipase for the initial 4 hours and with the immobilized lipase for the initial 8 hours. The immobilized lipase produced same amount of capric acid as the soluble lipase, but more myristic acid and less butyric acid than the soluble lipase.

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Emulsifying Properties of Bovine Lactoferrin in Food Emulsion System (식품 유화액 시스템에서 락토페린의 유화 특성)

  • Bae, Jae-Seok;Kim, Jeong-Won;Jeong, Yong-Seon;Lee, Eui-Seok;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.779-789
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to investigate the emulsifying properties of bovine lactoferrin in food emulsion system. First, lactoferrin solution was prepared to study its surface activities, such as surface adsorption characteristics and ${\zeta}$-potential. Second, some physicochemical properties of lactoferrin emulsion which resulted from variations of environmental conditions (i.e., pH or NaCl addition) were determined. As for surface adsorption characteristics evaluated by surface tension, it was decreased with increasing lactoferrin concentration in solution ($1{\times}10^{-5}{\rightarrow}0.2wt%$) and showed a plateau (${\fallingdotseq}44$mN/m) above 0.01 wt%. It was also changed with pH and the minimum value of 53.8 mM/m was observed at pI of lactoferrin. This was related to changes in ${\zeta}$-potential of the lactoferrin solution with respect to pH. Fat globule size of lactoferrin emulsion was decreased with increasing lactoferrin concentration and a stable emulsion was formed above 0.5 wt% lactoferrin in emulsion with fat globule size $d_{32}$ of ca. 0.33 ${\mu}m$ as confirmed by creaming stability experiment (i.e., Turbiscan). As with surface tension, fat globule size of lactoferrin emulsion also changed with pH and showed a maximum value at pI. As evaluated by Turbiscan, in the presence of NaCl, the lactoferrin emulsion showed instability in particular above 10 mM.

Food Functionalities of Dried Fish Protein Powder (건조 어육 단백질 분말의 식품학적 기능성)

  • Choi, Gyeong-Lim;Hong, Yu-Mi;Lee, Keun-Woo;Choi, Young-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1394-1398
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    • 2006
  • Functionalities of drum-dried fish muscle protein from pH shifting process have been investigated by determining solubility, emulsion activity, rehydration, fat-adsorption capacity, viscosity, and color. Solubility was higher in recovered protein at pH 7.0 than that at pH 5.5, and not dependent on ionic strength. Solubility of the dried protein recovered at pH 7.0 depended on pH of solvent, and lowest in the range of pH 3 to pH 6. The dried protein showed relatively low emulsion capacity in all the samples. Emulsion stability, foam capacity and foam stability were not observed in the samples. Viscosity was in the range of $50,200\sim39,000cP$. Rehydration and fat-binding capacities were $2.63\sim2.89g$-water/g and $2.13\sim2.17g$-oil/g, respectively, and not dependent on particle size and pH. Drum-dried fish muscle protein has a potential application as an ingredient of meat patty products.

Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified β-Glucan from Barley (옥테닐 호박산 베타글루칸의 유화 특성)

  • Gil, Na-Young;Kim, San-Seong;Park, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Eui-Seok;Lee, Ki-Teak;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2015
  • We investigated the emulsifying properties of barley octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-${\beta}$-glucan, such as changes in the fat globule size and zeta-potential as influenced by pH or the addition of NaCl. Additional experiments to fabricate a suitable co-surfactant system were also performed. We found that the fat globule size in OSA-${\beta}$-glucan emulsions increased upon lowering the pH (i.e., under acidic conditions) or increasing the NaCl concentration. These results were confirmed through microscopic observation. Co-surfactant hydrophilic Tween 20 was found to be suitable for the OSA-${\beta}$-glucan emulsion, which facilitated the formation of smaller fat globules and enhanced the creaming stability when it was added in >0.2 wt% concentration. From the results of the surface load of OSA-${\beta}$-glucan in emulsions, Tween 20 addition enhanced the stability probably by the co-adsorption of the two surfactants at the droplet surface.

A study on the development of high functional food protein ingredient from rice bran (고기능성 쌀단백질 소재 개발 연구)

  • Lee, Eui-Suk;Kim, Ki-Jong;Kim, Jae-Hyeon;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2010
  • Rice bran proteins from different cultivars(Youngan, Sindongjin, Suwon 511) were extracted with Xylanase using orthogonal analysis method and their functional properties were investigated. The optimum extraction conditions, based on protein content in the extract found to be at 1 wt% xylanase, pH 7 and 50:1, solvent to rice bran ratio(v/w %). Nitrogen solubility indices(NSI) of rice bran protein concentrates were shown a minimum value at pH 4 ranged 2~23%, varied with different cultivars and a maximum (NSI${\geq}$90% for all cultivars) at pH 10. As for water adsorption and fat adsorption capacity, rice bran protein concentrates were shown to be better than Na-caseinate and isolated soy protein, respectively. Emulsifying activities were observed high in order of Na-caseinate>Youngan rice bran protein>Shindongjin rice bran protein>Suwon 511 rice bran protein>isolated soy protein. In general, the surface tension of rice bran protein solution($10^{-3}$ wt%, 5 mM bis-tris, pH 7) was increased with increasing concentrations and found a minimum value near pI. On heating, it was decreased slightly with increasing temperatures up to $70^{\circ}C$ and then increased above $80^{\circ}C$. Addition of sodium chloride was made the surface tension decrease. In conclusion, with Xylanase, rice bran protein concentrate can be successfully extracted from the rice bran of different cultivars and the Youngan rice bran protein was thought to have best functionality among rice cultivars tested. It might be used as a milk protein substitute.

Physicochemical Properties of Isolated Peptides from Hwangtae (yellowish dried pollack) Protein Hydrolysate

  • Cho, San-Soon;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Han, Chi-Won;Seong, Eun-Soo;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Myong-Jo;Kim, Na-Young;Kang, Wie-Soo;Ko, Sang-Hoon;Son, Eun-Hwa;Choung, Myoung-Gun;Lim, Jung-Dae
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.204-211
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    • 2008
  • Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis by treatment with alcalase, pronase, flavourzyme and trypsin and isolated peptide were prepared from Hwangtae (yellow dried pollack, Theragra chalcogramma). Hwangtae protein hydrolysate was fractionated according to the molecular weight into six major types of APO1 (1.3 kDa), APO2 (1 kDa), APO3 (<1 kDa), APACE (<1 kDa), APG1 (70 kDa) and APG2 (70 kDa) isolated from the hydrolysate using consecutive chromatographic methods. Soluble peptide were produced from Hwangtae and evaluated for their nutritional and functional properties. Some functional properties of FPHs were assessed and compared with those of egg albumin or the soybean protein. APO2 had the highest nitrogen solubility value (94.2%), emulsion capacity and emulsion stability of the Alaska Pollack peptide ranged from 12.4 to 39.5 (mL of oil per 200 mg of protein) and 44.0% to 77.5%, respectively. Highest and lowest fat adsorption values were observed for APG1 (9.9 mL of oil per gram of protein) and APO3 (3.8 mL of oil per gram of protein), respectively.

Anti-Obesity Effect of Red Garlic Composites in Rats Fed a High Fat-Cholesterol Diet (고지방-콜레스테롤 식이성 흰쥐에서 홍마늘 복합물의 항비만 효과)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Kang, Jae-Ran;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.671-680
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    • 2012
  • Three kinds of dietary composites-R+T, R+F, and R+TF-were combined in green tea (T), dietary fiber (F), and green tea dietary fiber mixture (TF) to red garlic extract (RG), respectively. The effects of their diets on anti-obesity were investigated $in$ $vitro$ and $in$ $vitro$ in obese rats induced high fat-cholesterol. In $in$ $vivo$ rats, the total phenolic content of the R+T and R+TF was 1.9~2.0 times higher, and their total cholesterol adsorption was 9.5~11.5 times higher than that of RG. $In$ $vivo$, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (Normal, HFC, HRG, HR+T, HR+F and HR+TF). Afterwards, the diets of the HRG, HR+T, HR+F, and HR+TF groups were supplemented with 1% of RG and its dietary composites (R+T, R+F, and R+TF) for 4 weeks, respectively. The final body weight of the HRG, HR+T, HR+F, and HR+TF groups decreased significantly compared to the group fed high fat-cholesterol (HFC), but the food efficiency ratio was not significantly different from the HFC group. The liver weight of the HFC group doubled compared to the normal group, whereas that of HR+T and HR+TF groups decreased significantly. The weight of visceral and epididymal fat decreased significantly in the groups fed the composites compared to the HFC group. The obesity index of HR+TF group decreased significantly only when compared to the HFC group. The serum lipid profile such as total lipids, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol, as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factors decreased drastically in all experimental groups compared to the HFC group, and the levels of HR+T, HR+F and HR+TF groups were a similar trend. GPT activity was not significantly different among the groups fed the composites, and it decreased significantly in the HRG group. The content of the lipid peroxide level decreased significantly in the HRG group and in the groups fed the composites, compared to the HFC group. Serum antioxidant activity was the highest in the HR+T group. We suggest that the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effect of the RG composites, achieved by mixing green tea extract and/or dietary fiber, was due to their total phenolic content and total cholesterol adsorption effect.