• Title, Summary, Keyword: follicular cysts

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Study on functional states and differential diagnosis of ovarian cysts in slaughtered Korean native cows (도축한우에서 난소낭종의 감별진단 및 기능성에 관한 연구)

  • 이청산;류대열;윤호규;송종한;이종인;서국현;김일화;강현구
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2004
  • To establish the differential diagnosis and functional status in ovarian cystic cows, progesterone(P$_4$) and estrogen(E$_2$) level of cystic follicular fluid, ultrasonography for measuring the cystic diameter and thickness of cystic wall, and histological findings were investigated in cystic ovaries from slaughtered Korean native cows. Ovarian follicles were classified as systic if the diameter was greater than 25 mm by ultrasonography. Ovarian cysts < 3 mm of cystic wall thickness, < 10 ng/ml P$_4$ concentration and >10 ng/ml E$_2$ concentration were classified follicular cyst, ovarian cysts 3 mm of cystic wall thickness, 10 ng/ml P$_4$ concentration and <10 ng/ml E$_2$ concentration were classified luteal cyst, and ovarian cysts 3 mm of cystic wall thickness, < 10 ng/ml P$_4$ concentration and <10 ng/ml E$_2$ concentration were classified non-functional ovarian cyst, respectively. Also ovarian cysts were classified 8 types by anatomical and hisctological findings. Ovarian cysts with corpus luteum were 3 of 73 cows and ovarian cysts without corpus luteum were 70 cows. The incidence rates of 8 various types of ovarian cysts were as follows; 2Aa 56.2%, 2Ba 20.5% and 2Ab 15.1%, respectively. The incidence rates of ovarian cysts without corpus luteum were follicular cyst 76.7% and luteal cyst 19.2%. The thickness of cystic wall were lAb 3.9 mm, 2Ab 3.3 mm and 2Bb 3.2 mm, and the cystic fluid P$_4$ concentrations were above 10.0 ng/ml in lAb, 2Ab and 2Bb, respectively. There was significantly correlations between the thickness of cystic wall and cystic fluid P$_4$ concentration in ovarian cysts(p<0.05). The ovarian cyst was classified follicular cysts, luteal cyst and non-functional ovarian cyst by hormone analysis. The luteal cyst was accuratly dignosed by cystic wall thickness. But follicular cysts was misdiagnosed 13 cows of 56 cystic cows. The 13 cystic cows was determined as had non-fuctional ovarian cysts. The cystic fluid P$_4$ concentration was 3.3 ng/ml in follicular ovarian cysts and 30.1 ng/ml luteinized ovarian cysts. There was significantly positive correlations between thickness of cystic wall and serum P$_4$ concentration in follicular(r$^2$ =0.59, p<0.001) and luteal cysts(r$^2$=0.65, p<0.001). These results indicated that ovarian cysts had various stages of degeneration and luteal cyst was accuratly diagnosed measurement of cystic wall thickness by ultrasonography, but follicular cysts was not diagnosed only cystic diameter and cystic wall thickness. In conclusion, it is suggest that ovarian cysts was diagnosed by combination of clinical sign and anatomical cystic features.

TREATMENT OF CYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE IN COWS WITH GONADOTROPINS

  • Dabas, Y.P.S.;Atheya, U.K.;Sud, S.C.;Lakchaura, B.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 1989
  • Eighteen multiparous and 8 nulliparous cows with cystic ovarian disease (19 having follicular cysts, 7 with luteal cysts) were administered either 3000 I. U. HCG or $300{\mu}g$ LHRH. Ten animals responded satisfactorily leading to normal estrus within a period of 15 to 30 days and subsequent conception. In 8 animals cysts recurred and no effect of treatment was observed in 3 patients. Plasma progesterone concentration was significantly lower in animals having follicular cysts compared to those with luteal cysts.

Vaginal prolapse by ovarian follicular cysts in a female Jin-do dog

  • Kim, Bang-Sil;Kim, Hee-Su;Kim, Ki-Chul;Park, Chul-Ho;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.223-225
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    • 2008
  • A six-year-old, female Jin-do dog was referred for the recurrence of vaginal prolapse. Less than 7 months previously, the dog with the vaginal prolapse had been treated with hormone therapy because ultrasonography had identified a single follicular cyst in the left ovary. Three months after the first visit, the dog came into heat and the vaginal prolapse recurred. Ultrasonography showed multiple follicular cysts in both ovaries and radioimmunoassay detected a plasma estradiol-$17{\beta}$ concentration of 13.3 pg/ml. Treatment involved the repositioning of the vaginal prolapsed, ovariohysterectomy and the resection of the protruding tissue. The dog had been completely recovered two months later after the treatment.

Reproductive Monitoring and Estrus Induction Using Ultrasonography and Hormone Assay in Dairy Cows II. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Coexist of Cysts and Corpus luteum (초음파검사 및 호르몬검사에 의한 젖소 번식검진과 발정유도 II. 황체가 존재하는 난소낭종의 진단과 치료)

  • 오기석;박상국;김방실;고진성;신종봉;백종환;홍기강;문광식;임원호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.376-383
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    • 2003
  • To establish the differential diagnosis and treatment method in bovine ovarian cysts, specially ovarian cysts with corpus luteum, serum progesterone concentration, rectal palpation and ultrasonography for measuring the cystic wall thickness and diameter of cyst and corpus luteum were investigated from 1,188 dairy cows with ovarian cysts. The plasma progesterone concentrations were 0.3$\pm$0.4 (mean$\pm$SD) ng/ml in 629 cows with follicular cysts, 3.7$\pm$1.1 ng/ml in 431 cows with luteal cysts, and 3.8$\pm$1.2 ng/ml in 128 cows with coexist of ovarian cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. The cystic wall thickness by ultrasonography were 1.6$\pm$0.4 mm in 629 cows with follicular cysts, 4.2$\pm$1.5 mm in 431 cows with luteal cysts, and 1.6$\pm$0.6 mm in 128 cows with coexist of ovarian cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. The days from initial treatment to insemination in follicular cysts were 28.1$\pm$6.9 days in treatment of GnRH alone, 15.9$\pm$2.9 days in combination of GnRH and dinoprost, and 15.1$\pm$3.1 days in combination of GnRH and cloprostenol. The percentages of cows conceived within 100 days after initial treatment were 61 %, 68% and 73% in treatment of GnRH alone, combination of GnRH and dinoprost, and combination of GnRH and cloprostenol, respectively. The days from initial treatment to insemination in luteal cysts were 3.8$\pm$0.6 days in treatment of dinoprost alone and 3.8$\pm$0.7 in cloprostenol alone. The percentages of cows conceived within 100 days after initial treatment were 69.5% and 68.5% in treatment of dinoprost and cloprostenol, respectively. The days from initial treatment to insemination in coexist of cysts and corpus luteum were 3.7$\pm$0.7 days in treatment of dinoprost alone and 3.8$\pm$0.6 in cloprostenol alone. The percentages of cows conceived within 100 days after initial treatment were 87% and 84% in treatment of dinoprost and cloprostenol, respectively. These results suggest that the best choice for treatment agents in ovarian cysts were combination of GnRH and PGF$_2$$\alpha$ in follicular cysts, and the PGF$_2$$\alpha$ in luteal cysts and in coexist of cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggest that ultrasonography is useful diagnostic tool for diagnosis and selection of treatment remedy in cystic ovaries of bovine.

Morphological Observations of Ovaries in Relation to Infertility in Slaughtered Cows in Kyungnam Province 2. Incidences and Morphological Findings of Ovarian Cysts (경남지방의 도태우에 불임과 관련된 난소의 형태학적 관찰 2. 난소낭종의 발생과 낭종형태에 대하여)

  • 곽수동;표병민;양재훈;김철호;서득록;고필옥;강정부
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2002
  • Ovaries from total 192 slaughtered cows(154 Korean native cows and 38 Holstein cows) were collected during the slaughtering process in Kimhae, Changyoung and Yangsan abattoirs in Kyungnam province from January 2001 to January 2002. In order to investigate incidence of the ovarian cysts, anatomical, histological observations were performed and also TUNEL methods and PCNA antibody by immunogistochemical methods for diagnostic accuracy of cysts in a few ovaries were applied. Apoptotic positive cells by TUNEL method appeared not or a few in cystic walls but appeared more number in normal large follicular walls and the proliferative positive cells by PCNA antibody appeared numerous in normal large follicular walls but not or a few in cystic walls. The incident rates of ovarian cysts were 19.5% in Korean native cows and 18.4% in Holstein cows. The incident rates of ovarian cysts in Holstein cows were lower than that of Koran native cows. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Korean native cows were 11.7% and 7.8% respectively. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Holstein cows were 10.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Higher incidence proportions of ovarian cysts according to seasons in Korean native cows were ordered as spring (29.8%), autumn (21.4%) winter (14.3%) and summer (6.7%). Rates of cows with single cyst and multiple cysts were 63.3%(19 heads /30 heads) and 36.7%(11 heads/30 heads) in 30 cystic Korean native cows, respectively. Cystic cows with corpus luteums were 50.0%(15 heads) in 30 Korean native cows and 42.9%(3 heads) in 7 dairy cows, respectively. Among 15 cystic Korean native cows with corpus luteums, rates of cows with single corpus luteum were 66.7%(10 heads) and rates of multiple corpus luteum were 33.3%(5 heads ), respectively. The average diameter of cysts and corpus luteums in cystic ovaries were 21.0$\times$17.1 mm and 18.1$\times$13.8 mm in 30 Korean native cows and 20.6$\times$17.7 mm and 19.3 $\times$ 14.9 mm in 7 Holstein cows, respectively. So the average sizes of cysts in cystic ovaries were larger than those of corpus luteums.

Evaluation of Functional Status of Ovarian Cysts in Slaughtered Korean Native Cows (도축 한우에서 난소낭종의 기능성 평가)

  • Kang H.G.;Lee C.S.;Kim I.H.;Mo I.P.;Lee K.C.;Suh G.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2006
  • To evaluate the functional status of ovarian cyst in Korean native cows, progesterone ($P_4$) and estrogen ($E_2$) level of cystic follicular fluid, ultrasonography for measuring the cystic diameter and thickness of cystic wall, and histological findings were investigated in cystic ovaries from slaughtered Korean native cows. Ovarian cysts were classified as single follicular cyst 51 cows (59.3%), multiple follicular cysts 19 cows (22.1%), single luteal cyst 13 cows (15.1%) and multiple luteal cysts 3 cows (3.5 %) by anatomical and ultrasonography. Ovarian cysts were classified as follicular cysts (54 cows), luteal cyst (16 cows) and non-functional ovarian cyst (16 cows) by hormone analysis, anatomical finding and ultasonography The luteal cyst was accurately diagnosed by cystic wall thickness, but follicular cysts was misdiagnosed 16 cows of 70 cystic cows The cystic fluid $P_4$ concentration was 3.3 ng/ml in follicular cysts and 30.1 ng/ml luteal cysts. There was significantly positive correlations between cystic wall thickness and serum $P_4$ concentration in follicular ($r^2=0.59$, p<0.001) and luteal cysts ($r^2=0.65$, p<0.001). These results indicated that ovarian cysts had various stages of degeneration and luteal cyst was accurately diagnosed measurement of cystic wall thickness by ultrasonography, but follicular cysts were not diagnosed only cystic diameter and cystic wall thickness.

Response of Ovaries and Cysts According to Treatment with GnRH or Combination of GnRH and $PGF_2{\alpha}$ in Dairy Cows with Follicular Cysts (난포낭종우에서 GnRH 또는 GnRH와$PGF_2{\alpha}$병용치료에 대한 난소 및 낭종의 반응)

  • Kang Hyun-gu;Kim Ill-hwa;Son Chang-ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.384-394
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to monitor the response of ovaries and cyst according to treatment with GnRH or combination of GnRH and $PGF_2{\alpha}$ in dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts. Thirty cows were diagnosed as having follicular cysts by rectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone (P4) assays. Ten cows were treated with GnRH (control), and the other twenty were treated with $PGF_2{\alpha}$ at 10 days after GnRH treatment. All the animals were re-examined by ultrasonography and blood was collected for the measurement of plasma P4 concentration at day 0 (the day of treatment), day 7, day 10, day 13, day 24 and day 34, respectively. In 30 cows that were diagnosed with follicular cysts, mean plasma P 4 concentrations on day -II and day -I were 0.3 ng/ml and 0.4 ng/ml. On day 10 increased as 2.7$\pm$0.2 ng/ml. Mean cystic wall thickness by ultrasonography on day -11 and day -I were 2.1 mm and 2.2 mm. In 9 cows responded on luteinization of cystic wall, cystic wall thickness was 3.9$\pm$0.5 mm at day 10 after GnRH treatment. The responses of ovaries until day 10 after GnRH treatment included development of corpus luteum in the ovary bearing the cyst or in the contralateral ovary (12 cows), luteinization of cystic wall (6 cows) and clouding of the anechoic antrum of cysts (2 cows). The ovarian responses according to the combination of GnRH and $PGF_2{\alpha}$ included regression of the corpus luteum (12 cows), increase (1 cow) and no change (1 cow) of cyst size until last examination, and complete disappearance on day 13 (6 cows), 23 (6 cows) and 34 (4 cows). Combination treatment group of GnRH and $PGF_2{\alpha}$ showed a higher pregnancy rate within 100 days after initial treatment (40.0 vs 65.0%) and shorter intervals from the treatment to conception (45.4$\pm$25.8 vs 53.5$\pm$31.4 days) compared with control. It was concluded that the administration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ following GnRH treatment is effective in shortening the interval from treatment to conception in cows with follicular cyst. Also, this study suggested that the response of the cyst according to treatment revealed various types. Therefore, veterinarians should pay attention to monitor of the response of cystic ovaries after treatment, specially no change, slowly decrease or increasement of cyst size after treatment.

Observation of Estrus and Control of Abnormal Estrus in Cattle and Pig (소와 돼지에서 발정관찰과 이상발정의 대책)

  • 김창근
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 1983
  • This presentation firstly is discussed the characteristics of estrus, the time of first postpartum estrus, and the relative accurate of various estrus detection aids and secondly discussed the abnormalities of estrus and ovarian function and its control by treatment of exogenous hormones in cattle and pig. Longer estrus cycles as well as the shorter than 18 day cycles showed the lowered conception rates as compared to the normal cycles of 18 to 25 days. Other characteristics of est겨s such as duration of estrus, intensity of estrus and time of estrus are reviewed to affect fertility. The first postpartum ovulation and estrus in cows usually occurs about 20 to 30 days and 40 to 50 days after parturition, respectively. Irregularities in estrus cycle length have been conducted during early postpartum period. In sows, weaning is followed by ovulation and estrus although there is some individual variation. The most common method of estrus detection is direct visual observation on standing estrus behavior, but various aids of estrus detection have been empolyed with varying degree of effectiveness. The results from heat detector devices are about as accurate as twice-daily observation(about 90%). The abnormal estrus can be classified into three types; irregular or continuous estrus, silent estrus and anestrus. Cystic ovarian disease, follicular cysts and luteal cysts, is a serious cause of reproductive failure in cattle and pig. The follicular cysts are much more common than luteal cysts and the incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cattle is higher than beef cattle and pig. The occurrences of ovarian cysts have been closely associated with levels of milk production, stages of postpartum period, nutritional levels and seasons. The luteal cysts and persistent corpora lutea are responsive to the luteolytic effects of the recently synthetic analogues of PGF2$\alpha$ in cows and sows and recently GnRH or LH-RH has been successfully used as a treatment for cows and sows with ovarian follicular cysts.

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Follicular Cysts of a Beagle Dog in Diestrous Stage (비글개에서 발정 휴지기중의 난포낭종)

  • Kim, H.S.;Kang, H.G.;Kim, I.H.;Lee, C.S.;Lee, K.C.;Lee, D.Y.;Mun, J.S.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2007
  • A 2 years old female beagle dog was examined because of the vaginal discharge and vaginal swelling at 7th day after mating. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multiple follicular cysts on both ovaries. Also, the ratio of superficial cells was above 90% based on vaginal cytology. She was still in standing heat, with the tail deflected up and flagging when a male sniffed the vulva and attempted to mount. The dog was diagnosed with multiple follicular cysts by vaginal cytology, clinical signs and ultrasonography. The dog was treated with GnRH $50{\mu}g$ injection by intramuscularly. The sizes of the cysts were decreased two weeks after GnRH treatment, and then the dog delivered an offspring at 68th day after last mating. To confirm the stage of estrous cycle, we performed hormone analyses, retrospectively $Estradiol-17{\beta}$ concentration was 78pg/ml at diagnosis. Progesterone concentration was 6.9ng/ml at the last mating, and 66.9ng/ml at diagnosis. Therefore, we confirmed that follicular cysts was observed during diestrous stage in a beagle dog.

Treatment of Hyperestrogenism Caused by follicular Cysts in a Dog (개에서 난포낭종에 의해 발생한 고에스트로겐증의 치료)

  • Lee Jong Hwan;Kang Hyun-Gu;Kim Ill-Hwa;Eum Kyung Hwan;Lee Kee-Chang;Lee Chung-San;Lee Dong-Yub
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.428-430
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    • 2005
  • A female French Bulldog was referred to Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Chungbuk National University. In case, alopecia and erythema nodosum were the main complaints in a 16 months old female dog. Ventral alopecia and dorsal erythema nodosum have been presented on skin lesions for 8 months. There were no specific change with CBC and blood chemistry but plasma estrogen concentration was 68 pg/ml and cornified superficial epithelial cells were detected above $90\%$ by cytology examination of vaginal smear preparation. Ovarian cyst was detected by ultrasonography in the left ovary. Cystic diameter was $14.2\times12.0mm$. Therefore, we diagnosed as unilateral multiple follicular cysts. The dog was treated with GnRH $50{\mu}g$ injection by intramuscularly Cyst size was decreased $7.3\times7.2mm$ after 7 days GnRH treatment and disappeared after 14 days GnRH treatment. Also dermatitis by unilateral multiple follicular cysts were recovered after 21 days GnRH treatment.