• Title, Summary, Keyword: flavor determination

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Development of Chicken Breast Noodles Adding Rubus coreanum Miquel and Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (복분자와 백련초가 첨가된 닭가슴살 면류 개발)

  • Kim, Soo-Min;Kim, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.1111-1117
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    • 2009
  • Effect of Rubus coreanum Miquel and Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten in combination with chicken breast and wheat gluten on functional properties and physicochemical characteristics during processing of cooked noodles were investigated. These studies were carried out to investigate functional properties of Rubus coreanum Miquel and Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten by the antioxidant ability. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by electron donating, xanthine oxidase inhibition rate and contents of total polyphenols. Overall, the antioxidant activities of hot water extracts were a little higher than those of ethanol extracts. Also, the antioxidant abilities at the concentration of 1,000 ppm in hot water extracts were higher than those of ethanol extracts by the determination of total polyphenol content and DPPH, which showed 150.25 mg% in extracts of Rubus coreanum Miquel and showed 69.36% in extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The effects on processing characteristics of cooked noodles were investigated in combination with transglutaminase (TGase), plant extracts, wheat gluten and chicken breast. Cooking time was very short as 340 second in CB (cooked breast), compared to other treatments. In contrast, NCB (non cooked breast) took a longer time as 779 second. Also, CB was higher than NCB, which showed 146.3% in CB and 61.5% in NCB in water absorption ratio during cooking of noodles. Tubidity of soup was the lowest at 0.240 in NCBT (non cooked breast transglutaminase), which means the lowest loss of solid in noodle during cooking. In case of treatment of TGase, overall texture properties were higher than other samples in hardness, cohesivness, springness and gumminess. In sensory evaluations, cooked noodles treated with TGase showed a higher percentage of overall acceptability than other treatments.

Quality Characteristics of Jochung Containing Various Level of Steamed Garlic Powder (증숙마늘 분말 첨가 조청의 품질특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of steamed garlic powder (SGP) on the quality characteristics of Jochung, saccharide by barley melt. Physicochemical properties and sensory quality were determined in Jochungs were prepared that 5% (SGP 5), 10% (SGP 10), 20% (SGP 20) and 30% (SGP 30) of SGP to sikhe for making jochung and hard boiled (W/W). Turbidity and viscosity of SGP added groups increased than control, significantly. The viscosity was $133{\pm}10^3$ cps in control group, it higher than SGP added groups ($140{\pm}11^3{\sim}272{\pm}2^3$ cps). The pH decreased with increasing SGP concentration. Reducing sugar was significantly higher in SGP added groups than control group, especially 30% SGP addition group in $44.66{\pm}0.26$ mg/100 g. HMF (Hydroxymethyl-furfural) content increased with increasing of SGP concentration, and 30% SGP addition group was higher in 48% than control group. In HPLC determination, free sugars content increased with amounts of SGP addition level. Fructose and glucose contents increased while maltose and raffinose contents decreased. Fructose content was $0.84{\pm}0.02$ mg/100g in control group but $1.36{\pm}0.03{\sim}1.62{\pm}0.01$ mg/100 g in SGP added groups. In the sensory evaluation, the color of Jochung decreased dose dependently with the SGP. Garlic flavor was significantly greater in SGP added groups compared to that of control group. The overall acceptability had not significantly difference among control, SGP 5 and 10 group. Preference was decreased in contain more than 20% of SGP added groups. The optimal concentration of SGP was found in the range of less than 10%.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Yanggaeng with Aronia Juice (아로니아즙 첨가 양갱의 품질특성 및 항산화활성)

  • Hwang, Eun-Sun;Lee, Yae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.1220-1226
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yanggaeng prepared with different amounts of aronia juice. Aronia juice was incorporated into yanggaeng at different levels (containing 50, 100, and 150 g of aronia juice in AJ 50, AJ 100, and AJ 150, respectively) based on the total weight of water. Total acidity and sugar contents showed a significant increase, however, pH showed a decrease with increasing levels of aronia juice. Hardness also showed an increase with increasing levels of aronia juice. Regarding texture profile analysis, hardness, springiness, and chewiness of yanggaeng were increased, however, cohesiveness was similar compared to the control and aronia juice added treatments. In chromaticity determination, L and b values showed a decrease, however, a value increased with increasing levels of aronia juice. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents were increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were significantly higher than those of control and increased proportionally according to the concentration of aronia juice. The sensory evaluation indicated that AJ 100 showed the best preference in color, taste, texture, flavor, and overall acceptance. These results suggest that aronia juice may be a useful ingredient in yanggaeng for improvement of quality and antioxidant potential.

Optimization on preparation conditions of beverage using Opuntia ficus-indica stem (손바닥 선인장을 이용한 음료 제조조건의 최적화)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted in order to monitor the extraction conditions for a gel-state beverage development of the Opuntia ficus-indica stem. Moreover, the organoleptic properties of the beverage prepared by the extract were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). The determination coefficient ($R^2$) value for the extraction yield of the stem was 0.95 (p<0.01). The maximum extraction yield was obtained at an extraction temperature of $93.02^{\circ}C$, 123 min of extraction time and 22.57 mL/g of water to sample. The beverage was prepared with the addition of xanthan gum, sugar and persimmon vinegar to the extract with a central composite design. The maximum organoleptic color of the beverage was obtained at 0.38% xanthan gum, 7.91% sugar and 0.76% persimmon vinegar. The maximum organoleptic flavor was obtained at 0.30% xanthan gum, 7.06% sugar and 1.26% persimmon vinegar. The maximum organoleptic taste was obtained at 0.22% xanthan gum, 10.36% sugar and 0.90% persimmon vinegar. The maximum overall palatability (3.92 score) of the gel-state beverage was obtained at 0.35% xanthan gum, 10.83% sugar and 1.21% persimmon vinegar.

Determination of Optimum Sterilization Condition for the Production of Retorted Kimchi Soup (레토르트 처리한 김치찌개 제품의 최적 살균조건 결정)

  • Cheon, Hee Soon;Park, Eun-Ji;Cho, Won-Il;Hwang, Keum Taek;Chung, Myong-Soo;Choi, Jun-Bong
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2014
  • In order to optimize process conditions for manufacturing retorted Kimchi soup by using stationary and rotary types systems were applied for sterilization process. For investigating the differences in heat penetration characteristics during sterilization, Kimchi soup was packed into retort pouches, and sterility ($F_0$ value) at various positions in the product was measured through a wireless $F_0$ sensor. Heat penetration characteristics were significantly affected by sterilization method. From data analysis, optimum ranges of sterilization temperature and time was determined to be $120.7^{\circ}C$, 13 min for rotary type and $120.7^{\circ}C$, 20 min for stationary type. At those conditions, they had similar sterility ($F_0$ value). The results showed that rotation provides faster heat penetration and more uniform sterility than various positions of the product. These results derived a lot of advantages from related industry. For instance, many of the more viscous semi-liquid products and heat sensitive natural products could be sterilized in the lager pouch sizes without overcooking or scorching. Hence, current study suggests that rotary type retort would make it possible not only to reduce processing times as 35~45%, but also to improve the quality of product as overall taste, flavor, color, and texture with significant difference (p<0.05).

The Effects of Korean Traditional Sauces on Quality Characteristics of Hanwoo Semitendinosus Dry-cured Ham (한국 전통장류가 한우 반힘줄모양근(M. Semitendinosus)으로 제조한 건염햄의 육질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Park, Beom-Young;Kang, Sun-Moon;Park, Kyoung-Mi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.757-762
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to develop a processing method for dry-curing beef ham with Korean traditional sauces and to investigate the quality properties of the dry-cured beef hams. Semitendinosus muscle from Hanwoo was spread with sundried salt (C), sun-dried salt mixed with red pepper paste (T1), and sun-dried salt mixed with soybean paste (T2), and inserted into washed Hanwoo large intestine. It was then dried and fermented for 75 d. Moisture contents of the hams were 46-48%, without any significant differences. T1 showed the lowest pH among the three dry-cured hams, while water holding capacity (WHC) of T2 was found the lowest (p<0.05). In mechanical color determination, C showed higher CIE $a^*$ and CIE $b^*$ than T1 and T2 (p<0.05), however CIE $L^*$ did not show any significant difference. In texture, T1 demonstrated significantly lower springiness than C (p<0.05). The sensory properties of all dry-cured hams did not show any significant difference, but T1 indicated a higher taste, saltiness and overall acceptability than others, whereas C gathered the highest score in color and flavor. In conclusion, the dry-curing by combination of sun-dried salt mixed with red pepper sauce (T1) showed higher quality properties of the Hanwoo dry-cured ham.

Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of rice sponge cake with added green tea powder (녹차 분말 함유 쌀스펀지 케이크의 품질특성 및 산화방지 활성)

  • Lee, Min Jeong;Hwang, Eun-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.354-360
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the quality and antioxidant activities of sponge cake prepared containing 1-5% of green tea powder (GT). The water content in the cake increased with an increase in the amount of GT added. Although the hardness and springiness of the rice sponge cake increased, the adhesiveness decreased with increasing the level of GT. The cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience of the rice sponge cake with GT were similar to those of the control. Chromaticity determination revealed that lightness, redness, and yellowness of the crust decreased with increasing GT content. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing GT level. Antioxidant activity, measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging as well as reducing power activities, was significantly higher in the rice sponge cake with GT than in the control. Sensory evaluation determined that addition of 1-3% GT to the rice sponge cake maintained the color, taste, texture, flavor, and overall acceptance similar to that of the control.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Cream Soup prepared with Soybean Flour (콩가루 분말을 첨가하여 제조한 크림수프의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Hyun Jo;Park, JinJoo;Lee, Joo Yeon;Hwang, Eun-Sun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.427-434
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    • 2016
  • The study was conducted to investigate quality properties and sensory characteristics of soup prepared with 0, 30, 40, and 50% soybean flour instead of wheat flour. Total moisture contents of soup among the different groups were not significantly different, whereas the ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents of soup increased with increasing levels of soybean flour. pH and total acidity of the test sample added with soybean flour were similar compared to the control, whereas sugar content increased with higher amounts of soybean flour. In the chromaticity determination, L, a and b values increased with increasing level of soybean flour. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased with increasing levels of soybean flour. The antioxidant activity of samples measured based on DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were significantly higher than the control, and proportionally increased as the amount of soybean flour increased. In the sensory evaluation, addition of 40% soybean flour resulted in the best scores for flavor, taste, thickness, and overall acceptance. Addition of 40% soybean flour increased the intensity of softness and nutty taste and reduced oily taste compared to the control. These results suggest that addition of 40% soybean flour could be applied for preparation of cream soup.

A Study on Flavorous Taste Components in Kimchis -On Free Amino Acids- (김치의 맛 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -유리(遊離) 아미노산(酸)에 관(關)하여 -)

  • Cho, Young;Rhee, Hai-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 1979
  • Free amino acids and total free sugar of kimchi were identified. Free amino acids of kimchis were extracted by 80% ethanol and isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Identification and quantitative determination of individual free amino acids were performed by amino acid autoanalyzer. Free sugar of kimchis was extracted by aqueous ethanol and isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Quantitative determination of it was perfermed by spectrophotometer. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Lysine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were found in all kimchis. 2. The change of free amino acid composition during fermentation of kimchis was not observed, but the amount of total free amino acids of fermented kimchi decreased as compared with those of raw kimchi. 3. In kimchi containing 10 ml of fermented anchovy solution/100 g of chinese cabbage, the amount of total free amino acids was more than that of fermented salt kimchi and the characteristic flavor of it was attributed to such amino acids as lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, valine, methionine, isoleucine and leucine. 4. Large amount of free sugar in raw salt kimchi decreased during fermentation, but, after fermentation, significant difference of free sugar content between salt kimchi and kimchi containing fermented anchovy solution was not observed.

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Microbiological and Enzymological Studies on the Flavor Components of Sea Food Pickles (젓갈등속(等屬)의 정미성분(呈味成分)에 관(關)한 미생물학적(微生物學的) 및 효소학적(酵素學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Ke-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.11
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1969
  • More than thirty kinds of sea food pickles have been eaten in Korea. Out of these salted yellow tail pickle, salted clam pickle, salted oyster pickle, and salted cuttlefish pickle were employed for the analysis of their components, identification of main fermenting microbes, and determination of enzyme characteristics concerned. Also studied was the effect of enzymic action of microbes, which are concerned with the fermenting of pickles, on the production of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides and amino acids. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Microflora observed in the pickles are: (a) Total count of viable cells after 1-2 months of pickling was found to be $10^7$ and that after 6 months decreased to $10^4$. (b) Microbial occurence in the early stage of pickling was observed to be 10-20% Micrococcus spp., 10-20% Brevibacterium spp., 0-30% Sarcina spp., 20-30% Leuconostoc spp., ca 30% Bacillus spp., 0-10% Pseudomonas spp., 0-10% Flavobacterium spp., and 0-20% yeast. (c) Following the early stage of pickling, mainly halophilic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus halophilus and Sarcina litoralis, were found to exhibit an effect on the fermentation of pickle and their enzyme activities were in direct concern in fermentation of pickles. (d) Among the bacteria participating in the fermentation, Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains were in need of high nutritional requirement and the former was grown only in the presence of purine, pyrimidine and cystine and the latter purine, pyrimidine and glutamic acid. 2. Enzyme characteristics studied in relation to the raw materials and the concerned microbes isolated are as follows: (a) A small amount of protease was found in the raw materials and 30-60% decrease in protease activity was demonstrated at 7% salt concentration. (b) Protease activity of halophilic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis 7-6, 11-1, 3-6 and 9-4 strains, in the complete media decreased by 10-30% at the 7% salt concentration and that of Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains decreased by 10-20%. (c) Proteins in the raw materials were found to be hydrolyzed to yield free amino acids by protease in the fermenting microbes. (d) No accumulation of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides was demonstrated because RNA-depolymerase in the raw materials and the pickles tended to decompose RNA into nucleoside and phosphoric acid. (e) The enzyme produced in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain isolated from the salted clam pickles, was ascertained to be 5'-phosphodiesterase because of its ability to decompose RNA and thus accumulating 5'-mononucleotide. (f) It was demonstrated that the activity of phosphodiesterase in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain was enhanced by some components in the corn steep liquor and salted clam pickle. The enzyme activity was found to decrease by 10-30% and 40-60% at the salt concentration of 10% and 20%, respectively. 3. Quantitative data for free amino acids in the pickles are as follows: (a) Amounts of acidic amino acids such as glutamic and aspartic acids in salted clam pickle, were observed to be 2-10 times other pickles and it is considered that the abundance in these amino acids may contribute significantly to the specific flavor of this food. (b) Large amounts of basic amino acids such as arginine and histidine were found to occur in salted yellow tail pickle. (c) It is much interesting that in the salted cuttlefish pickle the contents of sulfur-containing amino acids were exceedingly high compared with those of others: cystine was found to be 17-130 times and methionine, 7-19 times. (d) In the salted oyster pickle a high content of some essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, isoleucine and leucine, was demonstrated and a specific flavor of the pickle was ascribed to the sweet amino acids. Contents of alanine and glycine in the salted oyster pickle were 4 and 3-14 times as much as those of the others respectively. 4. Analytical data for 5'-mononucleotides in the pickles are as follows: (a) 5'-Adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid were found in large amounts in the salted yellow tail pickle and 5'-inosinic acid in lesser amount. (b) 5'-Adenylic acid, especially 3'-adenylic acid predominated in amount in the salted oyster pickle over that in the other pickles. (c) The salted cuttlefish pickle was found to contain only 5'-adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid. It has become evident from the above fact that clam and the invertebrate lack of adenylic deaminase and contain high content of adenylic acid. Thus, they were demonstrated to be the AMP-type. (d) 5'-Inosinic acid was contained in the salted yellow tail pickle in a significant concentration, and it might be considered to be IMP-type. 5. Comparative data for flavor with regard to the flavorous amino acids and the contents of 5'-mononucleotides are: (a) A specific flavor of salted yellow tail pickle was ascribed to the abundance in glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and to the existence of a small amount of flavorous 5'-inosinic acid. The combined effect of these components was belived to exhibit a synergistic action in producing a specific fiavor to the pickle. (b) A specific flavor of salted clam pickle has been demonstrated to be attributable to the richness in glutamic acid and aspartic acid rather than to that of 5'-mononucleotides.

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