• Title, Summary, Keyword: flavor determination

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Determination of Microbial Diversity in Gouda Cheese via Pyrosequencing Analysis

  • Oh, Sangnam;Kim, Younghoon
    • Journal of Milk Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2018
  • The present study aimed to investigate the microbial diversity in Gouda cheese within the four months of ripening, via next-generation sequencing (NGS). Lactococcus (96.03%), and Leuconostoc (3.83%), used as starter cultures, constituted the majority of bacteria upon 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S rDNA sequences. However, no drastic differences were observed among other populations between the center and the surface portions of Gouda cheese during ripening. Although the proportion of subdominant species was <1%, slight differences in bacterial populations were observed in both the center and the surface portions. Taken together, our results suggest that environmental and processing variables of cheese manufacturing including pasteurization, starter, ripening conditions are important factors influencing the bacterial diversity in cheese and they can be used to alter nutrient profiles and metabolism and the flavor during ripening.

Quality Characteristics of Castella with Chungkukjang (청국장을 첨가한 카스테라의 품질 특성)

  • Lee Kyong-Ae
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.244-249
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    • 2006
  • Castella sponge cake was prepared by partially replacing wheat flour with Chungkukjang, a Korean fermented soybean. The physico-chemical, textural and sensory characteristics were then investigated. Specific volume and expansion ratio decreased with increasing Chungkukjang content. The addition of Chungkukjang decreased the moisture content and increased the protein content of castella. Color determination showed addition of Chungkukjang darkened the internal color of castella, probably due to browning caused by the Maillard reaction. Castella with 20 or 30% Chungkukjang had a higher textural hardness than other castellas. A sensory panel perceived that the external and internal color of castella darkened with Chungkukjang substitution. When Chungkukjang was added at or above 20%, castella had a weaker sweet flavor, a stronger roasted flavor, and less lightness and softness than other castellas as perceived by the sensory panels. Up to 30% of the wheat flour could be replaced by Chungkukjang without diminishing acceptability.

Development of Optimization Mixture Tea prepared with Roasting Mulberry Leaf and Fruit (반응표면분석을 이용한 로스팅 뽕잎과 오디 혼합차 개발)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Kang, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Min-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1040-1049
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we aimed to develop a mixed tea prepared with roasted mulberry leaf and fruit using response surface methodology (RSM). Roasting of mulberry leaf was by 6 stages, as shown in Fig. 1; and mulberry fruit was roasted in 4 stages, as shown in Fig. 2. Subsequently, physicochemical measurements such as total polyphenol content, nitric oxide production content, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory effect were obtained for each sample. Central composite design was applied to prepare samples containing varying contents of roasted mulberry leaf (RoML) and roasted mulberry fruit (RoMF); subsequently, sensory evaluation was conducted. The total polyphenol content of roasted samples (RoML and RoMF) were significantly higher than that of raw samples (RaML and RaMF), respectively. The nitric oxide (NO) production of roasted samples were significantly lower than that of control (LPS induced RAW 264.7 cell). The ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory effect of roasted samples was significantly higher than that of raw samples, respectively. Based on the RSM estimation for determination of optimum ratio by sensory evaluation (taste, color, and flavor) among 13 mixed samples, the optimum mixing ratio of RoML and RoMF for taste, color, and flavor were 1.64 g (RoML) and 0.88 g (RoMF), 1.35 g (RoML) and 0.92 g (RoMF), 1.65 g (RoML) 1.03 g (RoMF), respectively. Based on results of three sensory evaluations, mixing ratio comprising 1.54 g of RoML and 0.92 g of RoMF is desirable for delicious tea with functionality.

Studies on the Evaluation for the Quality of Food by Sensory Testing -II. Evaluation for the Sensory Quality of Milk and Dried Milk- (관능검사법(官能檢査法)에 의한 식품(食品)의 품질평가(品質評價)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -제(第) 2 보(報) : 우유 및 분유의 관능품질(官能品質)의 평가시험(評價試驗)-)

  • Chae, Soo-Kyu;Yu, Tai-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 1980
  • The quality of commercial milk was evaluated by sensory testing. The results were summarized as follows; 1. A significant difference on the quality and preference was not recognized at 5 percent level among the sample of commercial milk produced by five companies according to the result of rank test for commercial milk. 2. According to a scoring test for determination of shelf life of commercial milk A, the sensory quality of the sample milk was maintained for three days at $0^{\circ}C$ to $5^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$ for one day at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$. 3. According to the result of profile test for commercial dried milk C, dilution number was 20.0 and sensory quality of the dried milk was comparatively satisfactory. 4. According to the result of profile test for commercial milk, the synthetics flavor of each milk was generally evaluated as excellent and the intensity of flavor was somewhat different among the samples of commercial milk produced by five companies. 5. A significant difference on the flavor of milk was recognized among five sample of commercial milk by both difference test and profile test but not recognized by rank test.

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Evaluation of soybean oil rancidity by pentanal and hexanal determination (Pentanal과 hexanal 측정에 의한 대두유의 산패도 측정)

  • Chun, Ho-Nam;Kim, Ze-Uook
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 1991
  • Several commercial soybean oils were stored at $20^{\circ}C,\;40^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$ with daily exposure of fluorescent light for 12 hours and evaluated their rancidity by headspace gas chromatographic analysis of pentanal and hexanal. The data of gas chromatographic analysis was compared with organoleptic flavor evaluation. For headspace gas chromatographic analysis, the volatile compounds were recovered by porous polymer trap and flushed into a fused silica capillary column at $250^{\circ}C$, The pentanal and hexanal separated were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. The results showed that the contents of pentanal and hexanal were linearly increased during storage for 100 days. A very simple linear relationship was found between organoleptic flavor scores and amounts of two volatile compounds with very high correlation coefficient. A similar linear relationship was also obtained for acid and peroxide value with sensory data. This results suggested the possible implication of pentanal and hexanal as an quality index for rancidity evaluation of soybean oil.

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DETERMINATION OF SUGARS AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN ORAGE JUICES USING NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

  • Tewari, Jagdish;Mehrotra, Ranajana;Gupta, Alka;Varma, S.P.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1522-1522
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    • 2001
  • Beverages based on fruit juices are among the most popular commercially available drinks. There is an ever-increasing demand for these juices in the market. Orange juice is one of the most common as well as most favorite flavor. The fruit processing industries have a tremendous responsibility of quality control. For quality evaluation estimation of various components of the juice is necessary. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric acid and malic acid are the prime components of orange juice. Little information is available on analysis of orange juice. However, conventional and general wet chemistry procedures are currently being used which are no longer desired by the industry owing to the time involved, labor input and harmful chemicals required for each analysis. Need to replace these techniques with new, highly specific and automated sophisticated techniques viz. HPLC and spectroscopy has been realized since long time. Potential of Near Infrared Spectroscopy in quantitative analysis of different components of food samples has also been well established. A rapid, non-destructive and accurate technique based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy for determination of sugars and organic acids in orange juice will be highly useful. The current study is an investigation into the potential of Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for rapid quantitative analysis of sucrose, glucose, fructose citric acid and malic acid in orange juice. All the Near Infrared measurements were peformed on a dispersive NIR spectrophotometer (ELICO 153) in diffuse reflectance mode. The spectral region from 1100 to 2500nm has been explored. The calibration has been performed on synthetic samples that are mixtures of sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric acid and malic acid in different concentration ranges typically encountered real orange juice. These synthetic samples are therefore considered to be representatives of natural juices. All the Near Infrared spectra of synthetic samples were subjected to mathematical analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS) algorithm. After the validation, calibration was applied to commercially available real samples and freshly squeezed natural juice samples. The actual concentrations were compared with those predicted from calibration curve. A good correlation is obtained between actual and predicted values as indicated by correlation coefficient ($R^2$) value, which is close to unity, showing the feasibility of the technique.

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Determination of the Effect of Different Ground Mustard Seeds on Quality Characteristics of Meatballs

  • Caglar, Muhammed Yusuf;Gok, Veli;Tomar, Oktay;Akarca, Gokhan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.530-543
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the effect of yellow, black, and brown mustard seeds on color, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), and microbiological and sensory qualities of meatballs during storage. Heat treatment of mustard seeds affected the TBARS value of meatball samples (p<0.0001). The addition of mustard seeds decreased TBARS value of meatball samples (p<0.0001). Heat treatment of mustard seeds decreased the $L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$ values of meatball samples (p<0.0001). The meatball samples with mustard seeds increased $b^*$ value of meatball samples however it decreased $a^*$ value of meatball samples (p<0.0001). The addition of mustard seeds decreased aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (p<0.0001), Enterobacteriaceae count (p<0.0001), psychrophilic bacteria count (p<0.0001) and yeast and mold count of meatball samples (p<0.0001). On a given storage day, the yellow mustard added meatballs sample was given higher color, appearance, flavor, acceptability ratings than those added black and brown mustard. Regarding sensory and microbiological properties, mustard seed contributed to microbiological quality and sensorial properties of meatball samples.

The Effects of Microencapsulated Chitooligosaccharide on Physical and Sensory Properties of the Milk

  • Choi, H.J.;Ahn, J.;Kim, N.C.;Kwak, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1347-1353
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    • 2006
  • Effects of microencapsulated chitooligosaccharide addition in milk were evaluated by determination of the efficiency of microencapsulation, cholesterol removal, color, viscosity and sensory properties. Coating material was polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS) and the efficiency of microencapsulation was 88.08% at a 10:1 ratio of coating to core materials (w/w). When 0.5% of microencapsulated chitooligosaccharide was added into milk, the color values (L, a, and b) and viscosity were significantly different from those of noncapsulated chitooligosaccharide-added groups (p<0.05). The release of chitooligosaccharide from microcapsules was 7.6% in milk at $4^{\circ}C$ for 15-day storage. In both 0.5 and 1.5% microencapsulation addition, the scores of all sensory characteristics except for off-flavor were significantly different between encapsulated chitooligosaccharide and noncapsulated chitooligosaccharide-added groups during all periods of storage. The present study indicated that chitooligosaccharide microcapsules could be applicable into commercial milk with little adverse effects on physical and sensory properties.

Headspace Hanging Drop Liquid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Flavors from Clove Buds

  • Jung, Mi-Jin;Shin, Yeon-Jae;Oh, Se-Yeon;Kim, Nam-Sun;Kim, Kun;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2006
  • A novel sample pretreatment technique, headspace hanging drop liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) was studied and applied to the determination of flavors from solid clove buds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several parameters affecting on HS-LPME such as organic solvent drop volume, extraction time, extraction temperature and phase ratio were investigated. 1-Octanol was selected as the extracting solvent, drop size was fixed to 0.6 $\mu$L. 60 min extraction time at 25 ${^{\circ}C}$ was chosen. HS-LPME has the good efficiency demonstrated by the higher partition equilibrium constant ($K_{lh}$) values and concentration factor (CF) values. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.5-3.2 ng. The amounts of eugenol, $\beta$-caryophyllene and eugenol acetate from the clove bud sample were 1.90 mg/g, 1.47 mg/g and 7.0 mg/g, respectively. This hanging drop based method is a simple, fast and easy sample enrichment technique using minimal solvent. HSLPME is an alternative sample preparation method for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds by GC-MS.

Process optimization and kinetic modeling for esterification of propionic acid with benzyl alcohol on ion-exchange resin catalyst

  • Chandane, Vishal Suresh;Rathod, Ajit Pralhad;Wasewar, Kailas Lachchhuram;Sonawane, Shriram Shaligram
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.987-996
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    • 2017
  • Benzyl propionate, an ester with floral and fruity odor, has significant applications in perfumery and flavor industries. This paper describes the optimization of the synthesis of benzyl propionate catalyzed by Amberlyst-15. The effects of various process parameters such as catalyst loading, alcohol-to-acid molar ratio and reaction temperature on propionic acid conversion and yield of ester were assessed by response surface methodology (RSM). The external and internal mass transfer limitations were found to be absent. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the acquired quadratic model successfully interpreted the experimental data with the coefficient of determination values, ($R^2$>0.98) and adjusted $R^2$ values, (>0.97). The RSM model was validated by good agreement between the model predicted and experimental values for responses. Pseudohomogeneous (PH) kinetic model was used and validated ($R^2$>0.95) with the experimental data. The activation energy and frequency factor were evaluated as $42.07kJ\;mol^{-1}$ and $19,874.64L\;mol^{-1}min^{-1}$, respectively.