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Establishment of prediction table of parturition day by ultrasonography in Korean Jindo bitches (진도개에서 초음파검사에 의한 분만일 예정표 확립)

  • Kim, Se-ra;Kang, Hyun-gu;Oh, Ki-seok;Park, In-chul;Park, Sang-guk;Kim, Sung-ho;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.373-381
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    • 2000
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter were made from pregnancy day 15 to parturition. These measurements were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from day -42 to day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from day -24 to day -1 were used to prediction of parturition day. Formulas for the prediction of parturition day using the method of least squares were derived. These formulas were then used to predict parturition dates based on single measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter or fetal head diameter in 17 additional pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Predicted date of parturition was then compared to actual whelping date. In the prediction of parturition based on inner chorionic cavity diameter, 7 of 10 bitches were coincided prediction date and actual whelping date, and the prediction was accurate to within 1 day in 3 of 10 bitches. The prediction of parturition based on fetal head diameter was accurate to within 1 day in 6 of 7 bitches and within 2 days in 1 of 7 bitches. In conclusion, the ultrasound measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter are practical and accurate tool in the prediction of parturition.

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Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Gestational Structures throughout Pregnancy in Pet Dogs II. Estimation of Gestational Age and Prediction of Parturition Day by Measurement of the Gestational Structu (애완견에서 임신일령에 따른 임신구조물의 초음파상 II. 임신구조물의 측정에 의한 임신일령의 판정과 분만일의 예시)

  • 손창호;강병규;최한선;서동호;신창록;박인철
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 1997
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were daily performed on 8 bitches (5 Maltese and 3 Yorkshire terrier) from day 15 until parturition to determine the size of gestational structures. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. When the size of fetal and extra-fetal structures according to gestational age was measured, there was a difference between Maltese and Yorkshire terrier in extra-fetal structures (P<0.001), and no difference in fetal structrures (P<0.001). The correlations between the gestational age and the growth in fetal and extra-fetal structures were examined by regression analysis. The extra-fetal structure which showed high correlation from day 20 to 35 was inner chorionic cavity diameter in two breeds. The fetal structures which showed high correlation from day 36 until parturition was fetal head diameter in two breeds. In conclusions inner chorionic cavity diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age and prediction of whelping day from day 20 to 35, and fetal head diameter from day 36 to parturitions respectively. Ultrasonography is very useful tool to evaluate the gestational age and to predict the whelping day in pet dogs.

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Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Gestational Structures Throughout Pregnancy in Shih-tzu bitches II. Estimation of Gestational Age by Measurement of the Fetal and Extra-fetal Structures (Shih-tzu견에서 임신일령에 따른 임신구조물의 초음파상 II. 태아 및 태아외구조물의 측정에 의한 임신일령의 추정)

  • 김방실;고진성;황순신;이순애;조양택;오기석;김성호;박인철;김종택
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2004
  • Serial ultrasonographic examination was daily performed on 12 pregnant Shih-tzu bitches from day 15 until parturition to determine the size of gestational structures. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. Extra-fetal structures were measurable from days 17 to 46. Outer uterine diameter increased from $9.9{\pm}0.4$ mm (Mean${\pm}$SD) at day 20 to $44.3{\pm}0.8$ mm at day 46 and inner chorionic cavity diameter increased from $7.2{\pm}0.2$ mm at day 17 to $36.9{\pm}1.5$mm at day 41. Length of chorionic cavity or zonary placenta increased from $6.6{\pm}0.4$ mm at day 21 to $46.4{\pm}0.9$ mm at day 44. Of the extra-fetal structures, inner chorionic cavity diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age until day 38. Fetal structures were measurable from days 23 to 60. Crown-rump length increased from $3.9{\pm}0.3$ mm at day 23 to $55.2{\pm}3.3$ mm at day 41, fetal body diameter increased from $7.9{\pm}0.6$ mm at day 32 to $47.8{\pm}2$ mm at day 60, and fetal head diameter increased from $6.3{\pm}1.1$ mm at day 29 to $25.6{\pm}0.2$ mm at day 60. Of the fetal structures, fetal head diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age from day 38 until day 60.

Fetal Growth Rate and Determination of Weaning Time for Adoption of Kittens in Free-Roaming Cats

  • Kang, Yeon-Jeong;Kim, Ill-Hwa;Kang, Hyun-Gu
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2017
  • The aims of the present study were to determine the weaning time for adoption of kittens, and to evaluate the fetal growth rate during pregnant in free-roaming cats. This study was conducted on three pregnant free-roaming cats (one feral cat and two stray cats). Radiography and ultrasonography were performed on the feral cat and on one of the stray cats. In the feral cat, fetal head diameter was measured once during pregnancy to determine the cesarean section (C-sec) time. In the stray cat, serial fetal head diameter was measured from capture to parturition. The body weight of the feral cat's kittens was measured from 4 weeks postpartum because of their wildness. That of the stray cats' kittens was measured immediately after birth. In the feral cat, scheduled C-sec was performed at predicted parturition day by measurement of head diameter, and six healthy kittens were delivered. The stray cats had five and six kittens by natural delivery, respectively. In the body weight gain of feral and stray cat's kittens, two female kittens of the feral cat lost weight rapidly after they were separated from their mother, so they were returned to their mother for 1 more week. After that, the female kittens grew up without difficulty. Body weight gain of the ten kittens born to the two stray cats consistently increased, by approximately 14 g every day, until they were adopted. The body weight of kittens born by natural delivery was on average 77.5 g greater than that of kittens born by C-sec. However, the gap decreased with time. During the stray cat's pregnancy, fetal head diameter increased by 0.042 cm every day. Maximum head size before parturition was 2.43 cm. These results indicate that the weaning time for adoption of kittens was 5-week-old postpartum.

Ultrasonographic appearance of the gestational structures throughout accurately timed pregnancy in Korea Jin-do dogs II. Estimation of gestational age by measurement of the fetal and extra-fetal structures (진도개에서 임신일령에 따른 임신구조물의 초음파상 II. 태아 및 태아외구조물의 측정에 의한 임신일령의 추정)

  • Son, Chang-ho;Shin, Chang-rok;Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 1996
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 9 pregnant Korea Jin-do dog from days 15 to 60 to determine the size of gestational structures throughout pregnancy. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (Day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. Extra-fetal structures were measureable from days 17 to 49. Outer uterine diameter increased from $7.0{\pm}0.7$ ($mean{\pm}SD$)mm at day 17 to $54.0{\pm}2.2mm$ at day 49 and inner chorionic cavity diameter increased from $3.0{\pm}0.7mm$ at day 17 to $37.5{\pm}0.6mm$ at day 49. Uterine wall thickness increased from $2.8{\pm}0.4mm$ at day 17 to $8.3{\pm}0.5mm$ at day 49, placental thickness increased from $1.0{\pm}0.1mm$ at day 22 to $5.7{\pm}0.2mm$ at day 49 and length of chorionic cavity or zonary placenta increased from $5.5{\pm}1.3mm$ at day 20 to $52.3{\pm}2.2mm$ at day 49. Inner chorionic cavity diameter, outer uterine diameter and placental length each increased at a linear rate through day 37, after which time, each had a marked plateau in growth. Of the extra-fetal structures, inner chorionic cavity diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age until day 37. Fetal structures were measureable from days l7 to 60. Crown-rump length, increased from $3.0{\pm}0.7mm$ at day 22 to $118.7{\pm}3.1mm$ at day 49, fetal body diameter increased from $4.0{\pm}0.7mm$ at day 25 to $55.8{\pm}1.7mm$ at day 60 and fetal head diameter increased from $4.3{\pm}0.6mm$ at day 26 to $29.8{\pm}0.8mm$ at day 60. Of the fetal structures, fetal head diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age from day 37 until day 60.

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Establishment of a prediction table of parturition day in Shih-tzu bitches with ultrasound scanning (Shih-tzu견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 분만일 예시표 확립)

  • Kim, Bang-sil;Ko, Jin-sung;Lee, Sun-ae;Cho, Yang-tak;Kim, Jae-pung;Oh, Ki-seok;Kim, Jong-taek;Park, In-chul;Kim, Young-hong;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2004
  • To establish a prediction table of parturition day real-time B-mode ultrasonographic examinations were performed in 12 pregnant Shih-tzu bitches. Measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was performed from 15 days of gestation to parturition. These were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (Day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day -44 to Day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day -25 to Day -1 were used to compile a prediction table of parturition day. The 22 pregnant Shih-tzu with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the table established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition day and compared to actual parturition day. Parturition day prediction based on the inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was 100% accurate within ${\pm}2$ days. In addition, the accuracy for parturition day within 0, ${\pm}1$, and ${\pm}2$ days interval using the prediction table of parturition day were 68, 82, and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the prediction table of parturition day seems to be a useful tool for the prediction of parturition day in practice.

Estimation of Gestational Age by Measurement of Fetal and Extra-fetal Structures in Miniature Schnauzer Bitches

  • Kim, Bang-Sil;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.501-505
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    • 2008
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 9 Miniature Schnauzer bitches from day 15 of gestation until parturition to determine the ultrasonographic measurement of gestational structures. Ovulation was designated the day that plasma progesterone concentration exceeded 4.0 ng/ml (day 0). Extra-fetal structures were measured from day 17 or 18 to 60. Outer uterine diameter (OUD) increased from $6.50{\pm}1.06mm$ ($Mean{\pm}SD$) to $50.89{\pm}5.62mm$, inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICCD) increased from $2.10{\pm}0.15mm$ to $37.15{\pm}4.36mm$, and length of placenta (PL) increased from $7.50 {\pm}1.41mm$ to $40.62{\pm}3.27mm$. OUD and ICCD were significantly and linearly relative to gestational age especially through day 37, whereas PL was not significantly relative to gestational age. Of the extra-fetal structures, ICCD was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age before day 38 of gestation. Fetal structures increased at a linear rate to parturition. Fetal crown-rump length (CRL) increased from $2.55{\pm}0.07mm$ on day 22 to $85.25{\pm}9.89mm$ on day 48. Fetal head diameter (HD) increased from $3.43{\pm}0.64mm$ on day 27 to $25.06{\pm}0.41mm$ on day 63. Fetal body diameter (BD) increased from $ 5.96{\pm}0.84mm$ on day 30 to $43.76{\pm}3.36mm$ on day 63. Of the fetal structures, HD was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age after day 38 to parturition.

Estimation of Gestational Age by Measurement of Deep Portion of Telencephalic Vesicle in Pekingese Fetus

  • Park, Jun-Tae;Park, Chul-Ho;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.369-373
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to establish a new parameter for estimating gestational age and predicting parturition day by ultrasonographic measurement of deep portion of telencephalic vesicle (DPTV) diameter in small dogs. Fetal head diameter (HD) and DPTV diameter were measured in 15 pregnant Pekingese bitches, from Day 15 to the parturition day, and evaluated the correlation between gestational age. HD was measured from day 29 of pregnancy to parturition day and increased from $4.9{\pm}2mm$ to $25.5{\pm}0.7mm$. Especially, from day 38 of pregnancy to parturition day, HD uniformly increased about 0.6 mm per day and was significantly and linearly relative to gestational age during this period ($r^2$ >0.99). DPTV diameter was measured from day 35 to day 60 of pregnancy and increased from $3.2{\pm}0.9mm$ to $11.5{\pm}0.7mm$. Especially from day 38 to day 60 of pregnancy, DPTV diameter uniformly increased about 1 mm per 3 days and was significantly and linearly relative to gestational age during this period ($r^2$ >0.99). In conclusion, DPTV diameter could to be a useful parameter for the estimation of gestational age and the prediction of parturition day when used alone or in combination with HD during the second half of pregnancy.

Growth Curve of the Gestational Structures by Ultrasonography Examination in Small Pet Dogs (소형 애완견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 임신 구조물의 성장 곡선)

  • Oh, Ki-Seok;Kim, Bang-Sil;Park, Sang-Guk;Park, Chul-Ho;Kim, Jae-Hong;Mun, Byeong-Gwon;Kim, Hee-Su;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2008
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were daily performed from 15 days after ovulation until parturition to determine the growth curve of gestational structures in pregnant Maltese, Yorkshire terrier, Shih-tzu, and Miniature Schnauzer bitches, respectively. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. The inner chorionic cavity diameter were significantly and linearly relative to gestational age especially days 20 to 40, and the fetal head diameter were significantly and linearly relative to gestational age especial1y day 40 to parturition. These results indicate that inner chorionic cavity diameter were the most accurate for estimating gestational age before day 38 of gestation and the fetal head diameter were after day 38 of gestation.

Establishment of a Prediction Table of Parturition Day with Ultrasonography in Small Pet Dogs (소형 애완견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 분만일 예시표의 확립)

  • Oh, Ki-Seok;Kim, Bang-Sil;Park, Sang-Guk;Park, Chul-Ho;Kim, Jae-Hong;Mun, Byeong-Gwon;Kim, Hee-Su;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2008
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed to establish a prediction table of parturition date in pregnant Maltese, Yorkshire Terrier, Shih-tzu and Miniature Schnauzer bitches. The inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter in 45 pregnant bitches were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition. The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day-44 to Day-25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day-25 to Day-1 were used to compile a equations of prediction of parturition date. The 70 pregnant bitches with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the equations established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition date and compared to actual parturition date. The accuracy for parturition date within 0, $\pm$1, and $\pm$2 days interval using the equations of prediction of parturition date were 64.3%, 22.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The overall accuracy of prediction table of parturition day based on the ICCD and HD was 100% accurate within $\pm$2 days. Therefore, the prediction table seems to be a useful tool of the prediction of parturition day in practice.