• Title, Summary, Keyword: fiber type composition

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Effects of Bedding Materials and Season on the Composition and Production Rate of Broiler Litter as a Nutrient Resource for Ruminants

  • Park, K.K.;Yang, S.Y.;Kim, B.K.;Jung, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2000
  • Broiler litter can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants. Fifty seven litter samples collected from 47 farms in Kyungkee Province of Korea were analyzed to assess the effects of type and amount of bedding (rice hulls vs. sawdust), season (winter vs. summer) and drinkers (bell- vs. trough-type) on composition of broiler litter. Rearing conditions of broilers were also surveyed from the farms to estimate annual production rate of litter. Nutrient composition of broiler litter varied widely and moisture and ash concentrations were higher than observed by other researchers. Ash concentration was higher (p<0.05) for samples taken in winter than in summer and higher (p<0.05) in the rice hulls- than in the sawdust-based litter both in winter and summer. Only minor differences in litter composition were noted between drinkers. Ash was negatively correlated with crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). The estimated litter production rate was 2.7 kg per bird per flock on a wet basis (60% DM) and the annual production rate was 12.7 kg per bird per yr (60% DM). Therefore, the 42 million broilers per month grown in Korea in 1999 produced a total of 533,400 metric tons of litter.

Preparation and Properties of UV- Curable Primary Coating Material for Optical Fiber (광섬유 1차 Coating용 UV 경화수지의 제조 및 물성)

  • Gang, Seung-Gu;Ha, Chang-Sik;Kim, Han-Do
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.43-55
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    • 1991
  • Several urethane acrylate prepolymers were prepared from two different isocyanate, 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate( HMDI) or isophrone diisocyanate(IPDI) , and two different polyol, polybutadienediol(PBD) and/or polypropylene oxide biol(PPG), and 2- hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA) with dibutyl tin dilaurate as a catalyst. Formulation of the UV-curable buffer coating was made with prepolymer, photoinitiator, and one of four different diluent such as 1-vinyl -2-pyrrolidone(VP), lauryl methacrylate(LMA), acrylic acid -2-ethyl hexyl ester(AEHE) and acrylic acid n - butyl ester(ABE). The effect of the chemical structure of diluent and prepolymer, and overall composition of the prepolymer/diluent on the properties of IV-curable urethane acrylate for primary optical fiber coating were investigated. The properties of the polyurethane acrylate coating material such as modulils, refractive index, and viscosity were dependent on the type and content of prepolymer and diluent, and overall composition of the formulation. It was found that AEHE is desirable diluent for primary fiber coating material. The desirable composition of PBD, when mixed PBD/PPG dials are used, is about 50wt%. Most of the urethane acrylate prepolymers prepared in this study could be used for primary optical fiber coating material and exhibited good properties, i.e., low glass transition temperature, low modulus even at low temperature, say, below -40℃, high refractive index and low viscosity.

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Effect of Pulp Type and Fines Content in a Stock on the Polyelectrolyte Multilayering onto Pulp Fiber (펄프 종류와 지료 내 미세분 함량이 고분자전해질 multilayering에 미치는 영향)

  • Chin, Seong-Min;Ryu, Jae-Ho;Lee, Sung-Rin;Youn, Hye-Jung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2008
  • Properties of pulp fibers can be modified by LbL multilayering technology. We evaluated the effect of stock composition on the polyelectrolyte multilayering performance of pulp fibers in this study. Stock composition was varied with pulp type and fines content. Three types of pulp-Hw-BKP, BCTMP and KOCC-were treated with polyelectrolytes of poly-DADMAC and PSS. Fines content of stock were controlled at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. Zeta potential of pulp fibers and charge demand of filtrate were evaluated. The highest adsorption ratio was obtained for BCTMP because of its shortest fiber length and highest specific surface area. Higher fines content in the stock increased the adsorption ratio of polyelectrolyte onto pulp fiber and it required a higher amount of polyelectrolyte for charge neutralization. For the pulp stock with higher fines content, a higher level of polyelectrolyte and the increased layer number were required to modify and stabilize the electrochemical properties of pulp fibers.

Differences in Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Meat Quality by Muscle Type and Age of Korean Native Black Goat

  • Hwang, Young-Hwa;Bakhsh, Allah;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.988-999
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits by age of Korean native black goat (KNBG), four muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD; psoas major, PM; semimembranosus, SM; gluteus medius, GM) were obtained from five adult goat (AG; 18 months old) and five young goat (YG; 9 months old). PM muscle had the highest fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of type I, followed by SM, GM, and LD muscles. FNP and FAP of type IIB were significantly (p<0.001) higher in AG than those in YG. YG had higher L* values but lower b* values than AG. The highest L* and b* values were observed in LD muscle (p<0.001). Age and muscle type had detrimental (p<0.001) effect on shear force and collagen content for all muscle in AG as compared to YG. YG had significantly (p<0.001) higher myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) than AG for all four muscles. These results suggest that muscle fiber compositions of different muscle types of KNBG depend on age, resulting in variations of meat color, MFI, collagen content, and shear force.

Relationships among Instrumental Tenderness Parameters, Meat Quality Traits, and Histochemical Characteristics in Porcine Longissimus dorsi Muscle

  • Shin, Han-Gyol;Choi, Young-Min;Nam, Yun-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Choe, Jee-Hwan;Jeong, Da-Woon;Kim, Byoung-Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.965-970
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between instrumental tenderness parameters and histochemical characteristics in the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle, and to investigate a comparison between tenderness parameters such as the Warner-Bratzler shear-force (WBS) and texture profile analysis (TPA). A negative relationship between WBS and fiber area was observed. However, there was no significant relationship between hardness and muscle fiber area. The percentage of fiber type IIb exhibited a positive correlation with hardness. There was a negative relationship between the type IIa composition percentage and hardness. This study showed that some muscle fiber characteristics were related to WBS and TPA parameters, especially hardness.

A Histochemical Study of the Masseter Muscle Fibers of White Rat with Unilateral Edentulous Jaw (편측 무치악이 백서 교근 근섭유에 미치는 영향에 관한 조직화학적 연구)

  • Hong-Ryeol Ryu;Sung-Woo Lee
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 1988
  • The study of the muscle fiver composition and the muscle fiver type conversion during unilateral edentulous condition was undertaken in the rostral superficial masseter muscle of the whiter rat. 16 4-week-old male white rats weighting approximately 130gm that crowns of left upper and lower molare were cut intentionally, were divided into 4 groups (one control group and 3 experimental groups). After experimental groups were sacrificed by etherization in 6 days($E_1$), 18 days($E_2$) and 36 days($E_3$) separately, samples of the rostral superficial masseter muscle were obtained bilaterally and the proportion of type I, type IIA, type IIB, and type IIC fibers was determined and counted according to their histochemical activity of myosin ATPase (at pH 9.4, pH 4.6, and pH 4.2)and PAD staining. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The rostral superficial masseter muscle of the white rat contained approximately 47.5% type I fiber and 52.5% type II fiber. 2. Type I/ Type II ratio of molar-present side was increased significantly in the group E2 (18 days group) 3. Type IIA fiber was increased at molar-present side and decreased at molar-absent side in experimental groups.

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Physical Properties of Various Structured Knitted Fabrics (니트의 편성조직에 따른 물성 평가)

  • Yea, Su-Jeong;Song, Wha-Soon
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.990-995
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    • 2011
  • This study analyzed the effects of the knit stitch type, fiber composition, and yarn thickness on the mechanical properties of knitted fabric. The results were as follows: The course density was the highest in the case of the rib stitch. On the other hand, the wale density was the highest in the case of the float stitch. The thickness was the highest in the case of the rib stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses considered in this study. The burst strength of wool knit fabric was higher than that of A/W knit fabric. The stiffness was the lowest in the case of the plain stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses. The pilling properties were excellent for all knit stitches, fiber composition, and yarn thicknesses as pilling degree : 5. The air permeability decreased in the following order : rib > plain > float stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses. The heat retention rate decreased in the following order : rib > float > plain stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses.

Effects of Chaenomelis fructus Herbal Acupuncture on Muscle Fiber in Muscle Atrophy Rat induced by Hindkimb Suspension (목과약침(木瓜藥鍼)이 후지체공(後肢滯空)으로 유발(誘發)된 근위축(筋萎縮) 흰쥐의 근섬유(筋纖維) 변화(變化)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Chun, Chul-Ki;Nam, Sang-Soo;Park, Dong-Suk
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.170-185
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    • 2001
  • Objective : This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of Chaenomelis fructus herbal acupuncture on the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscle of hindlimb-suspended rats. The measurement have been performed on the composition of type I, type IIa and type IIb muscle fibers in the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscie - histochemical study. Materials and Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250g were subjected to hindlimb suspension and divided into six groups; 1. Normal group: normai group 2. Control group: group of hindlimb suspension for 7 days 3. NT group: non-treatment group for 2 or 4 weeks after 7days of hindlimb suspension. 4. EX gtoup: running exercise group for 2 or 4 weeks after 7days of hindlimb suspension. 5. HA group: administration of Chaenomelis fructus herbal acupuncture during 2 or 4 weeks after 7 days of hindlimb suspension. 6. EXHA group: administration of Chaenomelis fructus herbal acupuncture and running exercise during 2 or 4 weeks after 7 days of hindlimb suspension. Results Results : 1. The composition of type I muscle fibers in the soleus muscle significantly increased in 2 or 4 weeks HA and EXHA groups more than control group, and the composition of type IIa muscle fibers in the soleus muscle significantly decreased in 2 or 4 weeks HA and EXHA goups more than control group. 2. The composition of type I muscie fibers in the tibialis anterior muscle significantly increased in 2 or 4 weeks HA and EXHA groups more than control group, and the composition of type IIb muscle fibers in the soleus muscle significantly decreased in 2 or 4 weeks HA and EXHA groups more than control group. 3. The size of type I muscle fibers in the soleus muscle significantly increased in 2 or 4 weeks HA and EXHA groups more than control group, and the size of type IIa muscle fibers in the soleus muscle significantly increased in 2 weeks EXHA group and 4 weeks HA and EXHA groups more than control group. 4. The size of type I, IIa muscle fibers in the tibialis anterior muscle significantly increased in 2 or 4weeks HA, EXHA and EX groups more than control group, and the size of type IIb muscle fibers significantly increased in 2 weeks EXHA group and 4 weeks HA, EXHA and EX groups more than control group. 5. The capiliaries number per fiber of muscle fibers in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscle showed no differences in all experimental groups more than control group. Conclusion : According to the above results, it is shown that Chaenomelis fructus herbal acupuncture could be effective in the treatment of muscle atrophy.

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A Study on the Improvement for Construction Performance of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (섬유 보강 시멘트 복합체의 시공성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Koh, Kyung-Taeg;Park, Jung-Jun;Ryu, Gum-Sung;Kang, Su-Tae;Ahn, Ki-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.393-396
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    • 2006
  • This study present the experimental research investigating the influence of material factors such as a type or amount of superplasticizer, velocity agent, mineral admixture and steel fiber on the construction performance of fiber reinforced cementitious composites. As for the test results, it was found that the workability of fiber reinforced cementitious composites can be improved when the material factors were matched properly in amount and composition. Furthermore, it was shown that the smaller value of the aspect ratio of fiber improved the workability of fiber reinforced cementitious composites. And the fiber reinforced cementitious composites with better workability showed the enhanced compressive strength and flexural strength.

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Effect of Variety and Stage of Maturity on Nutritive Value of Whole Crop Rice, Yield, Botanical Fractions, Silage Fermentability and Chemical Composition

  • Islam, M.R.;Ishida, M.;Ando, S.;Nishida, T.;Yoshida, N.;Arakawa, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.183-192
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    • 2004
  • The effect of eight varieties of grain and forage type whole crop rice (Oryza sativa L Japonica) each harvested at four stages of maturity were investigated for morphology and yield, proportion of botanical fractions, fermentatability and chemical composition in an $8{\times}4$ factorial experiment. All crops were sown in 1997 at Saitama Prefecture, Japan under identical condition and harvested on 10, 22, 34 and 45 days after flowering in 1998. Total DM yield of forage type varieties was similar to that of the highest yield of grain type varieties. However, while yield of forage type varieties was attributed to higher proportion of straw than head, the reverse was in the case of grain type varieties. Yield in line with the proportion of head increased (p<0.001), but in contrast proportion of straw decreased (p<0.001) with the increase in maturity. Silage fermentability of grain type varieties was better than forage type varieties. Fermentability improved with the increase (p<0.001) in maturity suggesting that the moisture content should be reduced to improve fermentation quality. Forage type varieties contained higher (p<0.001) ash, crude fat (EE), organic cell wall (OCW) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), but contained lower crude protein (CP), organic cell content (OCC), CP in OCC and nitrogen-free cell wall extract (NCWFE) than the grain type varieties. The ash, CP, EE, Oa (60% digestible OCW), Ob (40% digestible OCW), OCW, ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) decreased (p<0.001), but OCC and NCWFE increased (p<0.001) with the increase in maturity. It is concluded that stage of maturity not only increases yield and proportion of head, but also improved the fermentation quality and increases quality chemical composition (except CP) of whole crop rice. Forage type varieties may be as good as grain type varieties in terms of yield, but fermentation quality and chemical composition may not be as good as that of grain type varieties.