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Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

  • Yu, Mi-Sang;Kim, Jeong-Mee;Lee, Chi-Ho;Son, Yoon-Jeong;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.408-414
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    • 2014
  • Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

Effects of Compost Mixed with Microorganism Compost Fermented on the Seedlings Growth of Tomato and Red Pepper (미생물부숙퇴비의 상토 혼합처리가 토마토, 고추 유묘의 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 김홍기;서범석;정순주
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.125-140
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of compost mixed with microorganism compost fermented for the production of high quality plug seedlings of tomato and red pepper. The results are summarized as follows. As a result of compost analysis, EC value was increased with increment of microorganism compost supplemented but lowered gradually in the late period of seedlings growth, pH value of microorganism compost fermented was 9.3 which is strong alkalinity. In the plot of 30 percent of microorganism compost fermented early growth of tomato seedlings was better in terms of plant height, leaf area and total dry weight. However, early growth of red pepper seedlings was shown in the plot of supplemented with 20 percent of microorganism compost fermented. The higher the mixing rate over 60 percent of micrroganism compost fermented to the soil used retarded the seedlings growth regardless of tomato and red pepper.

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Quality Characteristics of Vacuum Packaged Fermented Pork with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper and Soybean Paste Seasoning during Storage (간장, 고추장 및 된장 양념으로 발효한 진공포장 돈육의 저장기간 동안 품질 특성)

  • Jin, S.K.;Kim, I.S.;Hah, K.H.;Lyou, H.J.;Park, K.H.;Lee, J.R.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.825-836
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of the fermented pork with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste. The ham of pork were cut to cube (7 × 10 × 2 cm3) and Korea traditional seasonings such as soy sauce (T1), red pepper paste (T2), soybean paste (T3) were seasoned by the proportions of meat to seasonings (1:1), respectively. The pH of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning at 1 and 28 days of storage, but were significantly lower at 14 days of storage. The water-holding capacity of fermented pork with soy sauce seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with red pepper and soybean paste seasoning at 28 days of storage. The surface meat L* values of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning, but a* and b* values of fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning significantly higher. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce seasoning at 1 and 28 days of storage. The shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning. The total plate counts of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning at 14 days of storage, but were significantly lower at 28 days of storage. The Escherichia coli of fermented pork with soy sauce and soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning at 1 day of storage. The Lactobacilli spp. of fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and soybean paste seasoning.

Effect of Red Pepper Seed on Kimchi Antioxidant Activity During Fermentation

  • Sim, Ki-Hyeon;Han, Young-Sil
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 2008
  • In this study, the antioxidant activities of red pepper seed kimchi extracts were examined. The extracts were evaluated by various antioxidant assays that included determinations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power. All the kimchi extracts showed strong antioxidant activities by the tested methods. The 7% red pepper seed kimchi that was fermented for 6 days possessed the highest activity according to the performed tests. Yet, the highest scavenging activity was exhibited against nitrite, by extracts from kimchi for 0 day of fermentation rather than 6 days. All the activities for the kimchi fermented for 0 day with the addition of 7% red pepper seed increased markedly with an increase in concentration. With the exception of metal chelating and SOD activities, for the antioxidant properties assayed, the red pepper seed kimchi extracts were found to be highly effective.

Biochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics of Stirred Yogurt Containing Red or Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Chungyang) Juice

  • Kang, Su-Hyun;Yu, Mi-Sang;Kim, Jeong-Mee;Park, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Chi-Ho;Lee, Hong-Gu;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.451-467
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    • 2018
  • Hot pepper has anti-obesity effects by controlling appetite and reducing blood fat level. To reduce the pungency of capsaicin, red or green hot pepper juice was fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230. Fermented hot pepper juice was then added into yogurt at different ratios. The pH of yogurt added with hot pepper juice was decreased from 4.61 to 4.48. Titratable acidity and counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased with increasing amount of pepper juice added. However, the viscosity was decreased significantly compared to the control. On chromaticity test, when more pepper juice was added, $L^*-value$ was decreased whereas $a^*$- and $b^*$- values were increased significantly (p<0.05). The spectrum of antimicrobial activity of yogurt was slightly changed compared to using pepper juice. Total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity were increased with increasing amount of pepper juice added. Stirred yogurt added with fermented red pepper juice at 3% or green pepper juice at 1% showed high scores in flavor, appearance, texture, and overall acceptance in sensory test. Yogurt added with fermented pepper juice with reduced pungency showed also good palatability during storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Yogurt with added hot pepper juice can be play an important role in functional food relative to anti-obesity.

Growth Promotion in Red Pepper and Tomato Seedlings by Fermented Liquid Fertilizers and Elution of Mineral Nutrients by Extraction Methods (발효액비별 고추와 토마토 육묘 생육 촉진 및 추출방법별 무기양분 용출)

  • Jang, Se Ji;Kuk, Yong In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.130-141
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) plants. Additionally, we investigated which extraction methods produce the most effective fertilizer with the highest levels of mineral nutrients. The liquid fertilizers used in this study were made from fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake, and were extracted using fermentation or water and boiled water. In tomato plants, foliar-application of fermented fertilizer is known to promote more growth than application by drenching, regardless of the number of treatments (once or twice). In our studies, however, drenching with fertilizer promoted growth more effectively than foliar-application in red pepper plants. Studies in both tomato and red pepper have shown that the number of treatments does not significantly alter growth. Liquid fertilizers produced by a fermentation-extraction method promoted greater levels of growth in tomato compared to red pepper, and growth was greater when fertilizers were applied 20 (rather than 40) days post-sowing. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight were affected more by fermented fertilizers than plant height 20 days post-sowing. In red pepper, we observed increased shoot fresh weight when using fermented liquid fertilizers with concentrations of 0.1% or greater. Tomato shoot fresh weight increased similarly in response to fermented fertilizer treatments at the same concentration levels, except those derived from fish. Fermented fish liquid fertilizer was only effective in increasing tomato shoot fresh weight in concentrations exceeding 1%. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight also increased more than plant height in our studies using fermentation liquid fertilizers at 40 days after sowing. Red pepper fresh weight increased with application of bone + fish meal, red pepper leaf, and oil cake fertilizers at concentrations of 0.1%, but not with fish liquid fertilizer in concentrations under 0.5%. Shoot fresh weight in tomato increased with all liquid fertilizers. Growth in red pepper and tomato may be influenced by different kinds of fertilizers due to combinations of macro- and micro-nutrients, or specific macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. The mineral nutrients found in fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake were not easily extracted by fermentation; thus, liquid fertilizers made using water and boiled water methods more effectively promoted growth in red pepper and tomato due to the larger amounts of macronutrients eluted.

Use of HPLC for the Determination of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Red Peppers (HPLC를 이용한 고추 및 고추 가공품의 비타민 A 함량 측정)

  • 김영남
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 1992
  • Provitamin A carotenoids($\alpha$- $\beta$-carotene lutein capsanthin) cintents in various red pepper and red pepper products were analyzed by HPLC and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The amounts of $\beta$-carotene and capsanthin were at its highest in powdered red pepper and lutein in red pepper leaves. There are little $\alpha$-carotene present in all samples analyzed. So vitamin A activity was calculated only from $\beta$-carotene content. Capsanthin and $\beta$-carotene contents of red pepper were higher than those of green pepper whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. Vitamin A activity from colorimetric analysis was higher than that from chromatographic method and results were not generally in accordance with the vitamin A data presented in current food composition tables. Vitamin A activities in retinol equivalent(R. E. ) of green pepper red pepper powdered red pepper fermented red pepper paste and red pepper leaves were 70, 570, 1, 340, 140, 980 R. E respectively.

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Fermented Wheat Grain Products and Kochujang Inhibit the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

  • Kim, Su-Ok;Kong, Chang-Suk;Kil, Jeung-Ha;Kim, Ji-Young;Han, Min-Soo;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.349-352
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    • 2005
  • The growth inhibitory effect of wheat grain, fermented wheat grain products, red pepper powder and kochujang was examined in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The kochujang samples were prepared by mixing red pepper powder and each fermented wheat grain products, such as first fermented wheat grain (FFWG), second fermented wheat grain (SFWG) and final fermented wheat grain (FiFWG). The methanol extract of FiFWG showed the highest growth inhibitory effects. In order to investigate the effects of fermented wheat grain products at each stage of fermentation on anticancer activity, the kochujang prepared with red pepper powder and each of FFWG, SFWG and FiFWG were fermented until reaching pH 5.1. The kochujang adjusted to pH 5.1 by fermentation increased the growth inhibitory effect; however, the kochujang prepared with FiFWG showed the highest effect. Increased fermentation time increased the growth inhibitory effect of kochujang when prepared with FiFWG. These results suggested that the anticancer effect of the kochujang on the gastric cancer cells was affected by the fermentation periods of the wheat grains. The well-fermented end products of the wheat grains seem to be one of the major components that showed anticancer activity of kochujang.

Processing and Characteristics of Canned Salt-fermented Anchovy Engraulis japonica Fillet using Red Pepper Paste with Vinegar (초고추장첨가 멸치(Engraulis japonica)육젓필레통조림의 제조 및 특성)

  • Kwon, Soon-Jae;Yoon, Moon-Joo;Lee, Jae-Dong;Kang, Kyung-Hun;Kong, Cheung-Sik;Je, Hae-Soo;Jung, Jae-Hun;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.726-732
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    • 2014
  • A traditional Korean seafood (fermented anchovy) is made from the muscle and viscera of anchovies Engraulis japonica. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of retorting condition on the quality of canned, salt-fermented anchovy fillet using red pepper paste with vinegar. Salt-fermented anchovy fillets were prepared by fermenting anchovies with salt (15%) at $5^{\circ}C$ for 15 days, and then cold air drying the fillets for 1 hour. Each batch of dried fermented anchovy fillets (60 g) was filled with 35 g of mixed red pepper paste with vinegar (red pepper paste 64%, vinegar 2%, starch syrup 13%, sugar 14%, coke 6%, soju 0.4%, crushed garlic 0.3%, ginger 0.3%), placed in a can (RR-90), seamed using a vacuum seamer, and sterilized for either Fo 9 or 11 min in a steam system retort at $121^{\circ}C$. After sterilization, we measured the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), amino-N, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, sensory evaluation, and viable bacterial count of the canned fillets. We did not detect viable bacterial counts in cans subjected to either sterilization treatment, and there was no difference in physicochemical and sensory quality between the two. In fact, most sensory evaluators reported difficulty distinguishing the products. Thus, our results show that sterilization for Fo 9 min is preferable to that for Fo 11 min in the preparation of canned salt-fermented anchovy fillet using red pepper paste with vinegar.

Characteristics and HMG-Co A Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Red Pepper Soybean Paste(Kochujang) Prepared from Red-Rice and Barley. (홍국과 보리를 이용하여 제조한 고추장의 특성과 HMG-Co A Reductase 저해활성)

  • Hyun, Kwang-Uk;No, Jae-Duck;Lim, Seong-Il;Cha, Seong-Kwan;Choi, Sin-Yang
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.173-176
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the palatability of fermented red pepper soybean paste (Kochujang). Five individual models of Kochujang were prepared the following: control, glutinous rice containing 50% (A) and 100% (B) of barley, glutinous rice containing 1.5% (C) and 3.0% (D) of red rice. These Kochujangs were prepared and fermented for 60 days at 30 in a crock, and examined for changes in their physicochemical properties. There were no distinguishable change in their pH, acidity, formol-N content. L (lightness)-, a (redness)- and b (yellowness)-values were decreased rapidly until 20 days of fermentation. After 60 days, the values of L-, a- and b- of A, B Kochujang were increased than those of control, C, D Kochujang. Sensory profiles of color, flayer, taste and overall quality on the final products which fermented for 60 days showed that there were no differences in quality of each models. HMG-Co A reductase inhibitory activities were observed in 1.5% of red rice containing Kochujang.