• Title, Summary, Keyword: fiber type composition

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Effects of coated cysteamine hydrochloride on muscle fiber characteristics and amino acid composition of finishing pigs

  • Bai, Miaomiao;Liu, Hongnan;Xu, Kang;Yu, Rong;Oso, Abimbola Oladele;Deng, Jinping;Yin, Yulong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.1430-1438
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This experiment was designed to determine the effects of coated cysteamine hydrochloride (CC) on muscle fiber characteristics, amino acid composition and transporters gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of finishing pigs. Methods: Two hundred and sixteen Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire cross-bred male finishing pigs were fed with a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 0, 70, and 140 mg/kg cysteamine. Each group contained eight replicates of nine pigs per replicate. After 29 days, one pig was randomly selected from each replicate and slaughtered. Blood and LDM samples were collected and analyzed. Results: The results showed that supplemental dietary CC increased (p<0.05) the muscle fiber density. And CC supplementation also up-regulated (p<0.05) the expression of myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) and MyHC2x mRNA levels, and down-regulated (p<0.05) MyHC2b expression in the LDM. Additionally, supplemental dietary CC reduced (p<0.05) the concentration of total cholesterol in the plasma and enhanced (p<0.05) the concentrations of essential amino acid and total amino acid in the LDM. The relative expression levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase 2, $b^{0,+}$ amino acid transporter, and $y^+$-L-type amino acid transporter 1 were upregulated (p<0.05) in the LDM when pigs were fed with the dietary CC of 70 mg/kg. Conclusion: Cysteamine supplementation could increase fiber density and distribution of fiber types. It also improved the deposition of protein in the LDM by up-regulated the expression of amino acid transporters.

Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Ethylene-Propylene Copolymers -Structure-Property Relationship- (에틸렌-프로필렌 공중합체의 열적 및 동탄성적 성질 -구조와 성질과의 관계-)

  • 박영환
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 1990
  • ABA type block copolymers of ethylene and propylene, where the central B block is a random copolymer of ethylene and propylene and the A blocks are isotactic polypropylene, are prepared in addition to ethylene-propylene random copolymers. A dry catalyst system of TiCl3(AA)-Et2AlCl and a gas-phase polymerization technique were used for the preparation of copolymers. Thermal and dynamic mechanical behavior of ethylene-propylene block copolymers are described with respect to the relationships between structure and property. The results from thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that the EP random copolymers developed the 'blocky'nature. The block architecture as well as monomer composition was demonstrated as an important factor in determining the physical and mechanical properties of ABA type ethylene-propylene block copolymers.

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Analysis of Nutritional and Volatile flavor Compounds of Garlic Shoot (마늘순의 영양적 성분 및 향기 성분 분석)

  • 김미연;정신교
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 1997
  • To enhance the utilization of garlic shoots as food material, the nutritional and volatile flavor com pounds were investigated for garlic shoots, both cold and warm region type garlic shoots. Proximate composition of cold and warm region type was as follows, respectively; crude protein 2%, crude lipid 0.4%, crude ash 1.1% and 1.5%, crude fiber 1.3% and 1.5%. The major fatty acids of 2 varieties of garlic shoots were linoleic, palmitic and linolenic acid, and their desaturation ratio of them was comparatively high, showing 73.7 and 66.8%, respectively. Free sugars were composed of glucose, sucrose, fructose, arabinose and sorbitol. In the total amino acid analysis, the major amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The volatile flavor compounds of fresh garlic shoots extracted by hexane and Likens-Nikerson steam distillation apparatus were identified to be methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, diallyl disufide, propenyl propyl disulfide, di-2-propyl-trisulfide, 2-vinyl-1,3-dithiane, and 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin. Hexane was more effective than steam distillation for extraction of volatile components of garlic shoots.

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Washing Efficiency of Blood-Soiled Fabrics in Various Conditions of Washing - Focus on Washing Temperature, Fiber Type and Blood Aging - (혈액오구의 세척성에 관한 연구 - 세탁온도, 섬유종류 및 혈액의 노화를 중심으로 -)

  • Byeon, Hye Jin;Kim, Hye Jin;Myeong, Jeong Eun;Jo, Hee Ryeong;Yun, Changsang
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.534-539
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    • 2020
  • Experimental research is needed to provide information on the removal of bloodstains since washing clothes contaminated with blood is necessary for medical related fields (such as ambulance workers and doctors) as well as for women of childbearing age. This study investigated efficient washing conditions for the removal of bloodstains with a focus on washing temperature, fiber type and blood ageing time. Polyester/cotton fabric showed the highest detergency from among three fabrics that were influenced by the composition of the fiber and the structure of the yarn and fabric. When examining the effect of detergent, it was concluded that the alkalinity over pH 10 was essential to remove bloodstains and that auxiliary agents such as soil antiredeposition agents and bleach had a significant effect on the removal of bloodstains. Washing temperature showed the highest detergency at 20℃ due to the activity of the enzyme without the denaturalization of blood. Blood-ageing influenced detergency by inducing changes in the adsorption area and chemical bond. A combination of methods such as quick removal after contamination, use of alkaline detergents including soil antiredeposition agents and bleach, and low-temperature washing could help remove bloodstains.

Comparison of Pork Quality and Muscle Fiber Characteristics between Jeju Black Pig and Domesticated Pig Breeds (제주 개량 흑돼지와 국내에 도입된 주요 돼지 품종의 육질 특성 및 근섬유 특성 비교)

  • Ko, Kyong Bo;Kim, Gap-Don;Kang, Dong-Geun;Kim, Yeong-Hwa;Yang, Ik-Dong;Ryu, Youn-Chul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.467-473
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the pork quality and muscle fiber characteristics between the Jeju black pig (JBP) and domesticated pig breeds, including three-way crossbred (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc, LYD), Berkshire (B), Duroc (D), Landrace (L), Meishan (M), and Yorkshire (Y) pigs. JBP had the lowest carcass weight among the pig breeds (p<0.05) and its NPPC marbling score was lower than the other domesticated pig breeds (p<0.05), except for M. M had the highest value for backfat thickness among the pig breeds (p<0.05), whereas its NPPC marbling score was the lowest (p<0.05). The pH values were higher in JBP and B at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, respectively, but LYD and M had the lowest pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, respectively (p<0.05). M had a higher lightness and lower redness than the other breeds (p<0.05). Moreover, M had the highest drip loss among the pig breeds (p<0.05), whereas D had the lowest drip loss and the highest redness (p<0.05). In terms of muscle fiber characteristics, JBP and LYD had the largest type IIB fibers (p<0.05). The fiber number and area composition of type I fibers were higher in JBP than the others (p<0.05) however type IIA fibers were lowest in JBP among the pig breeds (p<0.05). Overall, our results indicate that JBP provided better pork quality compared with M, but the carcass trait and pork quality of JBP were not better than LYD and D, respectively.

Effect of guar gum on the blood composition in type-II diabetic subjects (Guar gum이 type-II 당뇨병 환자의 혈액성분에 미치는 영향)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.457-465
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    • 1989
  • Guar gum, a storage polysaccharide galactomannan was administered to 11 patients with type-II diabetes mellitus for 7 days and 3 weeks. They took 5 grams of guar gum 30 mins before each of three meals daily. The dinner 2-h postprandial values of their blood glucose were significantly lowered (P<0.05) after their guar treatment for 7 days compared with before taking guar gum. The 2-h postprandial values of blood glucose were significantly lowered(P<0.05) after 3 weeks of gual treatment compared with before taking guar gum. In an oral glucose tolerance test, their blood glucose values were significantly lowered at 120 mins(P<0.02) and 180 mins(P<0.05) after guar treatment. Total-lipid(P<0.01) and triglycerides(P<0.02) of their blood were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol(P<0.02) was significantly increased after guar treatment. HbA1C was significantly reduced (P<0.05) from 11.3% to 10.1% The body weight, total-cholesterol and insulin activity of the patients after guar treatment were not significantly changed and the satiety ratings of the patients with guar treatment was not significantly changed and the satiety ratings of the patients with guar treatment was not significantly changed, however, the subjects that answered from 'Want to eat but can wait' to 'No desire to eat' were 81.1%. It is concluded that guar gum improves their carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Korean type-II diabetic subjects with high fiber diets.

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Development of New Powdered Additive and Its Application for Improving the Paperboard Bulk and Reducing Drying Energy (I) -Analysis of Chemical and Physical Properties of Brewers Grain - (산업용지의 벌크 향상 및 건조에너지 절감을 위한 분말상 첨가제 제조기술 개발 (I) - 신규 유기물질 맥주박의 화학적.물리적 특성 평가 -)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Choi, Jae-Sung;Kim, Byeong-Ho;Lim, Gi-Baek;Kim, Da-Mi
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2012
  • Brewers grain is a byproduct of beer brewing and consists primarily of grain husks, pericarp, and fragments of endosperm. Although this material is consumed by animals and used as fertilizer, a large amount of brewers grain is simply discarded. Therefore, new methods for utilizing this fibrous resource should be pursued. In this study, we examined the potential utilization of brewers grain as an additive in the paperboard industry by determining the chemical composition of brewers grain and the physical properties of brewers grain powders after grinding with two types of grinders. We found that brewers grain had a lower holocellulose content and higher lignin content and intermediate ash content when compared to other biomass materials, and did not contain any contaminants that would interfere with the papermaking process. Particles had a higher fiber length, less fiber width, and narrower shape factor distribution when ground by a blender type grinder than by a pin crusher type grinder. The blender type grinder was concluded to make regular brewers grain particles appropriate for papermaking.

Studies on Composition of Dietary Fiber in Vegetables (한국인 상용 채소류의 식이섬유 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Kye, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.28-41
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    • 2014
  • The distinctive physiological effect of dietary fiber in the body were studied according to contents and characteristics of each fiber component. In the present study, the composition of fiber in vegetables was investigated, and the effect of heat treatments on fiber content was studied. Contents of total pectin were 0.89~2.75 g/100 g on dry weight basis, with most contents from 1~2 g/100 g. The hot water soluble pectin (HWSP) content of vegetables ranged from 0.33~0.98 g/100 g, sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (HXSP), from 0.29~0.81 g/100 g and HCl soluble pectin(HCLSP), from 0.30~1.40 g/100 g. HCLSP showed the greatest variation according to the type of vegetables. Every vegetable types showed similar contents of these three pectic fractions. Fiber contents of vegetables ranged from 8.8~23.8% for cellulose, 0.6~10.6% for hemicellulose, 1.0~5.2% for lignin, 10.9~25.4% for acid detergent fiber (ADF) and 11.8~31.9% for neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on dry weight basis. Especially, peppers showed higher contents of NDF than the other vegetables. It was found that a great portion of NDF, which is total insoluble dietary fiber, was composed of cellulose since cellulose constituted 63% of NDF. Heat treatment reduced total pectin content in all vegetables regardless of the heating methods and the greatest reduction was observed upon boiling. HWSP content increased, whereas HXSP and HCLSP contents decreased. Heat treatment increased the NDF, ADF and cellulose contents, and most changes were due to changes in cellulose content. The values of hemicellulose and lignin showed irregular pattern upon heating. Contents of total dietary fiber (TDF) were 1.20~7.11% on fresh weight basis. Garlic, edible burdock and pepper leaf showed higher contents of TDF than other vegetables. It was found that a great portion of TDF was composed of insoluble dietary fiber.

Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula and its extraction on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs, porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain gene expression in myocytes

  • Yu, Qin Ping;Feng, Ding Yuan;He, Xiao Jun;Wu, Fan;Xia, Min Hao;Dong, Tao;Liu, Yi Hua;Tan, Hui Ze;Zou, Shi Geng;Zheng, Tao;Ou, Xian Hua;Zuo, Jian Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1620-1632
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene expression in myocytes. Methods: In a completely randomized design, ninety pigs were assigned to three diets with five replications per treatment and six pigs per pen. The diets included the basal diet (control group), TCMF1 (basal diet+2.5 g/kg TCMF) and TCMF2 (basal diet+5 g/kg TCMF). The psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining. Cell proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye and cytometry. Isoforms of MyHC gene expression were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: The final body weight and carcass weight of finishing pigs were increased by TCMF1 (p<0.05), while the psoas major muscle cross-sectional area was increased by TCMF (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and diameter of psoas major muscle fiber Ι, IIA, and IIB were increased by TCMF2 (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and fiber diameter of psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB were increased by diet supplementation with TCMF1 (p<0.05). Psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF1 diet and the type IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF2 diet were lower compared to pigs fed the control diet (p<0.05). Pigs fed TCMF2 had a higher composition of type Ι fiber and a lower percentage of type IIB fiber in the psoas major muscle (p<0.05). The expression levels of MyHC Ι, MyHC IIa, and MyHC IIx mRNA increased and the amount of MyHC IIb mRNA decreased in the psoas major muscle from TCMF2, whereas MyHC Ι and MyHC IIx mRNA increased in the psoas major muscle from TCMF1 (p<0.05). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ $coactivator-1{\alpha}$ and CaN mRNA expression in the psoas major muscle were up-regulated by TCMF (p<0.05). Porcine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation was promoted by $4{\mu}g/mL$ and $20{\mu}g/mL$ TCMF water extraction (p<0.05). Both $1{\mu}g/mL$ and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of TCMF water extraction increased MyHC IIa, MyHC IIb, and MyHC IIx mRNA expression in porcine myocytes (p<0.05), while MyHC Ι mRNA expression in porcine myocytes was decreased by $5{\mu}g/mL$ TCMF water extraction (p<0.05). Porcine myocyte MyHC Ι and MyHC IIx mRNA expression were increased, and MyHC IIa and MyHC IIb mRNA expression were down-regulated by $5{\mu}g/mL$ TCMF ethyl acetate extraction (p<0.05). MyHC Ι and MyHC IIa mRNA expression in porcine myocytes were increased, and the MyHC IIb mRNA expression was decreased by $1{\mu}g/mL$ TCMF ethyl acetate extraction (p<0.05). Four isoforms of MyHC mRNA expression in porcine myocytes were reduced by $5{\mu}g/mL$ TCMF petroleum ether extraction (p<0.05). MyHC IIa mRNA expression in porcine myocytes increased and MyHC IIb mRNA expression decreased by $1{\mu}g/mL$ in a TCMF petroleum ether extraction (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that TCMF amplified the psoas major muscle cross-sectional area through changing muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs. This effect was confirmed as TCMF extraction promoted porcine cell proliferation and affected isoforms of MyHC gene expression in myocytes.

Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw

  • Su, Yanjing;Zhao, Guoqi;Wei, Zhenwu;Yan, Changjie;Liu, Sujiao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.800-805
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    • 2012
  • Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.