• Title, Summary, Keyword: foam

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Analysis of the Foam Generated Using Surfactant Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

  • Ranjani, G. Indu Siva;Ramamurthy, K.
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2010
  • The performance evaluation of a sodium lauryl sulfate to qualify as a foaming agent is presented in this paper. When new surfactants are used a systematic study of production parameters on the foam characteristics needs to be undertaken unlike proprietary foaming agents and foam generator for which manufacturer has predefined the parameters. The relative influence of the foam parameters and optimization of factors were carried out through a systematic experiment design. The foam production parameters namely foam generation pressure and dilution ratio of foaming agents are observed to have significant effect on all foam characteristics with the exception of foam output rate on which only foam generation pressure has influence. The foam with good initial foam density need not necessarily be stable foam. The optimum levels of foam production parameters are determined for the surfactant Sodium lauryl sulfate which can be used to produce stable foam for foam concrete production.

Acoustic Abosrption Characteristic and Fabrication process of Foamed Aluminum (발포알루미늄의 제조공정 및 흡음특성)

  • Hur, Bo-Young;Ahn, Hyo-Jun;Jeon, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Dae-Choul;Kim, Sang-Youl;Hur, Yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.396-402
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    • 2000
  • Porous structures of aluminum foam have been studied. The apparent foam shape, foam hight, density, pore size, shape, and their distributions in various section areas of the experimental samples have been investigated. The sample have been cast into metallic mold, using aluminum foam prepared from a precursor based on pure Al ingot mixed with various amount of 1-2wt% increasing viscosity and foam agent materials. The process provides for flexibility in design of foam structures via relatively easy control over the amount of hydrogen evolution and the drainage processes which occur during foam formation. This is facilitated by manupulating parameters such as the foaming agent, thermal histories during solidification and mix melt viscosities. The acoustical performance of the panel made with the foamed aluminum is considerably improved; its absorption coefficient shows NRC 0.6-0.8. It has been found that the Al foam is very preferable for the compactness of the thermal system.

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Enhancement in Stability of Foam Generated with Cationic Surfactant Solutions (양이온성 계면활성제 거품 지속성 증진방법 연구)

  • Kim, Hongyeol;Jeong, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.735-742
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    • 2012
  • This study tried to find a suitable method for enhancing the foam stability of cationic surfactants that normally generate less foam or no foam. Several trials were made to enhance the foam stability: addition of anionic surfactant, colloids and polymer. Cationic starch (CA-ST) did not form foam at all, while the foam stability of two other cationic surfactant also showed low levels; methyl triethanol ammonium methyl sulfate distearyl ester (CEQ90) for 46 sec. and Cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CM29) for 31 seconds. Foam stability of cationic surfactants were significantly affected by addition of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Foam stability of CA-ST was significantly enhanced by addition of SDS, while those of CEQ90 and CM29 were decreased. Addition of colloids ($SiO_2$, kaolin) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) enhanced foam stabilities of CEQ90 and CM29. However, CA-ST did not form foam even in the presence of colloids or PVA. Effect of simultaneous addition of colloids and anionic surfactant on foam stability of cationic surfactant showed that foam stability of cationic surfactant was more influenced by addition of anionic surfactant than colloids. Effect of simultaneous addition of PVA and anionic surfactant on the foam stability of cationic surfactant also showed that presence of anionic surfactant significantly affect the foam stability of cationic surfactant. Foam stability of CA-ST was greatly increased to 8,780 seconds by addition of SDS 0.14% and PVA 2.5%. The foam stability of CA-ST was 8 times higher than CEQ 90. This study suggested that cationic surfactants not forming foam can generate foam by addition of anionic surfactant and its stability can be additionally increased by addition of colloids and PVA. The study results showed that enhancement in foam stability of cationic surfactant was prominently affected by the concentration of anionic surfactant added.

Evaluation of Smoke Density and Noxious Gas for Phenol Foam Insulation (페놀 폼 단열재의 연기밀도 및 가스유해성 평가)

  • Park, Hyung-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2010
  • The smoke density and noxious gas for phenol foam and polyurethane foam were measured according to test methods in ASTM E 662 and KS F 2271. It was observed that phenol foam had the possibility of application for sandwich panel and board compared with polyurethane foam. In the experimental results, phenol foam showed comparatively excellent property than polyurethane foam in smoke density and noxious gas. The polyurethane foam showed comparatively high smoke density and didn't meet the evaluation standard of noxious gas in KS F 2271. From the experimental results of smoke density and noxious gas, it can be said that phenol foam has both comparatively good safety and high possibility of application than polyurethane foam in the building fire of sandwich panel structure because of lower smoke density and noxious gas.

Analysis of Performance and Development of Environment-friendly High Expansion Foam Concentrate (친환경 고발포 소화약제 개발 및 성능 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Ha-Young;Nam, Jun-Seok;Rie, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2010
  • Foam concentrate is used for fire-extinguishing purposes, occurring foam, mixed with air. In huge oil-fire or the efficiency of fire-extinguishing with small quantity of water, Foam concentrate is used widely. However, perfluorooc tanoicsulfonate and nonylpenol that are included in Foam concentrate could be exposure in danger while they were discharged. The purpose of the research is the development of environment-friendly high expansion foam that exclude the dangerous substances and improvement of danger of the existing foam concentrate. The developed foam is analyzed as the environment-friendly foam in indexes of the environment-toxicity, the biodegradation appraisal, and the dangerous substances-detecting. In addition, the performances of expansion rate, discharge rate, and fire-extinguishing are suitable in the domestic regulation, so it is useful for fire-extinguishing in real fire situation.

Ignition Characteristics and Combustion Gas Analysis of the Plastics Foam (발포 프라스틱의 착화특성 및 연소가스 분석)

  • 이근원;김관응
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.48-52
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    • 2001
  • This study was undertaken to investigate fire risk characteristics of the plastics foam that is used an insulating materials in workplaces. The ignition characteristics and combustion gas of the plastics foam were carried out using the ISO self-Ignition tester, the Cone Calorimeter, and NES combustion analyzer. The experimental materials used were commercial samples and their composition is not disclosed by the manufacturer. As the experimental results, the self-ignition temperature of the plastics foam ranges from $410^{\circ}C$ to $510^{\circ}C$, and the flash-ignition temperature of plastics foam ranges from $370^{\circ}C$ to $450^{\circ}C$. The difference of ignition temperature on density with plastics foam type was smaller since the amount of combustible gas to ignite is not caused enough. The time to ignition of the polyethylene foam in samples of the plastics foam was shorter, and its of polyethylene foam was longer. The concentration of carbon dioxide of the polyethylene foam shows higher in samples of the plastics foam. It is found that the concentration values of carbon monoxide of the plastics foam show very fatality on people during exposure of 30 minutes in fire.

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Thermal Characteristics of Foams and Discharge of Fire-Protection Foam Spray Nozzle (폼 분무 노즐 방사 분포 및 폼의 열적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Sik;Kim, Youn-Jea
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2005
  • A characteristic of discharge for a foam spray nozzle with various parameters was investigated. The discharge patterns from a fire foam spray nozzle are important to evenly spray over a maximum possible floor area. Two parameters of a foam spray nozzle were chosen, and compared with those from the standard one. Also, in order to evaluate the performance of discharged foam agents used to protect structures from heat and fire damages, the thermal characteristics of fire-protection foams were experimentally investigated. A simple repeatable test for fire-protection foams subjected to fire radiation was developed. This test involves foam generation equipment, a fire source for heat generation, and data acquisition techniques. Results show that the bubble size of foam is increased by large inside diameter of orifice or closed air hole, but phenomenon of discharge angle and expansion ratio is opposite. For the case of the open air hole, liquid film of a circular cone discharges with formation, growth, split and fine grain. In case of the closed air hole, a pillar of foam solution discharges with that. Though the temperature gradient in the foam increases with increased foam expansion ratio. it is not change with increased intensity of heat flux.

Use of Pellet Type Phenolic Foam as a Medium for Production of Plug Seedlings of 'Madison' Tomato (토마토 플러그 묘 생산을 위한 배지로서 펠릿형 Phenolic Foam의 이용)

  • No, Kyoung Ok;Kang, Jeong Hwa;Kim, Hye Min;An, Chul Geon;Jeong, Byong Ryong;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted in a glasshouse to examine the possibility of producing tomato plug seedlings in a newly-developed inert phenolic foam medium. Plug seedlings of 'Madison' tomato were grown in four pellet type media, Grodan rockwool, UR rockwool, phenolic foam LC, and phenolic foam LC-lite. Seed germination was checked for 7 days. Seedling growth was measured at 19 days after sowing. The greatest germination was obtained in the phenolic foam LC and phenolic foam LC-lite. Plant height, hypocotyl length, leaf area, dry weight, and fresh weight were significantly greater in the rockwool medium than those in the other media. However, the T/R ratio and stem diameter were the greatest in the phenolic foam LC than those in the other media. The total porosity and container capacity of the phenolic foam LC was higher than in the other media. The air space (%) was lowest in the phenolic foam LC. Overall, the phenolic foam LC and phenolic foam LC-lite produced seedlings with similar growth as the rockwool. These results suggested that both phenolic foam LC and phenolic foam LC-lite have potential to be used in production of plug seedlings of 'Madison' tomato.

Studies on the Surface Changes and Adhesion of EVA Foam by Plasma Treatment (플라즈마 처리에 의한 EVA Foam의 표면변화 및 접착특성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Myung Jin;Kim, Dong Ho;Kim, Gu Ni
    • Journal of Adhesion and Interface
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2008
  • EVA foam was treated by oxygen plasma under a various treatment time for surface modification. The effect of plasma treatment on surface properties of EVA foam was investigated in terms of FT-IR ATR, XPS, contact angle, and SEM analysis and the adhesion characteristic of the EVA foam was studied in peel strength. As a results, EVA foam treated by plasma led to an elimination of organic compound, an increase of oxygen content, and an increase of surface roughness, resulting in improving the adhesion properties of the EVA foam. As the plasma treatment time increased, the hydrophilicity and physical change of surface of the EVA foam were increased and showed maximum value at 180 s and 420 s, respectively. The maximum adhesion strength appeared at plasma treatment time of 420 s and therefore, in this study the physical change was thought to be a major factor for improving the adhesion of the EVA foam.

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A Study on the Application Medium Expansion Foam Extinguisher by a Fire Performance Analysis used Medium Expention Foam Agent (중발포 소화약제 소화성능 분석을 통한 중발포기 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jang Won
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.402-408
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The study want to verify application the medium expantion foam extinguisher of expantion foam rate and fire extinguishing Performance test because the medium expansion system can maintain the discharge distance less affected by air currents, and the foam agent can be used efficiently. Method: For the study, the medium-expansion testing apparatus was manufactured and with synthetic surfactant foam agent of (class B) fire extinguishing model, and Fire Performance was analyzed for foam expansion rate and the fire agent consumption was measured and analyzed. Results: We measured the medium-spray testing apparatus and found that the expansion rate was 26.1 times. The test results of a 20-unit fire extinguishing model show that the extinguishing time is faster than the high and low foam expansion. It has been analyzed that it is possible to apply a hand-operated with a hose reel or medium expansion apparatus. Conclusion: Considering that the foaming agent and the extinguishing performance of the medium foam ratio are excellent, It is necessary to introduce the technical standards of medium foam agent for the introduction of hand-operated equipment, such as hose reel or portable medium foam apparatus.