• Title, Summary, Keyword: fecal microbiota

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Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection Cured With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonized Patient

  • Jang, Mi-Ok;An, Jun Hwan;Jung, Sook-In;Park, Kyung-Hwa
    • Intestinal research
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.80-84
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    • 2015
  • The rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infections, including pseudomembranous colitis, have increased markedly. However, there are few effective treatments for refractory or recurrent C. difficile infections and the outcomes are poor. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in patients with recurrent disease, likely due to the restoration of a disrupted microbiome. Cure rates of >90% are being consistently reported from multiple centers. We cured a case of severe refractory C. difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation in a patient colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

Recent Update in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (Fecal Microbiota Transplantation의 최근 동향)

  • Kim, Haejin;Kang, Kyungmin;Kim, Sujin;Im, Eunok
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.265-274
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    • 2014
  • Gut microbiota is a group of microorganisms that resides in the intestine and serves many important functions in human health. Using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis, a wide variety of bacteria in human gastrointestinal tract has been identified along with intriguing findings that there is a different bacterial composition among individuals. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure of stool transplantation from healthy donors to patients suffering from various diseases. Specifically, FMT is able to alter the composition of gut microbiota of recipients and therefore could be an effective treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal diseases including recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Here we review a list of human diseases related to gut microbiota disturbance and the case studies of FMT. We also summarize medicines and diagnostic tools that are under development. Therefore, gut microbiota can be a next generation's biotherapy for promotion of health and treatment of chronic diseases.

Safety and effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation: a systematic review (대변 세균총 이식의 안전성 및 유효성: 체계적 문헌고찰)

  • Kim, Soyoung;Lee, Yeowool;Kim, Seok-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    • v.60 no.9
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    • pp.761-768
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    • 2017
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation is a technique for treating patients suffering from Clostridium difficile infection who do not positively respond to traditional treatment with antibiotics or whose infections have recurred, by transplanting the feces of healthy individuals. The objective of this review is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation. A literature search was conducted using 8 Korean databases, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Of the 1,410 articles that were initially identified, 30 studies were included in this review. The results show that the incidence of major complications was low and that mild complications resolved. Improvements in the symptoms of diarrhea after treatment were observed and the rate of recurrence was acceptable. On the basis of the current data, fecal microbiota transplantation can be considered a safe and effective technique for treating patients suffering from C. difficile infection who do not positively respond to traditional treatment with antibiotics or whose infections have recurred.

Microbiome Study of Initial Gut Microbiota from Newborn Infants to Children Reveals that Diet Determines Its Compositional Development

  • Ku, Hye-Jin;Kim, You-Tae;Lee, Ju-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1067-1071
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    • 2020
  • To understand the formation of initial gut microbiota, three initial fecal samples were collected from two groups of two breast milk-fed (BM1) and seven formula milk-fed (FM1) infants, and the compositional changes in gut microbiota were determined using metagenomics. Compositional change analysis during week one showed that Bifidobacterium increased from the first to the third fecal samples in the BM1 group (1.3% to 35.1%), while Klebsiella and Serratia were detected in the third fecal sample of the FM1 group (4.4% and 34.2%, respectively), suggesting the beneficial effect of breast milk intake. To further understand the compositional changes during progression from infancy to childhood (i.e., from three weeks to five years of age), additional fecal samples were collected from four groups of two breast milk-fed infants (BM2), one formula milk-fed toddler (FM2), three weaning food-fed toddlers (WF), and three solid food-fed children (SF). Subsequent compositional change analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota changed from an infant-like composition to an adult-like one in conjunction with dietary changes. Interestingly, overall gut microbiota composition analyses during the period of progression from infancy to childhood suggested increasing complexity of gut microbiota as well as emergence of a new species of bacteria capable of digesting complex carbohydrates in WF and SF groups, substantiating that diet type is a key factor in determining the composition of gut microbiota. Consequently, this study may be useful as a guide to understanding the development of initial gut microbiota based on diet.

Comparison of Gut Microbiota between Lean and Obese Adult Thai Individuals

  • Jinatham, Vasana;Kullawong, Niwed;Kespechara, Kongkiat;Gentekaki, Eleni;Popluechai, Siam
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2018
  • Current reports suggest that obesity is a serious global health issue. Emerging evidence has predicted strong links between obesity and the human gut microbiota. However, only a few such studies have been conducted in Asia, and the gut microbiota of lean and obese adult Asians remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the potential relationship between gut microbiota, body massindex (BMI), and metabolic parameters in adults from Thailand, where obesity is increasing rapidly. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 42 volunteers who were allocated into lean, overweight, and obese groups. The fecal microbiota was examined by quantitative PCR analysis. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Staphylococcus spp. and methanogens were most abundant in lean volunteers. Overweight volunteers majorly harbored Christensenella minuta and Akkermansia muciniphila, ${\gamma}-Proteobacteria$, and bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus. Methanogens and bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes were negatively correlated with adiposity markers (BMI and waist circumference), but positive correlated with high-density lipoprotein, suggesting that they can be used as leanness markers. While some of our results agree with those of previous reports, results regarding the contributions of specific taxa to obesity were inconsistent. This is the first study to report the adult gut microbiota in Southeast Asian populations using molecular techniques and biochemical markers and provides a foundation for future studies in this field.

Failure of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Three-Year-Old Child with Severe Refractory Ulcerative Colitis

  • Kumagai, Hideki;Yokoyama, Koji;Imagawa, Tomoyuki;Inoue, Shun;Tulyeu, Janyerkye;Tanaka, Mamoru;Yamagata, Takanori
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2016
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment designed to correct gut dysbiosis by administration of feces from a healthy volunteer. It is still unclear whether FMT for children with ulcerative colitis (UC) is effective or hazardous. Here we describe a young patient to have received FMT for UC. A three-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe active UC, and treated with aminosalicylates and various immunosuppressive drugs. As remission was not achieved, we decided to try FMT before colectomy. We administered donor fecal material a total of six times by retention enema (${\times}2$) and via a nasoduodenal tube (${\times}4$) within 10 days. The patient developed abdominal pain and pyrexia after each FMT session. Analyses revealed the transferred donor fecal microbiota had not been retained by the patient, who ultimately underwent colectomy. The severity of the UC and/or timing of FMT may have partly accounted for the poor outcome.

Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

  • Song, D.J.;Kang, H.Y.;Wang, J.Q.;Peng, H.;Bu, D.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2014
  • The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with $0.5{\times}10^{11}cfu$ as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with $1.0{\times}10^{11}cfu$ as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, $NH_3$-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal $NH_3$-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

Development of a Novel Long-Range 16S rRNA Universal Primer Set for Metagenomic Analysis of Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Newborn Infants

  • Ku, Hye-Jin;Lee, Ju-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.812-822
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    • 2014
  • Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiota has extended our understanding of the role of these bacteria in improving human intestinal health; however, a number of reports have shown that current total fecal DNA extraction methods and 16S rRNA universal primer sets could affect the species coverage and resolution of these analyses. Here, we improved the extraction method for total DNA from human fecal samples by optimization of the lysis buffer, boiling time (10 min), and bead-beating time (0 min). In addition, we developed a new long-range 16S rRNA universal PCR primer set targeting the V6 to V9 regions with a 580 bp DNA product length. This new 16S rRNA primer set was evaluated by comparison with two previously developed 16S rRNA universal primer sets and showed high species coverage and resolution. The optimized total fecal DNA extraction method and newly designed long-range 16S rRNA universal primer set will be useful for the highly accurate metagenomic analysis of adult and infant intestinal microbiota with minimization of any bias.

The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs

  • Xiao, Yingping;Li, Kaifeng;Xiang, Yun;Zhou, Weidong;Gui, Guohong;Yang, Hua
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.1456-1463
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Methods: The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Results: A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Conclusion: Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman's rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Patients with Refractory Very Early Onset Ulcerative Colitis

  • Yodoshi, Toshifumi;Hurt, Thomas L.
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.355-360
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    • 2018
  • Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been attracting attention as a possible medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). A randomized controlled trial of FMT for children with UC is currently underway. Therapeutic effects of FMT for adults with UC remain controversial. We report two cases of early-onset UC in children. A patient was diagnosed with UC at age 1-year 9-month and underwent FMT at age 2-year 3-month. He attained clinical remission for three weeks after FMT, but then relapsed at four weeks, ultimately undergoing a total colectomy. Another child was diagnosed with UC at 2-year 10-month and she underwent FMT at age 5 years. She has remained in clinical remission following FMT for 24 months and her UC has been maintained without complications with tacrolimus and azathioprine. We report that FMT for early-onset UC appears to be safe and potentially effective.