• Title, Summary, Keyword: fermentation

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Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Fermented Rhodiola sachalinensis and Korean Red Ginseng Mixture by Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus을 이용한 홍경천과 홍삼 혼합 발효물의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Sung, Su-Kyung;Rhee, Young-Kyung;Cho, Chang-Won;Kim, Young-Chan;Lee, OK-Hwan;Hong, Hee-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.358-365
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    • 2013
  • The study was conducted to investigate the condition for mixed fermentation of Rhodilola sachalinensis with red ginseng using Lactobacillus acidophillus 128 and the changes of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities before and after the lactic acid fermentation was examined. In the single fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis extract, the pH and titratable acidity rarely changed, and the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased greatly. On the other hand, in the lactic acid fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract of 50% red ginseng content, the pH decreased, whereas the titratable acidity and the number of lactic acid bacteria increased. The solid content of optimal mixed extract for lactic acid fermentation was 0.5%. Sugar content decreased during fermentation, but total phenolic compounds tended to increase during fermentation. The salidroside and p-tyrosol content of the initial Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract was 419.5 mg% and 60.1 mg%, respectively; after fermentation, the salidroside content after lactic acid fermentation decreased greatly to 81.8 mg%, and the amount of p-tyrosol increased greatly to 324.9 mg%. The DPPH scavenging activity of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed fermentate was 78.1% at 0.1% concentration, showing a tendency to increase as compared to 50.3% of Rhodiola sachalinensis-red ginseng mixed extract before the fermentation (p<0.05); it was a higher antioxidant activity as compared to the single fermentation of Rhodiola sachalinensis or red ginseng.

Antioxidant Activity and Component Change of Steaming-Drying and Fermented Gastrodiae Rhizoma (증포 천마 발효물의 항산화 활성 및 성분변화)

  • Doh, Eun-Soo;Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Kil, Ki-Jung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : The objective of this study is to evaluate antioxidant activity and the main component content change of steaming-drying fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma extract. Methods : The antioxidant activities were determined for total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, SOD-like activity, electron donating activity, nitrite scavenging ability and major functional components(gastrodin and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol content) were also measured. Results : The polyphenol content of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma by S. cerevisiae were higher than those of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma by A. oryzae, and when the fermentation period is extended. SOD like activity of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma showed to be increased by fermentation with S. cerevisiae than fermentation by A. oryzae. Electron donating activity of fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma were increased at almost parallel level as vitamin C, by fermentation. Notably, fermentation by A. oryzae was moderately better than fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Flavonoid content of Gastrodiae rhizoma showed to increasing by fermentation, particularly fermentation by S. cerevisiae was proven to be more effective than by A. oryzae. The more steaming-drying or increased period of fermentation would be resulted in more gastrodin contents but under the same conditions, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol content of fermentation by A. oryzae in case of steaming and drying 1 time and 3 time was higher than control. Conclusions : These results has strongly hint the possible applicability of fermentation might be effective to improve the diverse biological activities of Gastrodiae rhizoma and may further supports to develop a functional food materials.

Changes in the Microbial Community of the Mottled Skate (Beringraja pulchra) during Alkaline Fermentation

  • Park, Jongbin;Kim, Soo Jin;Kim, Eun Bae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1195-1206
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    • 2020
  • Beringraja pulchra, Cham-hong-eo in Korean, is a mottled skate which is belonging to the cartilaginous fish. Although this species is economically valuable in South Korea as an alkaline-fermented food, there are few microbial studies on such fermentation. Here, we analyzed microbial changes and pH before, during, and after fermentation and examined the effect of inoculation by a skin microbiota mixture on the skate fermentation (control vs. treatment). To analyze microbial community, the V4 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from the skates were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. During the skate fermentation, pH and total number of marine bacteria increased in both groups, while microbial diversity decreased after fermentation. Pseudomonas, which was predominant in the initial skate, declined by fermentation (Day 0: 11.39 ± 5.52%; Day 20: 0.61 ± 0.9%), while the abundance of Pseudoalteromonas increased dramatically (Day 0: 1.42 ± 0.41%; Day 20: 64.92 ± 24.15%). From our co-occurrence analysis, the Pseudoalteromonas was positively correlated with Aerococcaceae (r = 0.638) and Moraxella (r = 0.474), which also increased with fermentation, and negatively correlated with Pseudomonas (r = -0.847) during fermentation. There are no critically significant differences between control and treatment. These results revealed that the alkaline fermentation of skates dramatically changed the microbiota, but the initial inoculation by a skin microbiota mixture didn't show critical changes in the final microbial community. Our results extended understanding of microbial interactions and provided the new insights of microbial changes during alkaline fermentation.

Changes in the Properties of Protein during the Fermentation of Salted Shrimp (새우젓 숙성중의 단백질 특성변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Byung-Mook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.883-889
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    • 1988
  • The salted small shrimps(Acetes japonicus) were fermented for 3 months at room temperature. During the period of fermentation, the changes of shrimp protein properties were determined. The extractability of soluble protein was slightly decreased in 1 month fermentation, but thereafter increased. The contents of 10% TCA soluble fraction were gradually increased during 3 month fermentation, and the rate of 10% TCA soluble fraction/total soluble protein was also greatly increased during the period of fermentation. Sephadex G-100 gel filtration pattern was changed after 1 month fermentation, showing the disappearance of low molecular weight protein peaks, the decomposition and the delay of elution time of main shrimp protein peaks. Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis patterns showed the degradation of main protein bands into lots of smaller bands after 1 month fermentation. The contents of total free amino acids were slightly decreased in 1 month fermentation and then gradually increased during the Period of fermentation. The rate of free amino acids/soluble protein was steadily increased during the period of fermentation, but the rate of free amino acids/10% TCA soluble fraction was decreased continually during the period of fermentation. The contents of most free amino acids were increased during the period of fermentation, but those of histidine and arginine were greatly decreased in 1 month fermentation. Ammonia was increased after 1 month fermentation. The pH value of salted shrimp was slowly changed during 3 months of fermentation, showing increase from 7.8 to 8.2.

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Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Burdock Vinegar Using Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 우엉식초 발효조건 최적화)

  • Kim, Yi-Seul;Kim, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.986-996
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we optimized fermentation conditions for burdock vinegar by response surface methodology. We confirmed the fermentation characteristics and major components of burdock vinegar. Alcohol fermentation of burdock extract added with 15% apple concentrates for vinegar production was performed. Consequently, 6.4% alcohol was produced after 5 days of fermentation. Central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of two independent variables, fermentation time (5~17 days; X1) and fermentation temperature ($26{\sim}34^{\circ}C$; X2), on fermentation of burdock vinegar. Fermentation conditions were optimized using characteristics of fermentation broth as a dependent variable. Acetic acid contents of dependent variables were 3.85~4.73% during acetic acid fermentation. The correlation coefficient ($R^2$) of the derived equation from the response surface regression for acetic acid contents was 0.9850 with significance level of 1%. Arctiin contents of all fermentation samples were 0.37~0.50 mg/100 mL, with an $R^2$ value of 0.8380 and significance level of 5%. We elicited a regression equation for each variable and superimposed the optimum area of fermentation conditions for characteristics and effective constituent contents of the fermentation broth. The predicted values for the optimum fermentation conditions for burdock vinegar were at $31^{\circ}C$ and 16 days.

Variation in the functional compounds of molten salt Kimchi during fermentation

  • Park, Kyubeen;Kim, Yeonmi;Kim, Jae-Han;Park, Jong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2019
  • To produce a high-quality Kimchi product, molten salt was used for the Kimchi. Changes in the physiochemical properties and functional compounds were analyzed during fermentation. The salinity of bay salt Kimchi was higher than that of the molten salt Kimchi. The fermentation speed of the lactic acid bacteria in the molten salt Kimchi was significantly faster. To evaluate the effects of the salts on the changes in the functional compounds during fermentation, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonols, phenolic acids, and glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage were analyzed. In the first 9 days, antioxidants were decreased during this fermentation period and then, increased after that. TPC was slightly increased for all the conditions after 40 days fermentation. Kaempferol was a major flavonol but had a relatively larger decrease in the molten salt Kimchi than in the bay salt samples. Phenolic acid did not show any significant difference among the samples. The glucosinolate contents were significantly decreased in all the conditions of Kimchi during the fermentation period. Consequently, the molten salt greatly affected the fermentation speed of Kimchi and the total characteristics of the Kimchi lactic acid bacteria. Although the functional compounds of Chinese cabbage were decreased during the fermentation of Kimchi, this decrease did not profoundly deteriorate the food quality. Therefore, high-quality Kimchi with enhanced bioactivity will be available if appropriate Chinese cabbages that have enhanced functional compounds are used.

Optimization of the Vinegar Fermentation Using Concentrated Apple Juice (농축 사과주스를 이용한 식초 발효조건의 최적화)

  • 서지형;이기동;정용진
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.460-465
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    • 2001
  • To prepare vinegar using concentration apple juice, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize and monitor the vinegar fermentation properties by two stage fermentation. In the first stage, the optimum conditions for maximum alcohol contents were 18.56。Brix of initial sugar concentration, 61.96 rpm of agitation rate and 67.32 hr of fermentation time. The optimum condition for maximum acidity in the second stage (vinegar fermentation) were 201.53 rpm of agitation rate and 179.42 hr of fermentation time. Malic acid content was the highest and its content little changed during acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid content increased a little during alcohol fermentation. Acetic acid content apparently increased during acetic acid fermentation.

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Sensory Evaluations of Characteristics in Toha-Jeot Added Cabbage Kimchi during the Fermentation by Koreans and Japanese (토하젓 첨가 배추김치의 숙성 중 한국인과 일본인의 관능적 특성 평가)

  • 박영희;이성숙;정난희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.432-438
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the sensory characteristics of Toha-jeot added cabbage kimchi by Koreans and Japanese. The sensory evaluation was conducted for the following 9 items such as color, savory taste, carbonated taste, sour taste, hot taste, salty taste, off flavor, texture and overall preference. Sensory evaluation of kimchi was tested by Koreans or Japanese whose ages vary from 30 to 50 years old and each group had 25~30 evaluators. Kimchi at different stages of fermentation day 0, 10 and 18th was evaluated. Saltiness of kimchi was 1.5~2.1% through the fermentation period and pH of kimchis was decreased from pH 5.4~5.6 to 4.3~4.4 during the fermentation. The sensory evaluation of Toha-jeot added cabbage kimchi by Koran and Japanese showed the differences in evaluation as the fermentation proceeded. The color, texture and overall preference of Toha-jeot added cabbage kimchi fermentation for 10th days was scored significantly high by Korean group while the score for the savory taste was increased as the fermentation proceeded. The hot taste preference of Toha-jeot added cabbage kimchi fermented 18th days scored significantly high and also increased as the fermentation proceeded by Japanese group. The overall preference of Toha-jeot added cabbage kimchi by Japanese group was higher than that of control cabbage kimchi tested at 10 and 18th days fermentation.

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A Study on the Dextran Formation and Inner Structure of Jeung-Pyun during the Fermentation by the Added Chitosan-Oligosaccharide (키토산 올리고당 첨가 증편 발효 중 Dextran 형성과 증편의 내부구조에 관한 연구)

  • 남태희;우경자
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate the dextran formation and the internal structure of the chitosan-oligisaccharide(COS) Jeung-Pyun during the fermentation. To develop a functional Jeung-Pyun, COS was added to the rice at the level of 0, 2, 4, and 6% to the 2-hour-soaked rice. The pH, dextran and reducing sugar contents of COS batter, specific volume and the internal structure of COS were analyzed as a function of fermentation time. The specific volume of COS peaked at the 3 hour fermentation. The pH values of COS batters reduced with the fermentation time. The dextran content of the control batters peaked at the 7 hour fermentation. In contrast, the dextran contents of COS batters reduced up to 7th hour of fermentation, and then increased slowly until 20th hour of the fermentation process. From the air pore size and distribution of COS observed by SEM, the COS fermented fur 3 hour was judged as the best. It was concluded that COS prevented the fermation of dextran at the early stage of fermentation process.

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Fungal Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Itaconic and Fumaric Acid Production

  • Jimenez-Quero, A.;Pollet, E.;Zhao, M.;Marchioni, E.;Averous, L.;Phalip, V.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • The production of high-value chemicals from natural resources as an alternative for petroleum-based products is currently expanding in parallel with biorefinery. The use of lignocellulosic biomass as raw material is promising to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. Filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergillus species, are already used industrially to produce organic acid as well as many enzymes. The production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes opens the possibility for direct fungal fermentation towards organic acids such as itaconic acid (IA) and fumaric acid (FA). These acids have wide-range applications and potentially addressable markets as platform chemicals. However, current technologies for the production of these compounds are mostly based on submerged fermentation. This work showed the capacity of two Aspergillus species (A. terreus and A. oryzae) to yield both acids by solid-state fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. FA was optimally produced at by A. oryzae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (0.54 mg/g wheat bran). The yield of 0.11 mg IA/g biomass by A. oryzae is the highest reported in the literature for simultaneous solid-state fermentation without sugar supplements.