• Title, Summary, Keyword: focus

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The Effect of Distance of External Attentional Focus on the Performance of Balance Task in Upper Extremity

  • Roh, Jung-Suk
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of attentional focus and distance of external focus on the performance of balance task of upper extremity. Subjects (N=30) held a stick (2 m) and maintained it horizontally. All of the subjects performed balance task of upper extremity under four different attentional focus conditions: focus on hand (internal focus), marker at 10 cm inside of hand (external focus 1), marker at 10 cm outside of hand (external focus 2), marker at 20 cm outside of hand (external focus 3). The mean velocity of the bar (mm/s) and the muscle activity of biceps brachii (%RVC) were measured. They were decreased when the subjects focused on external focuses compared to internal focus and decreased as distance of attentional focus from body increased (p<.05). There were significant differences between groups (p<.05); internal focus-external focus 1, internal focus-external focus 2, internal focus-external focus 3, external focus 2-external focus 3. These results showed that external focus is more effective than internal focus in enhancing motor performance and focusing on more distant attentional focus results in enhanced motor performance promoting the utilization of more automatic control mechanisms.

A Study for the Effect of Regulatory Fit on Beauty Service and Product (미용서비스와 제품의 조절초점적합성 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Yeo, Jun-Sang;Ko, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2010
  • The study verified the regulatory fit effect of the message focus and propensity regulatory focus delivered in the sales promotion situation of beauty services and products on the basis of the self-regulatory focus theory being actively discussed in the consumer behavior area of marketing. As the result of ANOVA analysis on the experimental design 2 (chronic regulatory focus: promotion focus/prevention focus, between factor) ${\times}$ 2 (message regulatory focus: promotion focus/prevention focus, within factor), the promotion focus group showed more positive response to the promotion focus message(4.88) of beauty services than the prevention focus group(4.40) so that the effect of regulatory fit appeared(t=1.79, p<.1), but the regulatory fit effect didn't appear in the prevention focus message(t=.58, p>.1) so that the hypothesis was partially supported. However, as for the promotion focus message of beauty products, the promotion focus group(4.62) showed more positive response than the prevention focus group(4.16), and as for the prevention focus message, the prevention focus group(4.89) showed more positive results than the promotion focus group(4.33) so that the effect of regulatory fit appeared(t=2.07, p<.05). Therefore, the result of the study shows that as for the service consumers perceive high risk, the sales promotion activity of the prevention focus message can be effective for prevention focus consumers and for promotion focus consumers as well. Otherwise, it suggests the marketing approach that the consumer evaluation is more positive when the advertising message focus fit the consumer regulatory focus.

Focus Control for Multi-Focal Projection onto Nonplanar Surface (곡면 전초점 투사를 위한 멀티 프로젝터 초점제어)

  • Shim, Jae-Young;Park, Han-Hoon;Park, Jong-Il
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1081-1086
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    • 2006
  • 일반적으로 프로젝터는 심도(depth of field)가 제한되어 있기 때문에 스크린이 곡면일 경우, 일부 영역에서는 초점이 맞지 않게(out-of-focus) 된다. 이런 out-of-focus 영역의 정보는 블러링(blurring)되기 때문에 사용자에게 정확한 정보를 전달할 수 없다. 여러 대의 프로젝터를 이용할 경우, 각 프로젝터는 다른 in-focus 영역을 가지기 때문에 각 프로젝터 픽셀의 in-focus/out-of-focus 판별을 통해 in-focus 픽셀만을 투사함으로써, out-of-focus 픽셀의 영향을 제거할 수 있다. 그러나 여러 대의 프로젝터의 in-focus영역이 거의 일치할 경우, out-of-focus영역은 여전히 out-of-focus상태일 수 밖에 없다. 따라서, 각 프로젝터의 초점을 유연하게 조절하면서 동시에 여러 대의 프로젝터에 의한 in-focus 영역을 최대한 크게 할 수 있는 방법이 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 각 프로젝터의 초점을 유동적으로 조절하면서 취득된 영상을 처리하여 in-focus 영역을 판별하고 각 프로젝터에 대한 in-focus 영역을 조합하여 전체in-focus 영역의 면적을 최대화하는 방법을 제안한다. 제안된 방법의 유용성을 검증하기 위해, 각 프로젝터의 in-focus 영역을 적절한 컬러를 이용해 시각적으로 표현해주고 이 정보를 참조해 각 프로젝터의 초점을 유동적으로 조절하여 전초점 영상을 만들어내는 시스템을 구현하였다.

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The Impact of Transformational Leadership, Servant Leadership, and Followers' Regulatory Focus on Individual Creativity: The Mediation Effect of Intrinsic Motivation (변혁적 리더십 및 서번트 리더십과 조직 구성원의 조절 초점 성향이 개인 창의성에 미치는 영향: 내재적 동기의 매개효과)

  • Kwon, Sang-Jib
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.137-159
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    • 2016
  • Although prior studies suggest that transformational leadership and servant leadership fuel followers' creativity, there is a few study on leadership style and followers' personality interaction. Based on regulatory focus theory, this study believe that interaction impacts of leadership styles and followers' regulatory focus differed in promotion focus and prevention focus employees' creativity. To strengthen causal process and rule out alternative results, this study conducted an experimental study using field employees. Participant were randomly assigned to four conditions (transformational leadership ${\times}$ promotion focus), (transformational leadership ${\times}$ prevention focus), (servant leadership ${\times}$ promotion focus), (servant leadership ${\times}$ prevention focus). The major results of this study suggest that (1) transformational leadership was positively related to promotion focus followers' intrinsic motivation and creativity, and was negatively related to prevention focus followers' intrinsic motivation and creativity. (2) Servant leadership, on the other hand, was positively related to promotion focus and prevention focus followers' motivation and creativity. (3) Intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between interaction effects of leadership style and follower's regulatory focus style and individual creativity. The results of this study demonstrated a remarkable differential impact based on a simple manipulation inducing feeling or thinking of a responsive situation. This research, measuring interaction impact of leadership and followers' regulatory focus in an experimental context, expands the leadership style and regulatory focus literature and provides future directions on leadership role in personality-related research domains.

Comparative Criteria for the Quality Characteristics of Kimchi between Korean Focus Group and American Focus Group (한국인 및 미국인 Focus Group에 의한 김치의 품질특성의 평가 비교)

  • 오명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.388-393
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to compare the perception and the criteria for tasty Kimchi between Korean focus group and American focus group. The perception of taste of Kimchi by American focus group was rather simple than that of Korean focus group. American focus group considered spicy, sweet and crunchy properties as the most desirable characteristics of Kimchi. Besides that properties, Korean focus group considered complicated characteristic taste, e.g. a combination of hot, sour, savory, salty, sweet and fresh taste and refreshing properties as essential factor in tasty Kimchi. Korean focus group had more peculiar descriptors in taste and American in mouthfeel and texture.

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Form-focused Instruction in Incidental Learning of English Verb Patterns

  • Kim, Bu-Ja
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.59-80
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    • 2010
  • The present study investigated what kind of form-focused instruction would yield better results for incidental learning of English verb patterns in two experiments. Experiment 1 compared the effectiveness of focus on form (reading + translation) and focus on forms (verb pattern list + translation) tasks in learning new English verb patterns incidentally in Korean EFL college classrooms. The results of Experiment 1 showed significantly higher results for the focus on forms group. Since it was revealed by Experiment 1 that the learners did not notice unknown target verb patterns, Experiment 2 was undertaken to examine whether the difference between the focus on form and focus on forms conditions found in Experiment 1 would be retained even after the isolated form-focused instruction or focus on forms aiming at teaching students how to recognize verb patterns was provided for the learners before the focus on form and focus on forms tasks were carried out. The results showed that the focus on form group yielded significantly higher incidental learning scores than the focus on forms group. The effectiveness rates of the focus on form in Experiment 2 were statistically higher than those of the focus on forms in Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that the combination of the isolated form-focused instruction and focus on form was significantly more effective in learning English verb patterns incidentally. In conclusion, form-focused instruction including both isolated form-focused instruction and focus on form is an effective way to incidental learning of English verb patterns.

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The differences in procrastination and anxiety according to the gender and cognitive regulatory focus of university students (대학생의 성별과 인지적 조절초점에 따른 지연행동과 불안의 차이)

  • KIM, Bo-Kyoung;YOO, Soon-Hwa
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.853-869
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in procrastination and anxiety as a personality trait according to gender and the cognitive regulatory focus of university students. In this study, we would like to answer the following questions: First, is there any difference in procrastination according to gender and regulatory focus? Second, is there any difference in anxiety according to gender and regulatory focus? The participants of this study comprised of 434 university students(171 male, 263 female), studying at 4 universities in South Korea. To examine whether the relative strength of promotion and prevention focus would differ across gender groups and regulatory focus type(promotion or prevention), we conducted a $2{\times}2$ factorial analysis of variance(ANOVA). The results of this study are as follows. First, there were significant difference in procrastination according to gender and regulatory focus, but there were no interaction effect between gender and regulatory focus. Second, there were significant difference in trait anxiety according to gender and regulatory focus, but there were no interaction effect between gender and regulatory focus. This study found that procrastination and anxiety as personality traits are differ depending on gender and regulatory focus(promotion focus and prevention focus). Suggestions and discussions based on these findings are provided.

Effects of Different Types of Attentional Focus on Dart Throwing Mechanics (주의 집중 방법이 다트 던지기 역학에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Ree;Kong, Se-Jin;Kim, Soo-Yeon;Lee, Ki-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of attentional focus(internal focus vs. external focus) on the dart throwing mechanics. Seven expert dart throwing athletes were assigned to an internal focus group and other seven athletes were assigned to an external focus group. Each group was asked to throw dart either under verbal instruction or without instruction. During dart throwing, accuracy(radial error), consistency(bivariate variable error), dart velocity, acceleration, elbow joint ROM, elbow joint angular velocity, EMD(electromechanical delay), iEMG of biceps brachii and triceps brachii, and CI(coactivation index) were collected and analyzed. Nither instruction type nor instruction itself affected in accuracy and consistency. However, in dart velocity and acceleration, there was an interaction between instruction and attentional focus types. Velocity and acceleration increased in the internal condition, where as they decreased in the external condition. The ROM of elbow joint did not affected by instruction and attention type. However, similar to dart velocity and acceleration, angular velocity increased in internal focus group, while it decreased in external focus group. EMG showed no difference with any condition. In conclusion, internal focus is better than external focus for dart throwing.

Semantics of Focus

  • Yoon, Young-Eun
    • Language and Information
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    • v.1
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    • pp.137-179
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    • 1997
  • This paper discusses several basic issues of the 'focus' phenomenon. One of them is the issue of the nature of focus, i.e., what constituent of the sentences gets focused. Another is the issue of to what aspect of meaning the focus contributes. The other is the issue of the functions of focus-sensitive operators. As for the first issue, it is observed that the basic function of focus is to mark all and only the new information of the sentence. But for the cases in which this principle is not observed, it is proposed that the focus in these cases in general plays a secondary function of triggering an additional emphatic scalar meaning. And yet, in these cases, the state of the matter is different between free focus and bound focus. It is also shown that contrary to the general belief that free focus contributes to the meaning semantically. Concerning focus-sensitive operators, we classify them into two groups, i.e., quantificational and scalar operators, and try to formalize their meaning in the framework of Pulman's(1997) 'higher order unification theory'.

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All in focus Camera vision system for Mobile Phone based on the Micro Diffractive Fresnel lens systems (곡률 변경 소자를 이용한 All In Focus)

  • Chi, Yong-Seok;Kim, Young-Seop
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2007
  • A method to focus the object in camera system by applying the Hill climb algorithm from optical lens moving device (VCM; Voice coil motor) is proposed. The focusing algorithm from VCM is focus on the object but in these criteria is a well-known drawback; the focus is good only at same distance objects but the focus is bad (blur image) at different distance objects because of the DOF (Depth of focus) or DOF (Depth of field) at the optical characteristic. Here, the new camera system that describes the Reflector of free curvature systems (or Diffractive Fresnel lens) and the partition of focusing window area is proposed. The method to improve the focus in all areas (different distance objects) is proposed by new optical system (discrete auto in-focus) using the Reflector of free curvature systems (or Diffractive Fresnel lens) and by applying the partition of all areas. The proposal is able to obtain good focus in all areas.

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