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Effects of Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics by Fermented Barley Grain Feeding in Post-fattening Hanwoo Steers (거세한우 비육후기 보리곡실 발효사료 급여에 따른 성장과 도체특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Chang, Sun-Sik;Kwon, Eun-Ki;Lee, Eun-Mi;Hwang, So-Mi;Cho, Sang-Rae;Kim, Ui-Hyoung;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the proper feeding level and duration of fermented barley grain feed before harvesting to improve the availability of barley for feed. Trial 1 was to investigate the proper feeding amount of fermented barley grain fermented feed, and we prepared 32 heads (603.4 ± 42.7kg) of 22-month-old Hanwoo steer (603.4 ± 42.7kg) for 8 heads in 4 treatment groups. 48 heads (625.8 ± 13.1kg) for Trial 2 were used for 12heads per 4 treatments, and were reared for about 9 months until 30 months of age. Trial 1 is treated a Control group that feed 10㎏ of concentrate, replaces 10% fermented barley grain feed(FBGF) of the control by (TRT 1) and 20% (TRT 2) and 30%(TRT 3). Concentrate and FBGF fed 9, 2.1 kg, 8, 4.2 kg, 7 and 7, 6.3 kg on each treatments respectively and 1.5 kg of rice straw for forage. In Trial 2, 10% of alternative diets were judged to be appropriate, and the control of 9kg of diets and barley grain fermented feeds were used to determine the appropriate feeding period. The treatments were 3 months before shipment (TRT 1), 6 months (TRT 2) and 9 months (TRT32). Each treatment group had 8 and 2.1 kg of concentrate and barley grain fermentation, respectively. As a feed, rice straw was fed to 1.5 kg. The daily gains per treatment were higher in TRT 1 and TRT 3 was similar to the Control. Body weight and daily gain during the test period were higher in TRT 1 fed 10% barley grain fermented feed. TRT 2 was the highest at 6.13, and TRT 3 was 6.0, which was higher than 5.63 of TRT 1 and 5.5 of Control.

Anti-Inflammatory and Moisturizing Effect of Centella Extracts Fermented in Jeju Lava Water (제주용암해수로 숙성된 병풀 추출물의 항염 및 보습 효과)

  • Lee, Jeesun;Myung, Cheol Hwan;Lee, Ji Eun;Jo, Mi-Rae;Kim, Hong-Suk;Lee, Na-Young;Woo, Heedong;You, Jaeeun;Jo, Hae;Hwang, Jae Sung
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2019
  • The leaves and stems of Centella asiatica have a long history of their usage as a medicine for the treatment of skin diseases such as ulcers and psoriasis, especially in Asia. Triterpenoids, the active components of Centella asiatica including asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid, have shown to inhibit skin inflammation as well as improve skin photoaging. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the Centella asiatica ripened with lava seawater which is rich in minerals known to be beneficial to human body can provide anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects to skin. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of triterpenoids increased further after ripening Centella asiatica with lava seawater. In order to confirm the inflammatory efficacy of the extract of the extract of the ripened Centella asiatica, the production of NO in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in PM10 or UVB-induced HaCaT cells were observed. We found that the extract of the ripened Centella asiatica inhibited the expression of NO, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a and had higher inhibitory effect compared to the extract of the non-ripened Centella asiatica. In order to confirm the skin moisturizing effect, we investigated the synthesis of HA in HaCaT cells. The result showed HA production was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner from the ripened group, while there was no efficacy from the non-ripened group. Taken together, it is concluded that the extract of the Centella asiatica ripened with lava seawater was effective in anti-inflammation and moisturization.

Simultaneous Determination of Carbohydrates and Organic Acids in Various Cultured Dairy Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: A Preliminary Study (다양한 낙농 발효유제품에서 HPLC를 이용하여 탄수화물과 유기산의 동시 검출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Hwang, Dae-Geun;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyunsook;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Yim, Jin-Hyuk;Kim, Young-Ji;Kang, Il-Byung;Lee, Soo-Kyung;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2015
  • Various carbohydrates (lactose, glucose, and fructose), lactic acid, uric acid, and acetoin were separated on a ZORBAX Carbohydrate Analysis column using the Agilent 1200 HPLC ChemStation$^{TM}$, and were identified according to retention times with 325 Dual Wavelength UV-Vis Detector and Refractive Index Detector with 0.013 N $H_2SO_4$ at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. In addition, the lactase activity of four commercial probiotic lactic acid bacteria during 6-hour incubation was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Among the tested samples, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis showed the greatest lactase activity, followed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei, with Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus showing the lowest activity. Therefore, this HPLC technique shows potential for evaluating the fermentation processes of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and could simultaneously confirm the degree of ripening in various fermented dairy foods within only a half hour.

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Production and Characterization of Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced by Pseudomonas sp. GP32 (Pseudomonas sp. GP32에 의해 생산된 세포 외 다당류의 생산 및 특성)

  • Lee, Myoung Eun;Lee, Hyun Don;Suh, Hyun-Hyo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1027-1035
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    • 2015
  • A strain GP32 which produces a highly viscous extracellular polysaccharide was conducted with soil samples and identified as Pseudomonas species. The culture flask conditions for the production of extracellular polysaccharide by Pseudomonas sp. GP32 were investigated. The most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for extracellular polysaccharide production were galactose and (NH4)2SO4. The optimum carbon/nitrogen ratio for the production of extracellular polysaccharide was around 50. The optimum pH and temperature for extracellular polysaccharide production was 7.5 and 32℃, respectively. In batch fermentation using a jar fermentor, the highest extracellular polysaccharide content (15.7 g/l) was obtained after 70 hr of cultivation. The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. GP32 (designated Biopol32) was purified by ethanol precipitation, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation, and gel permeation chromatography. Biopol32, which has an estimated molecular weight of over 3×107 datons, is a novel polysaccharide derived from sugar components consisting of galactose, glucose, gulcouronic acid and galactouronic acid in an approximate molar ratio of 1.85 : 3.24 : 1.00 : 1.42. The solution of Biopol32 showed non-Newtonian characteristics. The viscosity of Biopol32 exhibited appeared to be higher at all concentration compared to that of zooglan from Zoogloea ramigera. An analysis of the flocculating efficiency of Biopol32 in industry wastewater (food, textile, and paper wastewater) revealed chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction rates 58.4-67.3% and suspended solid (SS) removal rates 82.6-91.3%. Based on these results, Biopol32 is a possible candidate for industrial applications such as wastewater treatment.

Physicochemical components and antioxidant activity of Sparassis crispa mixture fermented by lactic acid bacteria (유산균 발효 꽃송이버섯 혼합물의 이화학적 성분과 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Son, Hye-Young;Choi, Young-Min;Cho, Jae-Han;Min, Jung-Kee;Oh, Hee-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of a mixture of rice bran and bodies of Sparassis crispa fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture had higher water, crude lipid and crude ash content than that of S. crispa. Insoluble dietary fiber contents of the dried powder of S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture were 46.13% and 33.46%, respectively. ${\beta}$-glucan was higher in dried S. crispa (38.03%) than in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture (5.44%). Dried S. crispa contained mainly fructose and glucose instead of containing sucrose in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. No significant differences in the total polyphenol contents were found in between dried S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. Total flavonoid content was significantly higher in LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture than in dried S. crispa. No significant differences were found in the DPPH radical scavenging activity and in the antioxidant index between dried S. crispa and LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture. Finally, ABTS radical scavenging activity of LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture was significantly higher than that of dried S. crispa. These results may provide the basic data for future studies for a better understanding of the biological activities of LAB-fermented S. crispa mixture.

Structural Characteristics and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Chemically Sulfated-hyaluronic Acid from Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Streptococcus dysgalactiae로부터 분리된 히알루론산과 황화된 유도체의 구조와 항염증 활성)

  • Hong, Chang-Il;Jung, Eui-Gil;Han, Kook-Il;Kim, Yong Hyun;Lee, Sung Hee;Lee, Hong Sub;Han, Man-Deuk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.545-554
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    • 2016
  • Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an important macromolecule in medical and pharmaceutical fields. HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid. This work aimed to confirm the structural characteristics and anti-inflammatory activities of HA and its chemically sulfated-HA. HA was produced from a fed-batch fermentation process using Streptococcus dysgalactiae in a 5 l bioreactor. HA was isolated water-soluble form (HA-WS) and water-insoluble form (HA-WI) from culture medium, and was obtained chemically sulfated-derivative (S-HA) that resulted in a 90% yield from HA-WI. The structural features of the sulfated- HA (S-HA) were investigated by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR and NMR patterns revealed the similarity in both the FTIR spectrum as well as NMR spectrum of both reference standard and purified HA from S. dysgalactiae. The anti-inflammatory activities of HA and S-HA were examined on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. S-HA was significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 and the gene levels of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and PGE2, respectively. Furthermore, S-HA also suppressed the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (<80 pg/ml) and IL-6 (<100 pg/ml) compared to that of HA-WI. The present study clearly demonstrates that HA-S exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

The Effect of Korean Soysauce and Soypaste Making on Soybean Protein Quality Part II. Chemical Changes During Meju-brine Ripening (재래식 간장 및 된장 제조가 대두 단백질의 영양가에 미치는 영향 제2보 메주장의 숙성중에 일어나는 성분 변화)

  • Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 1976
  • The laboratory Mejus as well as home-made Meju and improved Meju received from Korea were ripened in the brine for up to 8 months and the changes is the chemical composition during the process were determined and the differences between the types of Meju were compared. On the basis of the amino acid pattern, the changes in the protein quality of soybean during the process was evaluated. No significant changes in the general chemical composition of Meju were noticed during the ripening for 8 months. However, the nitrogen solubility of Meju increased for $13{\sim}29%$ to $66{\sim}78%$ during 8 month ripening of the Meju-brine mixture. The concentration of free amino-N to the total-N increased from $4{\sim}7%$ in Meju to $29{\sim}35%$ in the 8month ripened mixture. The concentration of amino-N to the total-N increased from $1{\sim}4%$ in Meju to $5{\sim}14%$ in the 8month ripened mixture and the changes varied with the type of Meju used. Remarkable changes in the amino acid pattern of soybean were occured during the ripening process. The concentration of methionine decreased to the half of original Meju during the first month of ripening. Arginine and histidine were destroyed rapidly by the ripening longer than 1 month. A considerable amount of ornithine was synthesized during the ripening. The amino acid pattern of Meju did change drastically during the ripening longer than 3 months and the changes varied with the type of Meju. The retention of the nutrients in soybean during 8 month ripening of the laboratory 3 month Meju in the brine was 49% for carbohydrates, 107% for crude fat, 93% for crude protein and 74% for the total amino acid. Histidine, arginine and methionine and 74% for the total amino acid. Histidine, arginine and methionine were the most damaged during the process, retaining only 25%, 27% and 49% of the contents in raw soybean, respectively, whereas lysine retained 79%. By the separation of the 8 month ripened mixture, approximately 60% of crude protein, all of crude fat and 80% of carbohydrates in the mixture were retained in soypaste. Soypaste contained higher concentrations of amino acids per 16gN compared to soysauce, except for lysine. The most limiting amino acid of the protein was the S-containing amino acids in all cases studied, whereas the second limiting amino acid varied from valine in soybean to threonine in most of Mejus and the brine mixtures, lysine in most of soypastes and tryptophan in some of soysauces. According to the protein quality evaluation made by the reference of the FAO provisional pattern of amino acid, the chemical score of raw soybean was 82, which was reduced to 77 by cooking and further reduced to $71{\sim}74$ by Meju fermentation. At the eighth month of ripening the chemical score of the Meju-brine mixtures were reduced to $51{\sim}66. After the separation, the chemical score of soypaste ranged from 60 to 71, whereas that of soysauce varied from 45 to 57. Generally, the products made from improved Meju recorded the highest score, whereas those made from homemade Meju showed the poorest protein quality. The essential amino acid index(EAAI) of the samples was similar to the chemical score, but it appeared to fit the overall changes in the amino acid pattern during the process better than the chemical score.

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Studies on the Utilization of Sweet Potatoes for Takju Brewing (탁주양조원료(濁酒釀造原料)로서 고구마의 이용(利用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chan-Jo;Choi, Woo-Young;Oh, Man-Jin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 1972
  • In order to utilize sweet potatoes for the material of Takju, brewing experiments with raw sweet potatoes, sweet potato chips powder and its koji were conducted; and various tests were carried out on effect of the treatments of acid, alkali, polyphenol oxidase inhibitor, oxidizing and reducing agents upon the prevention against coloring of sweet potato chips by steaming, and on peeling effect of sweet potatoes by the alkali and heat treatments. The results obtained were as follows. 1) In the case of brewing with raw sweet potatose, each plot showed low acid and ethanol content, and its finished Takju had an undersirable color and odor. The plots which were mashed after peeling showed higher ethanol contents than the plots mashed without peeling. 2) In the case of brewing with sweet potato chips powder, each plot contained considerably more amount of ethanol than the plots brewed with raw sweet potatoes, white it contained less amount of acid. The ethanol contents of the plots using wheat bran koji were $10.5{\sim}11.4$ per cent 4 days after mashing, and were higher than those of the plots using malts powder. Their finished Takju was inferior in quality because of the lack of acid and being darkened gradually in process of time. 3) The kojies which were made of sweet potato chips powder with Neurospora sitophila or Aspergillus oryzae had good appearance, but the Takju mashes brewed with these contained remarkably less amount of ethanol. 4) Effect of the treatments of acid, alkali, polyphenol oxidase inhibitor and organic solvents such as ether and ethanol upon the prevention against coloring of sweet potato chips was not recognized. Alum and burnt alum were effective a little on the decolorization, and among the oxidizing and reducing agents tested, potassium permanganate was most effective. 5) Darkening of sweet potato chips powder in course of heating after mixing with water was not affected by pectin and amino acids, but by tannin. 6) Sweet potatoes were not peeled easily by friction after soaking in the boiling solution of 3 per cent alkali for 6 minutes and peeled in boiling water for 12 minutes. From the viewpoint of the results above mentioned, it seems to be necessary to study further on the isolation of microorganisms which are able to decompose the coloring substances and yeasts which are adequate for the fermentation of sweet potatoes in order to utilize sweet potatoes for Takju brewing, because brewing with raw sweet potatoes, sweet potato chips powder and its koji was unsuccessful, and effect of the various treatments on the decolorization of sweet potatoes was not recognized.

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A Study on the Conversion to Feed Stuff from Cellulosic Biomass (섬유질자원(纖維質資源)의 사료(飼料) 전환(轉換))

  • Lee, Ke-Ho;Sung, Chang-Geun;Chung, Kyu-Ok
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.27
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    • pp.29-46
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    • 1984
  • To utilize several species of hard wood as raw materials of feed products, fermentation characteristics of cellulosic substrates to single cell protein was investigated, and results were summarized as follows. Among the microorganisms investigated, Tricoderma viride was selected as one of the most cellulolytic. Mixed culture of fungi did not show a synergistic effect on cellulose degradation. When the fungi were cultured at $28^{\circ}C$ for 7 days in a medium containing wheat bran 25 g, cellulose 0.25 g, proteose peptone 0.025 g and tween 800.025 g, cellulotic activities on carboxy methyl cellulose and filter paper reached maximum at 12 hr. The alkali treatment resulted in increased degradation of substrate from 13 to 18% when treated with enzymes for 12h, and reducing sugar formation increased with decreased size of substrates. Glucose was a very good feedback inhibitor of the enzyme from T.viride than that of xylose. When the substrate was rehydrolyzed, hydrolysis rate was 31% to reducing sugars within 12 hr. Quantative anlysis with HPLC showed the ratio of glucose to xylose in sugar syrups as 1.77 to 1. For the purpose of producing cellulosic-single cell protein from the sawdust of mulberry tree, 15 strains of xylose-assimilating yeast were isolated from 42 samples of rotten woods and compost soils and examined for their ability to utilize xylose. Then three strains were selected by their strong xylose-assimilating activities. The cultivative condition, the growth characteristics, and protein and nucleic acid productivities of three strains were investigated. The results obtained were, 1. Wood hydrolysate of mulberry tree was assimilated by 5 strains of CHS-2, CHS-3, ST-40, CHS-12 and CHS-13. 2. The optimum initial pH and temperature for the growth of strain CHS-13 were 4.4 and $30^{\circ}C$. 3. The specific growth rate of strain CHS-13 was $0.23h^{-1}$ and generation time was 3.01 hrs at the optimum condition. 4. CHS-13 strain assimilated 81 % of sugar in wood hydrolysate. 5. CHS-13 strain was identified as Candida guilliermondii var. guilliermondii 6. When the CHS-13 strain was cultured in the wood hydrolysate containing yeast extract, L-protein content was increased with yeast extract concentration. 7. The L-protein and nucleic acid yields from wood hydrolysate were 0.73 mg/ml and $4.92{\times}10^{-2}\;mg/ml$ respectively. 8. An optimal nucleic acid content of CHS-13 strain was observed in the medium containing 0.2% of yeast extract.

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Studies on the Cellulase produced by Myriococcum of albomyces (Myriococcum albomyces가 생산하는 Cellulase에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Dong-Hyo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.59-97
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    • 1971
  • As a study on the cellulase of Myriococcum albomyces the culture media for enzyme formation and properties of its crude preparation were investigated and the crude enzyme preparation was further fractionated. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Wheat bran solid culture produced stronger activities of cellulase than rice bran or defatted soy bean meal solid culture. 2. Shaking culture with wheat bran, rice bran or defatted soy bean meal produced higher cellulase activities than solid culture with the corresponding media. 3. The enzyme formation was higher at $45^{\circ}C$ than at $37^{\circ}C$ or $50^{\circ}C$ regardless of the kind of culture medium. 4. The formation of CMCase activity was more promoted by organic nitrogen source than inorganic nitrogen source. 5. The formation of cellulase activities were increased 1.5 to 3.0-fold by adding CMC, Avicel or cellulose powder as an inducer into 5% wheat bran basal medium. 6. Cellulase production using a tank culture procedure with addition of CMC or Avicel as an inducer was the highest at fifth day and thereafter decreased slightly. 7. The crude enzyme preparation showed pH optimum in 4.0 to 4.5, and pH stability in the range of 3.5 to 8.0. Optimum temperature for the activity was $65^{\circ}C$ which was higher than among other cellulases and it was stable at $60^{\circ}C$ for 120 minutes. 8. Dialyzed crude enzyme was activated by $Ca^{++}$ and $Mg^{++}$, but inhibited by $Hg^{++}$, $Cu^{++}$ and $Ag^{+}$. 9. Four different types of cellulase, i. e., fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b, and fraction III were purified from the culture filtrate of Myriococcum albomyces through a sequence of ammonium sulfate fractionation, and elution chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25, Amberlite CG-25 type 2 and hydroxyapatite columns. 10. These four cellulase fractions were showed to be homogenous by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation and also gave a typical ultraviolet absorption spectrum of protein. 11. Four purified fraction showed different specificity toward substrates, fraction I has a stronger activity toward Avicel, cellulose powder, and gauze than that of other cellulase fractions. Fraction II-a had a powerful activity toward cellobiose but it was almost inactive agaisnt fibrous cellulose contrary to fraction I. On the contrary, the main component fraction II-b had a fairly higher activity on CMC and Avicel. Activity of fraction II-b toward cellobiose was about one-third of that of fraction II-a and activity on Avicel was lower than that of fraction I. Fraction III had a more powerful activity in decreasing viscosity of CMC. 12. Final hydrolysis products of fibrous cellulose by each fraction were cellobiose and glucose. Whereas oligosaccharides were predominant in the early stage of hydrolysis, prolonged reaction produced more glucose than cellobiose. Fraction I and fraction II-a acted synergically on Avicel. 13. Optimum pH for the activities of cellulase fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b and fraction III were found to be 5.5, 5.0, 4.0 and $4.0{\sim}4.5$, respectively. These fractions were found to be stable in the range of pH $3.0{\sim}7.5$. 14. Optimum temperature for the activities of fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b, and fraction III were $50^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$, respectively. No less of activity was found by heating 120 minutes at $55^{\circ}C$ and fraction II-a was more stable than the others at $60^{\circ}C$. 15. Fraction I and fraction II-b were activated by $Ca^{++}$ and $Mg^{++}$ but inhibited by $Hg^{++}$ and $Ag^{+}$.

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