• Title, Summary, Keyword: foliar uptake

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Evaluation of Foliar Uptake of Eight Fungicides Using a New Measuring Tool, Congo Red Method

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Lim, He-Kyoung;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jeong-Han
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2001
  • Using a new evaluation method, Congo red method, the foliar uptakes of eight fungicides were measured. Among the fungicides tested, fenarimol, myclobutanil, edifenphos, isoprothiolane, and tricyclazole were found to be penetrable (11.0~42.8%), and were continuously absorbed into the leaf regardless of their formulation types. Procymidone, dimethomorpb, and ethaboxan were seldomly absorbed into plant leaf. The uptakes of dimethomorph and ethaboxam were facilitated (18.1~22.7%) in the presence of Koremul-OE-20, as an activator, showing plateau phase at 12h after application. Foliar uptake of fenarimol and myclobutanil into cucumber plant by spray application was larger than that by dropping application, while observed opposite in the cases of dimethomorph and ethaboxam containing activator. Congo red method in conjunction with spraying application used in the present study produced the clear results on foliar uptake of fungicides and therefore proved to be better than the conventional method in which the dropping application of pesticide has been used.

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Factors Influencing the Foliar Uptake of Dimethomorph into Cucumber Induced by Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate (Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate에 의해 유도되는 Dimethomorph의 오이 엽면 침투성 영향 인자)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2008
  • In order to find the best compositions of the dimethomorph formulation containing fatty alcohol ethoxylate surfactants as an activator adjuvant and recommend the good management way of the formulations to allow an intended uptake rate, factors affecting foliar uptake of active ingredients into cucumber were investigated and compared each other. Among tested, the most important factors were air temperature in which plants were located after spraying of aqueous formulations containing activator adjuvant, and deposit of wax on the leaf surface of cucumber. Dimethomorph uptake was found to be increased by sunlight. When aqueous formulations had long-polyethoxylated fatty alcohol surfactants, the relative humidity of the room in which the plants were located after spraying with the formulations did not severely influence the foliar uptake. Maintaining a mild temperature and avoiding too strong sunlight after spraying with dimethomorph formulations were found to be resonable management strategies.

Foliar Colonization and Growth Promotion of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20

  • Lee, Min-Kyoung;Chauhan, Puneet Singh;Yim, Woo-Jong;Lee, Gyeong-Ja;Kim, Young-Sang;Park, Kee-Woong;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2011
  • In order to exploit Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20 as of plant growth promoting agent, different inoculation methods have been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate soil, foliar, and soil+foliar inoculations of M. oryzae CBMB20 to improve the growth, fruit yield, and nutrient uptake of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. The population range of green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged M. oryzae CBMB20 using the three inoculation methods was 2.5-2.9 ${\log}_{10}$ cfu/g in the rhizosphere and 4.5-6.0 ${\log}_{10}$ cfu/g in the phyllosphere of red pepper plants. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results confirmed the colonization of M. oryzae CBMB20 endophytically on leaf surface. Plant height, fruit dry weight, and total biomass were significantly higher ($p{\leq}0.05$) in all M. oryzae CBMB20 inoculation methods as compared to non-inoculated control. Furthermore, uptake of mineral nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in red pepper plants in all M. oryzae CBMB20 inoculation methods was higher than in non-inoculated control. Comparative results of inoculation methods clearly demonstrated that soil+foliar inoculation of M. oryzae CBMB20 lead to the highest biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake which may be due to its efficient colonization in the red pepper rhizosphere and phyllosphere.

Zn Acquisition by Extraradical Hyphae in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plant Depending on Zn Nutritional Status of Cucumber(Cucumis sativus cv. Baekdadagi)

  • Lee, Yun-Jeong;Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2004
  • The contribution of plant nutrition status in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plant to the nutrient acquisition by extraradical hyphae of AM fungi was investigated using cucumber colonized with Glomus intraradicies (BEG 110) focusing on the Zn. Compartmentalized pots with separated Bones for hyphal growth were used to determine the contribution of extraradical AM hyphae to Zn uptake from hyphal zones. $0.5\;{\mu}M$ Zn was supplied into the hyphal zones as nutrient solution (10 mL/day) with a form of $ZnSO_4$. Zn foliar application was made two times for one week before harvest (8 mL/plant). The colonization rate by AM were high in all of Zn treatments. The dry weight of cucumber increased by AM colonization compared to those of non-mycorrhizal counterpart. However: Zn foliar application resulted in no significant difference in dry weight between mycorrhizal- and non-mycorrhizal plant. In addition, the enhancement of Zn content in cucumber shoot by AM colonization were also reduced by Zn foliar application. These results indicate that the interaction between host plant and AM fungus for nutrient uptake might be related to plant nutritional status and nutrient contents. In consequence, higher Zn contents in host plant by foliar application of Zn could restrict the role of extraradical hyphae of AM fungus on the Zn acquisition and transfer from fungus to host plant.

Fungicidal Activity Enhancement of KNF-1002 Against Barley Powdery Mildew by Facilitating Foliar Uptake and Deposition (KNF-1002의 경엽 침투성과 부착량 증진에 의한 보리 흰가루병 방제 효과)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Choi, Gyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.272-279
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    • 2010
  • KNF-1002, a new fungicide candidate, is very effective for protecting crops against plant diseases, but its curative activity against barley powdery mildew is negligible due to its weak penetrability into plant leaf. To select the most efficient activator and, at the same time, spreade-sticker, foliar uptake and deposit of aqueous spray formulations containing non-ionic or anionic surfactants and fatty acid alkyl esters as an adjuvant were assessed by using Congo Red method. In the absence of activator, only 0.1% of the applied active ingredient was absorbed by barley leaves 24 h after spraying with an aqueous acetone containing KNF-1002 100 mg/L. But, non-ionic surfactants (500 mg/L), such as heptaethylene glycol monooctadecenyl ether (OE-7), dodecaethylene glycol monohexadecyl ether (CE-12), so facilitated KNF-1002 uptake that the uptake was increased up to 48.5%. To wheat plant, the addition of surfactants in spray solution of KNF-1002 also increased the foliar uptake and deposition of active ingredient, but its efficiency varied according to the kind of fatty alcohol moiety of polyoxyethylene surfactant. KNF-1002 formulations containing nonaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (LE-9) as an activator and spreader-sticker showed remarkable increases of fungicidal activity against barley powdery mildew.

Effect of Foliar Uptake of Azoxystrobin and Kresoxim-methyl on Fungicidal Activity against Cucumber Powdery Mildew (Azoxystrobin과 Kresoxim-methyl의 오이 엽면 침투성과 오이 흰가루병 방제 효과)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2008
  • Azoxystrobin applied by aqueous WP suspension 50 mg/l was slightly absorbed into cucumber leaf in the absence of activator surfactant 24 h after spraying, but was increased to 25.7% by adding polyoxyethylene monohexadecyl ether (12 moles of ethylene oxide, CE-12) 500 mg/l. Only 4.1% of kresoxim-methyl WDG 100 mg/l in the absence of surfactant was absorbed into cucumber leaf 24 h after spraying, but was increased to 58.0% by adding polyoxyethylene monooctadecyl ether (14 moles of ethylene oxide, SE-14) 1,000 mg/l. The effect of CE-12 500 mg/l on foliar uptake of kresoxim-methyl at 50 mg/l was twice bigger than on azoxystrobin. Fungicidal activity of azoxystrobin WP against cucumber powdery mildew was marginally increased by adding surfactants to facilitate foliar uptake of azoxystrobin, so that the further increase of azoxystrobin uptake into cucumber plant by the addition of adjuvant was not a practical mean for enhancing the formulation efficacy in view of fungicidal activity. It was not possible for kresoxim-methyl to assess the adjuvant effect on the fungicidal activity in a greenhouse trial due to the vapor effect of active ingredient.

lnfluence of Surfactants on Foliar Uptake of Dimethomorph into Cucumber Plant and Fungicidal Activity to Cucumber Downy Mildew (계면활성제가 살균제 Dimethomorph의 오이 엽면 침투성과 오이 노균병 방제 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Gyung-Ja;Lim, He-Kyoung;Kim, Jeong-Han;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2001
  • The foliar uptake of dimethomoiph induced by several nonionic surfactants was measured in order to study the correlations between the uptake rate of dimethomorph and the fungicidal activity to cucumber downy mildew. Dimethomorph was not absorbed in cucumber leaf in the absence of activator surfactant. And the curative effect of dimethomoiph WP to cucumber downy mildew was very low under the concentration of 250 ${\mu}g/ml$. But dimethomorph uptake was remarkably enhanced by addition of nonionic surfactants, such as polyoxyethylene cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene oleyl ether, and polyoxyethylene stearyl ether. And the curative effect to cucumber downy mildew was enhanced with proportion to uptake rate of dimethomorph. The protective effect to cucumber downy mildew, however, tends to decrease with the increase of foliar uptake of dimethomorph. The uptake rate of dimethomorph to cucumber leaf was proportional to the content of polyoxyethylene cetyl ether in formulation, but was decreased with dilution.

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Enhancement of Foliar Uptake and Leaf Deposit of Thifluzamide Formulation and Fungicidal Activity Against Rice Sheath Blight (Thifluzamide 제제의 경엽 침투성과 부착량 증진이 벼 잎집무늬마름병 방제 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Choi, Gyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2011
  • In order to enhance the fungicidal activity of the thifluzamide formulation against rice sheath blight, the surfactants which was able to facilitate the foliar uptake or increase the leaf deposit of thifluzamide on rice plants were selected, and the formulations containing the surfactants were tested to compare the fungicidal efficacy against the rice sheath blight with a control WP formulation. The WP suspension containing dodecaethylene glycol monohexadecyl ether as an activator increased the foliar uptake of thifluzamide on rice plants, but its fungicidal efficacy against rice sheath blight was decreased. The addition of the combined surfactants with either heptaethylene glycol monoisododecy ether or heptaethylene glycol monotridecyl ether and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate to WP suspension increased the leaf deposition of thif1uzamide at around 5 times of that without a spreader-sticker that median control concentrations of thifluzamide against rice sheath blight were decreased to 4.4 mg $L^{-1}$ and 3.4 mg $L^{-1}$, respectively.

Mechanism of Action of Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate on Foliar Penetration of Dimethomorph into Cucumber (Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate에 의해 유도되는 Dimethomorph의 오이 엽면 침투 기작)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2008
  • The foliar uptake of dimethomorph into cucumber was assessed by spray application of aqueous dimethomorph solution containing fatty alcohol ethoxylate (FAE) or fatty acid alkyl ester as activator adjuvants. Afterward, the possible mechanism of action of FAE on foliar penetration of active ingredient was suggested by speculating on the effect of lipophile and hydrophile of FAEs. The amount of absorbed dimethomorph induced by polyoxyethylene mono-9-octadecenyl ether (6 moles ethylene oxide, $C_{18=9}E_6$) was linearly related to the concentrations of surfactant as well as dimethomorph in spray solution, suggesting that it is simply a diffusion phenomenon of the solute molecule through a cuticular membrane from leaf surface. Octadecanol attached to FAE was most effective lipophile on the leaf penetration of dimethomorph. And, the more ethylene oxide had the polyoxyethylene chain of FAE up to 20 moles, the higher the uptake rate was. Therefore, the role of lipophile of FAE on dimethomorph penetration to cucumber leaf, probably, is to modify the physico-chemical properties of cuticular membrane to be permeable to dimethomorph, and the polyoxyethylene chain having less than 20 moles ethylene oxide, which is moderately permeable to cuticular membrane by its molar volume, is to let the physically-modified cuticular membrane to be maintained for a longtime.

Bioremediation Bentazon using Minari(Oenanthe stolonifera DC.) Plant. (미나리(Oenanthe stolonifera DC.)를 이용한 Bentazon의 생물학적 분해)

  • Shin, Joung-Du;Lee, Myung-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 1997
  • Laboratory experiments were conducted to the potential ability of bioremediation with bentazon such as determining the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of $^{14}C-Bentazon$ in minari after foliar applications. The absorption and translocation of $^{14}C-bentazon$ were compared when applied to foliar of minari. In foliar applications, 21% was observed in treated leaves, 66% remained in water extracts of leaf surfaces, and 13% was found in the epicuticular wax layer after 2d. Translocation of the herbicide from treated leaves to roots was very low(79 to 9%). Analysis of methanol-soluble extracts of $^{14}C$ indicated that more than 60% of the foliarapplied herbicide was metabolized in all plant sections after 2d. However, 77% or more of the bentazon was degraded in roots and shoots 2d after root absorption. The major metabolite in these experiments was an unknown compound that was less polar than bentazon and 6- and 8-hydroxy bentazon.

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