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Physicochemical properties of Dongchimi added with . Jasoja(Perillae semen) (자소자첨가 동치미의 이화학적 특성)

  • 황재희;장명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.555-564
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    • 2001
  • The optional ingredient jasoja(Perillae semen) was adopted to improve Dongchimi in qualify during fermentation The final weight percentage of jasoja in Dongchimi was adjusted to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0% Per radish. Physicochemical characteristics were determined during fermentation for 45 days at 10$^{\circ}C$. As the fermentation of Dongchimi proceeded, the pH decreased with the increase of total acidity; however, the decreasing rate was slowed down by increasing the level of jasoja. The delayed pH drop of Dongchimi was limited only for the initial period of fermentation and the ultimate pH became almost comparable even for the 1% treatment. The total vitamin C content increased initially to a certain level depending on the level of jasoja, and then decreased later. Dongchimi with 0.5% jasoja contained the highest level of total vitamin C and reducing sugars. In case of 1% treatment, the typical pattern of an initial high content followed by a gradual decrease in reducing sugar was destroyed by a rapid fermentation at the later stage. Turbidity level, along with total solid contents of the liquid part of Dongchimi increased in all treatments as the fermentation proceeded although the extent was rather suppressed by jasoja. As a result of fermentation, the colorimetric lightness values decreased, with the intial increase followed by the decrease at a certain point in redness and yellowness and the increase in color difference values (ΔE). Overall, fermentation with 0.5% jasoja for 11 to 30 days appeared to improve the quality of Dongchimi.

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Study on the Dextran and the Inside Structure of Jeung-Pyun of Adding Soybean (콩 첨가 증편의 Dextran과 내부구조에 관한 연구)

  • 신광숙;우경자
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2001
  • Jeung-Pyun Is a traditional fermented Korean food made with rice flour, water, sugar salt and unrefined rice wine(Tak-ju). In order to investigate how the addition of soybean and dextran have an influence on Jeung-Pyun fermentation and forming structure of Jeun-Pyun, adding soybean 20% and dextran 1%based on rice weight, we measured physicochemical properties. Also we measured dextran content of Jeung-Pyun batter according to the fermentation time and observed the inside of Jeung-Pyun by SEM in order to find out air pore condition. The dextran content of rice Jeung-Pyun and Jeung-Pyun adding soybean 20% was gradually increased as fermentation time was longer and Jeung-Pyun adding soybean 20% was higher than rice Jeung-Pyun. The specific volume of rice Jeung-Pyun and Jeung-Pyun adding soybean 20% was increased up to a fermentation time of 7~ 10 hours but it was decreased as fermentation time was longer. In the inside structure of Jeung-Pyun observed by SEM, the fermentation condition of Jeung-Pyun fermented for 3 and 7 hour was better and air pore size became larger, the number of it was decreased as fermentation time was longer. The air pore size of soybean 20% Jeung-Pyun is smaller more uniform than that of rice Jeung-Pyun. In conclusion. it can be suggested that the audition of soybean improves the quality of Jeung-Pyun and dextran has an influence on fermentation and forming structure of Jeung-Pyun.

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A Study on the Fermentation Characteristics of Garbages by the C/N Ratio Control using Kudzu Creeper and Sawdust (칡넝쿨 및 톱밥을 이용한 C/N비 조절에 따른 음식물찌꺼기의 발효특성에 관한 연구)

  • 박진식;안철우;문추연
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2000
  • In this study, to determine the optimum fermentation process for the feed production of food wastes and estimate the practical value of fermented feed using kudzu creeper and sawdust as bulking agent. This study considered initial C/N ratio control as the fermentation process variables. The result are summarized as follows. Minimum water contents of byproducts in the fermentation feed production showed 39%(kudzu), 37%(sawdust) at the C/N ratio 25 and 45%(kudzu, sawdust) at the C/N ratio 35. Temperature variations in the fermentation feed production at the C/N ratio 25 indicated $68^{\circ}C$(kudzu), $70^{\circ}C$(sawdust). Optimum condition of fermentation process of water content, C/N ratio and permeability (porous structure of the mixture). For optimum fermentation gravitationally dewatered garbage, the proper mixing ratios of kudzu(moisture contents : 17.3%) and sawdust(moisture contents : 13.2%) were 41% and 39%, respectively. Major biological reaction in the aerobic fermentation feed production occurred during 12~24hrs.

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Changes in Mineral, Pigment, Texture, Sensory Score and Microflora during Fermentation of Gat(Leaf Mustard)-Kimchi (갓김치 숙성 중의 무기질, 색소, 조직, 관능 및 미생물군의 변화)

  • 박석규;전순실
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 1995
  • In order to obtain basic data for the development of Gat-Kimchi, a salted and fermented lear mustard, changes in mineral, pigment, texture, sensory score and microflora during fermentation at 5$\pm$2$^{\circ}C$ were investigated. Changes in mineral, including iron, calcium and potassium were obviously shown and their contents were markedly decreased after 14 days of fermentation. Contents of total chlorophyll and carotenoid were slowly decreased after 6 and 10 days of fermentation, respectively and ratios of chlorophyll a/b were not changed and similar to those of other cruciferous vegetable Kimchi during fermentation. Shear force of Gat-Kimchi in rheometer during fermentation was increased. The sourness and hardness(p<0.05) of Gat-Kimchi after 24 days of fermentation were significant different in sensory evaluation with no significant difference in off-flavor, color and hotness. Compared with other Kimchi, taste of Gat-Kimchi was desirably kept for 54 days of fermentation. Total viable count and lactic acid bcateria(Genus Lactobacillus) observed to be Increased in the range of 18 to 24 days and yeasts to be gradually increased during overall period of fermentation.

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A Study on Habak-kimchi added Fresh Ginseng (수삼을 첨가한 나박김치에 관한 연구)

  • 임희정;신승미;최윤정;권혜순;염초애
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.346-352
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fresh ginseng on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Nabak-kimchi during 33 day fermentation. Nabak-kimchi with the various levels (0, 2, 4, 6%) of fresh ginseng were fermented at 4$^{\circ}C$. During the fermentation, pH was lowered in all Nabak-kimchi samples and pH of Nabak-kimchi added fresh ginseng was a little lower than that of Nabak-kimchi without fresh ginseng. Acidity increased continuously during the entire fermentation. Saltiness was maintained at 1.60-1.67% levels during the whole fermentation. Total vitamin C contents increased drastically on the first day of fermentation and decreased after the first day and then increased during 21-24 day fermentation. Total bacteria increased rapidly at the beginning of fermentation and reached its maximum number on 6th day offermentation and then decreased slowly. Total bacteria of Nabak-kimchi added fresh ginseng was highly main-tained during the entire fermentation periods. As a result of the sensory evaluation, Nabak-kimchi added 4% fresh ginseng was the most palatable one.

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Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Anchovy Added Kimchi (멸치를 첨가한 김치의 물리화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • 문갑순;류복미;전영수;송영선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.460-469
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    • 1996
  • This study was intended to observe the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of anchovy added kimchi during fermentation at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks. Salting of Chinese cabbage for 10 hours at 10% brine solution was turned out to be appropriate organoleptically for kimchi preparation. Salt content of all kimchies prepared in this study was below 2%. The changes of pH and acidity during fermentation was slow in raw anchovy added kimchi compared to other kimchies. The content of vitamin C was not changed significantly through the fermentation period, whereas the content of reducing sugar was increased at the early stage of fermentation and subsequently decreased as fermentation proceeded. The number of lactic acid bacteria was the highest in raw anchovy added kimchi. The content of calcium and phosphorus were higher in anchovy powder added kimchi and raw anchovy added kimchi than control. In the early stage of fermentation, the major pigments of kimchi were the chlorophyll and carotenoid, but in the later stage of fermentation, the color of Chinese cabbage became greenish brown as chlorophyll was converted to pheophytin. In sensory evaluation test, raw anchovy added kimchi received high score at the early stage of fermentation and anchovy powder added kimchi at the late stage of fermentation, respectively.

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Effect of Reducing Sugar Content in Chines Cabbage on Kimchi Fermentation (배추의 환원당 함량이 김치 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동관;김병기;김명환
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate and make comparison between treatment which was reduced the reducing sugar content from Chinese cabbage using salting and desalting processes prior to Kimchi fermentation , and control for the effect of reducing sugar content on Kimchi fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. In the early stage of Kimchi fermentation , the amount of reducing sugar (5.7mg/ml) in treatment was much smaller than that (15.1mg/ml) in control. Reducing sugar content of treatment decreased drastically during the first two days and then levelled off . Whereas, that of control dropped significantly up to the first four days of fermentation. pHs of treatment and control decreased significantly during the first two days and then showed gentle slopes. Acidities of treatment and control were increased continuously during the entire range of fermentation . The acidity of control reached to 0.75% in 3 days of fermentation, while that of treatment was shown after 6 days. Hardnesses of treatment and control using a puncture test were almost constant and the hardness value of treatment was higher than that of control during whole fermentation period. The total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts increased drastically during the first day of fermentation and the increase of total bacteria counts was mainly caused by that of lactic acid bacteria counts.

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A Study on the Production of Xanthan Gum by Xanthomonas campestris (Xanthomonas campestris에 의한 Xanthan gum 생산에 관한 연구)

  • 김재형;유영제이기영윤종선
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 1990
  • In the Xanthan gum fermentation by Xanthomonas campestris there are problems of the large energy consumption by long fermentation time, the mass transfer of oxygen and nutrients by high viscous fermentation broth. In this study, the media optimization and the fed batch fermentation were carried out to decrease fermentation time and increase Xanthan gum yield. The $O_2$ uptake rate (OUR) and $CO_2$ evolution rate(CER) which were obtained from the analysis of fermentation exit gas using a gas chromatograph were investigated. As a result, the fermentation time decreased at optimal assimilable nitrogen concentration but increased at poor or rich assimilable nitrogen concentration, the Xanthan gum biosynthesis was stimulated under the limited condition of assimilable nitrogen source and the optimum fermentation medium was obtained as follow; Glucose=30g / l, Peptone=8.0g / l, $K_2HPO_4=2.0g/l$, $MgS0_47H_2O=10g/l$, Sodium acetate=20g/l, Sodium pyruvate=0.5g/1. As the agitation speed and nitrogen concentration increased, the $O_2$ uptake rate and $CO_2$ evolution rate increased. The OUR and CER were 37.3mmol $O_2/\;l$ hr and 20.2 mmol $CO_2/\;L$ hr at peptone 11g / l and agitation speed 990RPM, respectively. In fed batch fermentation, the final concentration of Xanthan gum was enhanced up to 29g / l.

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The Influence of Adding Buckwheat Sprouts on the Fermentation Characteristics of Yakju (메밀싹 첨가가 약주 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jin-Ok;Kim, Chul-Jai
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the fermentation characteristics of Yakju using fresh sprouts from common buckwheat, a Daisan cultivar, and a tartary buckwheat Daikwan 3-3 cultivar to develop a functional Yakju, which is a traditional Korean liquor. As fermentation time increased, alcohol concentration and total sugar content (expressed as Brix degrees) increased, whereas reducing sugar content decreased. In particular, alcohol formation capability was maximized from the fourth to the seventh days of the second mashing stage during the fermentation procedure, which corresponded to the abrupt rise in mashing body temperature. The pH increased slightly when the titratable acidity was kept from increasing as fermentation proceeded. Quercetin and rutin were not present in the control group but their presence in Yakju with added buckwheat sprouts continuously increased with an increase in the fermentation period. Quercetin and rutin contents were higher in the Yakju with added Daikwan3-3 buckwheat sprouts than Yakju with added Daisan buckwheat sprouts. In conclusion, adding buckwheat sprouts improved Yakju quality during fermentation. Particularly, Yakju with added Daikwan3-3 buckwheat sprouts had superior fermentation characteristics and quality.

Analysis of the Bacterial Composition During Kochujang, a Korean Traditional Fermented Hot Pepper-soybean Paste, Fermentation

  • Park, Sun-Jung;Chang, Jin-Hee;Cha, Seong-Kwan;Moon, Gi-Seong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1035-1037
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    • 2009
  • In this study we analyzed the dynamic changes in microbiota composition during kochujang fermentation at $30^{\circ}C$. During fermentation, the viable cell counts slowly increased and reached $3.2{\times}10^7$ for aerobic bacteria, $8.3{\times}10^3$ for yeast, and $1.4{\times}10^3$ CFU/mL for fungi after 60 days. Bacilli were found to be the most dominant microorganisms throughout the fermentation process. Using the culture dependent method Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloquefaciens were found to be the main species during the early stages of fermentation; however, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus stearothermophilus became the most dominant species during the late stage of fermentation. In contrast, when the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was used Bacillus ehimensis was found to be the dominant species during the early stage of fermentation and Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, and B. licheniformis were dominant in the ate stages. These results indicate various other Bacillus species rather than just B. subtilis and B. licheniformis might be involved in the fermentation of kochujang.