• Title, Summary, Keyword: fermented goat milk

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Effects of Goat Milk and Fermented Goat Milk on Reproductive Function and Stamina of the Male Rodent (산양유 및 산양유 발효유가 웅성 설치류의 생식기능과 지구력에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Im, Kyung-Soon;Kang, Jae-Ku;Choi, Ki-Myung;Pae, Chang-Joon;Joh, Woo-Jea
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 2000
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of goat milk and fermented goat milk on reproductive function and stamina of male rodent. Methods: Experiment I: Male ICR mouse was divided into four groups. Group 1 none-treated control; Group 2 received saline; Group 3 received cow milk 10 ml/kg per day for 15 days; Group 4 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 15 days. The cauda epididymal sperm motility and testicular sperm production were investigated. Experiment II: Male SD rat was divided into three groups. Group 1 received saline; Group 2 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 28 days; Group 3 received fermented goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 28 days. The cauda epididymal sperm motility and testicular sperm production were also investigated. The concentration of testosterone in serum at 1 and 3 weeks after treatment was determined using Immulite 2000 kit. Testes, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle were weighed. Experiment III: Male ICR mouse was divided into four groups. Group 1 none-treated control; Group 2 received saline; Group 3 received goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 4 weeks; Group 4 received fermented goat milk 10 ml/kg per day for 4 weeks. After treatment, the mouse was forced to swim to test for stamina. Results: In Experiment I, the cauda epididymal sperm motility after in vitro culture for 1 or 3 h was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cow milk and goat milk than in the control and saline. There was no significant difference in the cauda epidymal sperm motility between cow and goat milk. The testicular spermatid number was significantly (p<0.01) higher in goat milk (222.8${\times}10^6$) than in the control (108.6), saline (98.2), and cow milk (118.2). In Experiment II, the cauda epididymal sperm motility after in vitro culture for 1 h was significantly (p<0.05) higher in fermented goat milk than in saline and goat milk. There was no significant difference in the cauda epidymal sperm motility between saline and goat milk but goat milk showed slightly higher sperm motility than saline. After in vitro culture for 3 h, the cauda epididymal sperm motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in fermented goat milk and goat milk than in saline. The testicular spermatid number was significantly (p<0.05) higher in goat milk than in saline, and significantly (p<0.01) higher in fermented goat milk than in saline. And the serum testosterone levels of rats administered with goat milk or fermented goat milk were increased but were no significant difference among three groups. Also the prostate weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the goat and fermented goat milk. In Experiment III, the swimming time in the goat milk and fermented goat milk groups was significantly (p<0.01) longer than in the control and saline. There was no significant difference in the swimming time between goat and fermented goat milk but the fermented goat milk showed slightly longer swimming time than the goat milk. Conclusion: The cauda epididymal sperm motility, the testicular spermatid number and stamina were improved when the mice and rats were drunk with goat milk or fermented goat milk.

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Effects of Goat Milk Yogurt Supplemented with Citrus Concentrate on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids in Diabetic Rats (밀감농축액 첨가 산양발효유가 당뇨병 유발 랫드의 혈당 및 혈액지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ham, Jun-Sang;Shin, Ji-Hye;Jang, Ae-Ra;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Park, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Hyun-Uk;Kang, Su-Yeon;Hwang, Hye-Joong;Lee, Wan-Kyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.445-450
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    • 2008
  • The effects of fermented goat milk supplemented with citrus concentrate on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats were examined. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (type II) were divided into five experimental groups treated with metformin, goat milk, fermented goat milk, fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate, or no supplementation (control). The rats in each group were examined weekly for blood levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride. HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol. and body weight. On the $24^{th}$ day of the experiment, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out. Administration of fermented goat milk to the diabetic rats significantly decreased blood glucose and triglyceride levels, while administration of metformin (33.3 mg/kg body weight) did not significantly lower blood glucose levels. Fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate caused a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in the OGTT at 30 min. This study shows that supplementation with fermented goat milk containing citrus concentrate may be a practical method of reducing blood glucose levels in type II diabetics.

Characteristics of Cow Milk and Goat Milk Yogurts Fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus LFG Isolated from Kefir (Kefir에서 분리한 Streptococcus thermophilus LFG를 이용한 우유 및 산양유 요구르트의 품질 특성)

  • Lim, Young-Soon;Lee, Si-Kyung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.787-795
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of goat and cow milk yogurts containing high-exopolysaccharide fermented by Streptoccous thermophilus LFG isolated from kefir. The pH of cow milk yogurt was higher than that of goat milk yogurt. The contents of lactic acid was greater in goat milk yogurt (743.9-1043.8 mg/100 g) than in cow milk yogurt (441.6-709.9 mg/100 g). The numbers of survival lactic acid bacteria were the greatest in goat milk yogurt fermented by Str. thermophilus LFG. Viscosity was greater in cow and goat milk yogurts cultured by Str. thermophilus LFG than in yogurts by Str. thermophilus TH3. Syneresis of yogurt fermented by Str. thermophilus LFG was 9.6-16.1% and 28.2-31.8% in yogurt fermented by Str. thermophilus TH3 after 10 d storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Flavor compounds identified from goat milk were acetone, ethylbutanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutyrate, ethyl-2-butenoate and ethylhexanoate, and those from cow milk were ethylbutanoate, acetone, 2-heptanone and acetoin. Flavor compounds detected from goat milk and cow milk yogurts were acetic acid, butanoic acid, butanol, diethylcarbinol, acetone, diacetyl, decane, 2-methyl-3-pentanone, hexanal, 2-heptanone, acetoin, benzaldehyde, dimethyldisulfide, and dimethyltrisulfide. In sensory evaluation, overall preference and texture values were higher in goat milk yogurt fermented by Str. thermophilus LFG than in cow milk yogurts and the yogurt fermented by mixed culture resulted in the highest score.

Taste Analysis of Fermented Goat Milk during Cold Storage using an Electronic Tongue (미각센서를 이용한 산양발효유의 저온저장 중 풍미분석)

  • Yang, A-Reum;Kim, Woan-Sub
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the fermentation forms of goat milk, and the changes in the flavor of goat milk fermented using single and mixed strains of commercial Lactobacilli during storage. The mixed strains reached a lower pH more quickly than the single strains. The mixed strains also had higher rates of Lactobacillus proliferation. The tastes detected in sensory tests can differ depending on the skill levels of the panel, making it difficult to obtain reproducible and objective data when numerous samples are analyzed. Therefore, we measured changes in flavor during storage using taste sensors. The taste sensors measured diverse flavor changes in goat milk fermented using single strains and mixed strains. Notably, this study is the first in our country to measure changes in the taste and composition of fermented milk during cold storage using taste sensors. This work could have great value for the maintenance and monitoring of dairy products within their expiration dates.

Carbohydrate Fermentation Character of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli isolated from Feces of the Adult Women supplied with Goat Milk (산양유를 섭취한 성인 여성의 분변에서 분리한 Bifidobacteria와 Lactobacilli의 탄수화물 발효특성)

  • Choi, Suk-Ho;Lim, Young-soon;Ham, Jun-Sang;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of consuming goat milk on the bacterial counts (colony forming units [CFU]) in adult women and to evaluate the carbohydrate fermentation capacity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolated from their feces. Adult women who consumed goat milk (treatment group) had relatively higher CFU of bifidobacteria than did the control group, and the difference was significant (p<0.05) after 8 weeks. In total, 13 strains isolated from the feces of women in the treatment group were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing as Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. longum, B. pseudocatenulatum, B. dentium, and Lactobacillus sakei. Similarly, 12 strains isolated from the feces of women in the control group included B. adolescentis, B. longum, L. ruminis, L. sakei, and B. pseudocatenulatum. All isolated bifidobacteria and lactobacilli fermented goat milk oligosaccharide and lactulose. All 7 strains of B. adolescentis fermented fructooligosaccharides, and 3 of the 4 B. pseudocatenulatum strains, 2 of the 3 L. sakei strains, and 1 of the 7 B. longum strains fermented fructooligosaccharides.

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Production and Consumption of Goat Milk Products in Korea (한국의 산양유제품 생산 및 소비 현황)

  • Park, Seung-Yong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2006
  • There has been a successful re-entry in the form of infant foods and as a product concept of "well-being" milk by feeding goat natural medicinal plants in high mountain lands and goats eating natural feeds. Typical composition of cow's milk and goat's milk are not significantly differ in major nutritional constituents. However, the noticeable differences between milks of the bovine and caprine species concern in the dimensions of the micelles, in casein composition, in size of the micelles and in the mineral charge of the micelle, but the ratio Ca/Pi in the micelle is very close for the two species The potential market in Korea could be expected to expand by keeping its freshness and nutritional benefits. The supply of goat milk products all year around is also an important to the consumers. In order to increase its market scale of goat milk, product manufacturers need extensive advertising promotion. Domestically, goat milk is currently manufactured at small scale dairy goat milk companies and consumed mainly in the form of fresh or fermented goat milk, while imported goat milk powder is used to produce infant goat milk formula by major dairy companies. Decreasing the unpleasant goaty flavour for the Korean consumers would be essential for the researchers who work for dairy science and technology.

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Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Goat Milk in Tajikistan

  • Cho, Gyu-Sung;Cappello, Claudia;Schrader, Katrin;Fagbemigun, Olakunle;Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.;Csovcsics, Claudia;Rosch, Niels;Kabisch, Jan;Neve, Horst;Bockelmann, Wilhelm;Briviba, Karlis;Modesto, Monica;Cilli, Elisabetta;Mattarelli, Paola;Franz, Charles M.A.P
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1834-1845
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    • 2018
  • The lactobacilli associated with a fermented goat milk product from Tajikistan were isolated to characterize their technological properties and antibiotic resistances in order to assess their suitability for development as starter cultures. In this study, twenty three strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as typical dairy-associated lactic acid bacterial strains, i.e. L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. delbrueckii, L. helveticus and L. paracasei. These strains were generally susceptible to most antibiotics tested in this study and this allowed a selection of strains as safe starters. The draft genomes of four representative strains were sequenced and the number of contigs of the four assembled genomes ranged from 51 to 245 and the genome sizes ranged from 1.75 to 3.24 Mbp. These representative strains showed differences in their growth behavior and pH-reducing abilities in in vitro studies. The co-inoculation of these Lactobacillus spp. strains together with a yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus MBT-5698, or together with the yeast and an additional Streptococcus thermophilus MBT-2, led to a pH reduction to 3.4 after 48 h. Only in the case of fermentation inoculated with the co-culture, the viscosity of the milk increased noticeably. In contrast, fermentations with single strains did not lead to gelation of the milk or to a decrease in the pH after 24h. The results of this study provide a comprehensive understanding of the predominant lactobacilli related to Tajikistani fermented milk products.

Effects of Fermented Goat Milk on Immunomodulatory Activity and Physical Strength in Mice (산양유 발효유의 면역 활성 및 체력증진 효과)

  • Oh, Kwang-Hoon;Kim, A Rong;Bae, Jong-Hwan;Lee, Kyung Bok;Yoo, Yung Choon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the effects of fermented goat milk (F-GM) on immunological activity and physical strength were examined. Splenocytes obtained from mice administered with F-GM showed increased responsinveness to mitogens, concanavalin-A (ConA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with F-GM also significantly augmented production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-${\gamma}$, but not IL-4 or IL-10 from ConA-stimulated splenocytes. The activity of F-GM administration to enhance production of IL-2 and IFN-${\gamma}$ was confirmed based on mRNA expression of these cytokines by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, 20 mg/mouse), mice administered F-GM showed significantly higher antibody titers against KLH than those of phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice, and showed the highest titer 5 weeks after KLH immunization. Analysis for determining isotypes of antibodies revealed that administration of F-GM elicited KLH-specific antibody titers of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgM. In a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) test carried out 7 weeks after the primary immunization, F-GM-treated mice showed a higher DTH reaction than the control mice. Furthermore, the swimming test found that administration of F-GM significantly increased swimming time. These results suggest that administration of F-GM enhances not only immune responses against antigens but also physical strength.

Alcoholic Beverages and Gold and Silver Wares used for Alcoholic Beverages during Koryo Dynasty (고려시대(高麗時代) 주류문화(酒類文化)와 금.은(金.銀) 주기(酒器))

  • Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • Rice alcoholic beverages, cheongju and beopju, which are recorded in "Koryodokyung", "Koryosageolyo", and "Koryosa", were used in national and royal ceremonies, and yakju was used in the Palgwanhoi ritual. In the late $11^{th}$century, King Munjong imported hwaju and haenginjabeopju from the royal family of the Song Dynasty. Alcoholic beverages in the early $12^{th}$century included the medical use for kings, such as gyehyangeoju, which the Emperor of the Song Dynasty sent to King Yejong, baekjainju, which was sent to King Myeongjong for his health, and yangju, which is goat milk fermented alcohol from the nomads in the northern regions. In the early$13^{th}$ century there was also dongrak, which is a horse-milk fermented alcohol, grape wine sent from Yuan to King Chungryeol in the late $13^{th}$ century, and sangjonju, a type of special cheongju sent from Yuan in the early $14^{th}$ century. Baekju from Yuan was recorded in oral traditions, which suggests that soju, which is distilled cheongju, was consumed in the late $14^{th}$ century. Gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages had important political, social, and economic meanings as national gifts to other countries and internally as the king's royal gift to his subjects. In the late $14^{th}$ century, soju was prohibited, and the use of gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages was banned at the same time. This study examined the historical characteristics of the use of traditional rice alcoholic beverages, the emotional preference for foreign alcoholic beverages, and the gold and silver wares used for alcoholic beverages Koryo Dynasty.

Isolation and Identification of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (유용 박테리오신을 생산하는 유산균의 분리와 동정)

  • Hong, Sung Wook;Bae, Hyo Ju;Chang, Jin Hee;Kim, So-Young;Choi, Eun-Young;Park, Beom Young;Chung, Kun Sub;Oh, Mi-Hwa
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2013
  • Lactic acid bacteria are microorganisms that are closely associated with human and/or animal environments, and are categorized as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organisms due to their ubiquitous appearance in foods and their contribution to the healthy microflora of mucosal surfaces. This study was performed to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria with antagonistic effects against food-borne pathogens. A total of 3,000 acid-producing bacteria were isolated from infant feces, cattle feces, goat feces, dog feces, pig feces, vaginal tracts, vegetables, fruits, Kimchi, Jeotgal, fermented sausages, raw milk, cheese, yogurt, Cheonggukjang, Meju, and Makgeolli cultured on MRS agar with 0.05% bromocresol purple. For the isolation of bacteriocin-producing bacteria, the diameter of the clear zone was measured on MRS agar plates. Twenty-six isolates exhibited strong antibacterial activity against indicator strains such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Lactic acid bacteria were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results of this study suggest that the isolates could be used as potential probiotic starters for functional food applications.

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