• Title, Summary, Keyword: flavor determination

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Isolation of Higher Alcohol-Producing Yeast as the Flavor Components and Determination of Optimal Culture Conditions

  • Kwon, Dong-Jin;Kim, Wang-June
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.576-580
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    • 2005
  • Ten yeast strains affecting doenjang flavor were isolated from soybean fermented foods (traditional meju and doenjang), among which Zygosaccharomyces sp. Y-2-5, showing excellent growth, glucose consumption, pH, and flavor production, was selected. Higher alcohols produced by Zygosaccharomyces sp. Y-2-5 related to flavor were 2-propanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 3.3-dimethyl-2-butanol. Optimal culture conditions for Zygosaccharomyces sp. Y-2-5 were 10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 4.0, 3.0% (w/v) glucose concentration, and inoculation time day 0 or 15 doenjang fermentation.

Analysis of Flavor Composition of Coriander Seeds by Headspace Mulberry Paper Bag Micro-Solid Phase Extraction

  • Cha, Eun-Ju;Won, Mi-Mi;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.2675-2679
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    • 2009
  • This paper reports the example of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-$\mu$-SPE) as a new sampling method for the determination of volatile flavor composition of coriander seeds. Adsorption efficiencies between two configurations of mulberry paper bag were compared, and several parameters affecting the HS-MPB-$\mu$-SPE were investigated and optimized. The optimized technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA, 0.1 mg) contained in a mulberry paper bag of front configuration where fine surface was outside, and minimal amount of organic solvent (0.6 mL). Linalool and $\gamma$-terpinene were found as abundant flavor compounds from coriander seeds. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for linalool of major flavor in coriander seeds were 10.3 ng/mL and 34.4 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method showed good reproducibility and good recovery. The HS-MPB-$\mu$-SPE is very simple to use, inexpensive, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. Because the solvent for extraction is reduced to only a very small volume, there is minimal waste or exposure to toxic organic solvent and no further concentration step.

Quantitative Determination of Flavor Constituents of Korean Milgam (Citrus unshiu) Juice (밀감 쥬스 향기(香氣) 성분(成分)의 정량(定量))

  • Kim, H.;Jo, D.H.;Park, Y.H.;Lee, C.Y.;Lee, Y.H.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 1980
  • The flavor constituents of Korean Milgam were extracted with a nitrogen gas stream under partial vacuum and identified by gas liquid chromatography. By employing the extraction coefficient, it was possible to determine the concentration of components in Milgam as well as in the extracts. Among 53 GLC peaks, 26 components were identified. Ethanol was the most abundant component (140ppm), followed by limonene (120ppm). These two were the most important flavor constituents.

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Gas Chromatographic Determination of Flavor Stability of Cooking Oils (가스크로마토그래피에 의한 식용유의 향미 안정성 측정)

  • Kim, In-Hwan;Yoon, Suk-Hoo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.732-735
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    • 1988
  • Flavor stability of cooking oils such as rice bran oil, double fractionated palm olefin and soybean oil were determined by headspace analysis using gas chromatography. In the headspace, the contents of volatile compounds, oxygen and hydrogen were measured. The hydrogen content in the headspace correlated well with the contents of volatile compound (r > 0.95). Therefore, it is proposed that a single measurement of hydrogen and oxygen is used as a index of flavor stability of cooking oils instead of separate measurement of volatile compounds and oxygen. which have conventionally been used.

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Quality Characteristics of Kongnamulguk with Commercial Soy Sprouts (시판 콩나물로 제조한 콩나물 국의 품질 특성)

  • Shon, Hee-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Ho;Lee, Kyong-Ae
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1147-1158
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    • 2009
  • The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Kongnamulguk with commercial film-packed soy sprouts from domestic cultivars were investigated. The color determination showed that the solid part of Kongnamulguk had a light green color and did not change even when cooking for 9 minutes. The solid part of Kongnamulguk was much higher in insoluble dietary fiber than soluble dietary fiber. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber of the soy sprout tended to increase upon cooking. The acceptability of the solid part of Kongnamulguk was negatively correlated with a bean odor and flavor, and a grassy odor and flavor, but positively correlated with a nutty odor and flavor. In addition, the acceptability of the liquid of Kongnamulguk was negatively correlated with a bean odor, a grassy and bitter flavor, while it was positively correlated with a sweet flavor. These results suggest that soy sprout with a less bean odor and flavor would be highly acceptable, so it would probably be suitable for Kongnamulguk.

Net Analyte Signal-based Quantitative Determination of Fusel Oil in Korean Alcoholic Beverage Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy

  • Lohumi, Santosh;Kandpal, Lalit Mohan;Seo, Young Wook;Cho, Byoung Kwan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.208-220
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Fusel oil is a potent volatile aroma compound found in many alcoholic beverages. At low concentrations, it makes an essential contribution to the flavor and aroma of fermented alcoholic beverages, while at high concentrations, it induced an off-flavor and is thought to cause undesirable side effects. In this work, we introduce Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive technique for the quantitative determination of fusel oil in the Korean alcoholic beverage "soju". Methods: FT-NIR transmittance spectra in the 1000-2500 nm region were collected for 120 soju samples with fusel oil concentrations ranging from 0 to 1400 ppm. The calibration and validation data sets were designed using data from 75 and 45 samples, respectively. The net analyte signal (NAS) was used as a preprocessing method before the application of the partial least-square regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR) methods for predicting fusel oil concentration. A novel variable selection method was adopted to determine the most informative spectral variables to minimize the effect of nonmodeled interferences. Finally, the efficiency of the developed technique was evaluated with two different validation sets. Results: The results revealed that the NAS-PLSR model with selected variables ($R^2_{\upsilon}=0.95$, RMSEV = 100ppm) did not outperform the NAS-PCR model (($R^2_{\upsilon}=0.97$, RMSEV = 7 8.9ppm). In addition, the NAS-PCR shows a better recovery for validation set 2 and a lower relative error for validation set 3 than the NAS-PLSR model. Conclusion: The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique could be an alternative to conventional methods for the quantitative determination of fusel oil in alcoholic beverages and has the potential for use in in-line process control.

Estimation of the Flavor of Green Soybean during Storage from Single Pod Measurements using Dedicated Near-Infrared Transmission Spectrometer

  • Maebashi, Maki;Natsuga, Motoyasu;Egashira, Hiroaki;Ura, Nobuo;Katahira, Mitsuhiko
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.398-403
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Green soybeans (edamame) are now an economically important and popular food product in Japan. In order to shorten breeding time and to decide an optimal harvest time, we have been developing a dedicated NIRT spectrometer since 2004 for the determination of constituent content such as sucrose and free amino acids, which are two major contributors to the eating quality, in a single pod green soybean. Methods: The obtained models showed that the developed NIRT instrument had reasonable accuracy for the determination of these two components. Then we carried out the investigation into the change in two components during a few days storage using these models with changing time, variety/cultivar, packaging and temperature. Results: The result showed that the most affecting factor on decreasing both sucrose content and free amino acids was variety/cultivar. The time, packaging and temperature also affected significantly in most cases.

Determination of the volatile flavor components of orange and grapefruit by simultaneous distillation-extraction (연속수증기증류추출법에 의한 오렌지와 자몽의 휘발성 유기화합물 확인)

  • Hong, Young Shin;Kim, Kyong Su
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2016
  • The volatile flavor components of the fruit pulp and peel of orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) were extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) using a solvent mixture of n-pentane and diethyl ether (1:1, v/v) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total volatile flavor contents in the pulp and peel of orange were 120.55 and 4,510.81 mg/kg, respectively, while those in the pulp and peel of grapefruit were 195.60 and 4,223.68 mg/kg, respectively. The monoterpene limonene was identified as the major voltile flavor compound in both orange and grapefruit, exhibiting contents of 65.32 and 3,008.10 mg/kg in the pulp and peel of orange, respectively, and 105.00 and 1,870.24 mg/kg in the pulp and peel of grapefruit, respectively. Limonene, sabinene, ${\alpha}$-pinene, ${\beta}$-myrcene, linalool, (Z)-limonene oxide, and (E)-limonene oxide were the main volatile flavor components of both orange and grapefruit. The distinctive component of orange was valencene, while grapefruit contained (E)-caryophyllene and nootkatone. $\delta$-3-Carene, ${\alpha}$-terpinolene, borneol, citronellyl acetate, piperitone, and ${\beta}$-copaene were detected in orange but not in grapefruit. Conversely, grapefruit contained ${\beta}$-pinene, ${\alpha}$-terpinyl acetate, bicyclogermacrene, nootkatol, ${\beta}$-cubebene, and sesquisabinene, while orange did not. Phenylacetaldehyde, camphor, limona ketone and (Z)-caryophyllene were identified in the pulp of both fruits, while ${\alpha}$-thujene, citronellal, citronellol, ${\alpha}$-sinensal, ${\gamma}$-muurolene and germacrene D were detected in the peel of both fresh fruit samples.

Characteristics of Flavor and Functionality of Bacillus subtilis K-20 Chunggukjang (Bacillus subtilis K-20에 의한 청국장의 향미성분 및 기능성식품에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jung, Hyuck-Jun;Park, Young-Sook;Yu, Tae-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.475-478
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    • 2003
  • Bacillus subtilis K-20 chunggukjang is widely used in making soy sauces and bean pastes which are Korean traditional fermented foods. Bacillus subtilis K-20 chunggukjang was cultured, and fermented at $40^{\circ}C$ and 90% humidity for 96 hr after homogenizing with garlic, garlic and onion, and garlic, onion, and ginger. As a result, a product with pizza flavor and taste was obtained from Bacillus subtilis K-20. This product could be used as a functional food to promote immunity.

Statistical Analysis for Relationship between Gas Chromatographic Profiles of Korean Ordinary Soy Sauce and Sensory Evaluation (한국재래식(韓國在來式) 간장 향기(香氣)의 개스 크로마토그래피 패턴과 관능검사(官能檢査)의 통계적(統計的) 해석(解析))

  • Kim, Jong-Kyu;Chang, Jung-Kyu;Lee, Bu-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 1984
  • Flavor components extracted from eighty species of Korean ordinary soy sauce were analyzed by gas chromatography. The relationship between the sensory scores of soy sauce flavor and the gas chromatographic data transformed with variables were analysed by method of multiple regression analysis. Simple correlation between values of each peak and sensory scores were totally low. The tenth and 12th peak had the highest correlation, 0.331. Determination coefficients of data obtained by transformation of each variables were not significantly different from each other. Flavor of soy sauce was explained about 56% at step 16 in case of stepwise multiple regression analysis of absolute values. The fact that the minimum standard errors of an estimate was found at the 16th step suggests the importance of selecting of independent variables from the whole gas chromatogram together with the results of F ratio. In the contributing proportion of each peak examined, peak 10 and 12 were contributing mainly to the good flavor of soy sauce.

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