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Iontophoretic Transport of Donepezil Hydrochloride through Skin: Flux Enhancement by Chemical Enhancer and Iontophoresis

  • Oh, Seaung-Youl
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of chemical enhancer and current on the flux of donepezil hydrochloride (DH) through skin. Ethanol and N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) were used as chemical enhancers in combination with iontophoresis. We also have studied the effect of pH on flux and evaluated the role of electroosmosis. In vitro flux study was performed at $33^{\circ}C$, using side-by-side diffusion cell and full thickness hairless mouse skin. Passive flux of DH without enhancer was very small. As the concentration of enhancer increased, passive flux increased. After current application, flux increased markedly and the time to reach maximum decreased. Without enhancer, maximum flux was about 50 fold larger than that obtained without current. These results indicate that electromigration is playing a major role for the transport. As the enhancer concentration increased, flux also increased. NMP and ethanol increased not only the passive delivery, but also the iontophoretic delivery. Flux results indicate that ethanol has better ability than NMP in enhancing the transport of DH. The magnitudes of increase in flux by these enhancers indicate that there is a large synergistic effect in flux enhancement. Flux results from pH study showed that electroosmotic flow is reversed at low pH and the flux is hindered. These results provided some information on the flux enhancing ability of ethanol and NMP in combination with iontophoresis. The data also provided some mechanistic insights into the role of electromigration and electroosmosis on flux through skin.

A Study on the Analysis of Surface Heat Flux Using the Transient Heat Flux Method (비정상열유속 기법을 이용한 표면 열유속 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Yi, Jong-Ju
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2010
  • The quick variation of the canister wall temperature causes the modification of the shape of canister wall. This paper is the possibility of adoption and the error analysis about the transient heat flux method. The commercial code(Fluent Ver6.2.16) was employed for the calculation of surface temperature in the case of steady and unsteady heat flux condition. Based the surface temperature variation and surface material property, transient heat flux method can calculate the surface heat flux. In the case of steady heat flux condition, the error is about 2%, and in the case of unsteady heat flux condition, the error is about 3.6%. With the unsteady heat flux condition, the time which reach the maximum surface heat flux is almost same between the numerical analysis and transient heat flux method.

Fault Current Limiting Characteristics of Separated and Integrated Three-Phase Flux-Lock Type SFCLs

  • Lim, Sung-Hun
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2007
  • The fault current limiting characteristics of the separated and the integrated three-phase flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) were analyzed. The three-phase flux-lock type SFCL consisted of three flux-lock reactors and three $high-T_c$ superconducting (HTSC) elements. In the integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL, three flux-lock reactors are connected on the same iron core. On the other hand, three flux-lock reactors of the separated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL are connected on three separated iron cores. The integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL showed the different fault current limiting characteristics from the separated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL that the fault phase could affect the sound phase, which resulted in quench of the HTSC element in the sound phase. Through the computer simulation applying numerical analysis for its three-phase equivalent circuit, the fault current limiting characteristics of the separated and the integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCLs according to the ground fault types were compared.

An Experimental Study of Critical Heat Flux in Non-uniformly Heated Vertical Annulus under Low Flow Conditions

  • Chun, Se-Young;Moon, Sang-Ki;Baek, Won-Pil;Chung, Moon-Ki;Masanori Aritomi
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1171-1184
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    • 2003
  • An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) has been performed in an internally heated vertical annulus with non-uniform heating. The CHF data for the chopped cosine heat flux have been compared with those for uniform heat flux obtained from the previous study of the authors, in order to investigate the effect of axial heat flux distribution on CHF. The local CHF with the parameters such as mass flux and critical quality shows an irregular behavior. However, the total critical power with mass flux and the average CHF with critical quality are represented by a unique curve without the irregularity. The effect of the heat flux distribution on CHF is large at low pressure conditions but becomes rapidly smaller as the pressure increases. The relationship between the critical quality and the boiling length is represented by a single curve, independent of the axial heat flux distribution. For non-uniform axial heat flux distribution, the prediction results from Doerffer et al.'s and Bowling's CHF correlations have considerably large errors, compared to the prediction for uniform heat flux distribution.

Performance Comparison of an Urban Canopy Model under Different Meteorological Conditions (기상 조건에 따른 도시 캐노피 모형의 성능 비교)

  • Ryu, Young-Hee;Baik, Jong-Jin;Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.429-436
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    • 2012
  • The performances of the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM) under different meteorological conditions (clear, cloudy, and rainy conditions) in summertime are compared using observation dataset obtained at an urban site. The daily-averaged net radiation, sensible heat flux, and storage heat flux are largest in clear days and smallest in rainy days, but the daily-averaged latent heat flux is similar among clear, cloudy, and rainy days. That is, the ratio of latent heat flux to net radiation increases in order of clear, cloudy, and rainy conditions. In general, the performance of the SNUUCM is better in clear days than in cloudy or rainy days. However, the performance in simulating sensible heat flux in clear days is as poor as that in rainy days. For all the meteorological conditions, the performance in simulating latent heat flux is worst among the performances in simulating net radiation, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux. The normalized mean error for latent heat flux is largest in rainy days in which the relative importance of latent heat flux in the surface energy balance becomes greatest among the three conditions. This study suggests that improvements to the parameterization of processes that are related to latent heat flux are particularly needed.

Analysis on Fault Current Limiting Characteristics of Flux-Lock Type SFCL Using Magnetic Flux Application Circuit (자기인가회로를 이용한 자속구속형 초전도한류기의 고장전류제한 특성 분석)

  • Go, Ju-Chan;Lim, Seung-Taek;Lim, Sung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, the fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-lock type SFCL (superconducting fault current limiter) using magnetic application circuit were analyzed. The flux-lock type SFCL has the structure to install the magnetic application circuit, which can increase the resistance of HTSC ($high-T_C$ superconducting element comprising) the SFCL. To analyze the fault current limiting effect of the flux-lock type SFCL through the magnetic flux application circuit, the flux-lock type SFCL either with the magnetic flux circuit or without the magnetic flux circuit was constructed and the fault current limiting characteristics of the SFCL were compared each other through the short-circuit tests.

An Improved Flux Estimator for Gap Flux Orientation Control of DC-Excited Synchronous Machines

  • Xu, Yajun;Jiang, Jianguo
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.419-430
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    • 2015
  • Flux estimation is a significant foundation of high-performance control for DC-excited synchronous motor. For almost all flux estimators, such as the flux estimator based on phase locked loop (PLL), DC drift causes fluctuations in flux magnitude. Furthermore, significant dynamic error may be introduced at transient conditions. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes an improved flux estimator for the PLL-based algorithm. Filters based on the generalized integrator are used to avoid flux fluctuation problems caused by the DC drift at the back electromotive force. Programmable low-pass filters are employed to improve the dynamic performance of the flux estimator, and the cutoff frequency of the filter is determined by the dynamic factor. The algorithm is verified by a 960V/1.6MW industrial prototype. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed estimator can estimate the flux more accurately than the PLL-based algorithm in a cycloconverter-fed DC-excited synchronous machine vector control system.

Comparison of Fault Current Limiting Characteristics between the separated Three-phase Flux-lock Type SFCL and the Integrated Three-phase Flux-lock Type SFCL (분리된 삼상 자속구속형 전류제한기와 일체화된 삼상 자속구속형 전류제한기의 전류제한 특성 비교)

  • Doo, Seung-Gyu;Du, Ho-Ik;Kim, Min-Ju;Park, Chung-Ryul;Kim, Yong-Jin;Lee, Dong-Hyeok;Han, Byoung-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.689-693
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    • 2009
  • We investigate the comparison of fault current characteristics between the separates three-phase flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter(SFCL) and integrated three-phase flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter(SFCL). The single-phase flux-lock type SFCL consists of two coils. The primary coil is wound in parallel to the secondary coil on an iron core and superconducting elements are connected to secondary coil in series. Superconducting elements are used by the YBCO coated conductor. The separated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL consists of single-phase flux-phase type SFCL in each phase. But the integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL consists of three-phase flux-reactors wound on an iron core. Flux-reactor consists of the same turn's ratio between coil 1 and coil 2 for each single phase. To compare the current limiting characteristics of the separated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL and integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL, the short circuit experiments are carried out fault condition such as the single line-to-ground fault. The experimental result shows that fault current limiting characteristic of the separated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL was better than integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL. And the integrated three-phase flux-lock type SFCL has an effect on sound phase.

Development of Mass Transfer Models for Ammonia Flux Estimation from Sewage Treatment Plants (하수처리장에서의 암모니아 플럭스 산정을 위한 물질전달모형 개발)

  • Sa, Jae-Hwan;Jeon, Eui-Chan;Jeong, Jae-Hak
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.701-711
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    • 2006
  • Sewage treatment plants located near to large cities emit extremely higher concentration of odorous materials. This study evaluated flux profiles of ammonia emitted from the water surface of sewage treatment plants using a dynamic flux chamber. Also, an ammonia overall mass transfer coefficient and a mass transfer model was developed in order to estimate fluxes of ammonia using environment parameters and the flux from the sewage treatment plants. The developed mass transfer model was evaluated through a fitness analysis. Comparison modeled flux applying empirical overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and measured ammonia flux show a high linearity with 0.977. The flux ratio of 1.282 demonstrated highly statistical fitness, also. Modeled flux using the mass transfer model was compared with measured flux. In result, it indicated that empirical overall mass transfer coefficients were similar to measured flux. The mass transfer model using the empirical overall mass transfer coefficient developed in this study was proved to be an easy and effective method to make accurate and precise predictions for ammonia flux discharged from sewage treatment plants.

Latent Heat Flux over the Global Ocean

  • Kubota, Masahisa
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.644-648
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    • 2002
  • Though it was difficult of globally monitor latent heat flux aver the ocean for many years, the situation is rapidly changing by the use of satellite data. Since a bulk formula is used to estimate turbulent heat flux using satellite data, we need wind speed, sea surface temperature and specific humidity data. However, it is not easy to accurately estimate specific humidity using satellite data. Now several algorithms for estimating specific humidity have been proposed and applied to construct latent heat flux data sets. Latent heat flux data sets derived from satellite data such as J-OFURO, HOAPS and GSSTF are available at present. Since the algorithm and used satellite data are not the same between them. the characteristics of each data set may be different. Therefore, it is important to clarify the difference between each data set and investigate the cause of the difference in latent heat flux estimates. In this paper we summarize the present state of the art with regard to the turbulent heat flux estimation by using satellite data. Also we present the comparison results of latent heat flux fields including not only satellite-derived flux fields but also analysis fields.

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