• Title, Summary, Keyword: food safety

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Effects of CYP2C19 Genetic Polymorphisms on PK/PD Responses of Omeprazole in Korean Healthy Volunteers

  • Park, Sunny;Hyun, Yang Jin;Kim, Yu Ran;Lee, Ju Hyun;Ryu, Sunae;Kim, Jeong Mi;Oh, Woo-Yong;Na, Han Sung;Lee, Jong Gu;Seo, Doo Won;Hwang, In Yeong;Park, Zewon;Jang, In-Jin;Oh, Jaeseong;Choi, Seung Eun
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.729-736
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effects of $CYP2C19^*2$ and $^*3$ genetic polymorphisms on omeprazole pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) responses. Twenty-four healthy Korean volunteers were enrolled and given 20 mg omeprazole orally once daily for 8 days. The genotypes of CYP2C19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ($^*2$, $^*3$, and $^*17$) were screened. The plasma concentrations of omeprazole, omeprazole sulfone, and 5-hydroxy (5-OH) omeprazole were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The noncompartmental method was used for the determination of PK parameters. Change of mean pH and proportion (%) of time of gastric pH above 4.0 were estimated. The poor metabolizer (PM) group had the lowest metabolic ratio and exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC) for omeprazole among the CYP2C19 phenotype groups. The PM group showed the greatest change of mean pH and the highest % time of gastric pH above 4.0. The relationship between AUC of omeprazole and % time of gastric pH above 4.0 was confirmed. The study demonstrates that CYP2C19*2 and *3 influence the PKs and PDs of omeprazole in Korean healthy volunteers. Clinical trial registry at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (https://clinicaltrials.gov), number NCT02299687.

Food safety analytical techniques used in food industry (식품산업에서 활용되는 식품안전 분석기술의 현황)

  • Kim, Young-Jun
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2018
  • Recently, the importance of analytical techniques related to food safety is emerging in the food industry due to changes in diet patterns, environmental changes, climate change and consumer's interest in food safety. In particular, food safety accidents in the food industry may cause economic losses such as media reports, product recalls, consumer distrust, and so on. Therefore, a systematic, proactive and comprehensive food safety management system is increasingly required to prevent food safety issues. Efforts to ensure the reliability of food safety are essential by introducing various analysis instruments such as LC, GC, ICP, LC/MS/MS, GC/MS/MS, ICP/MS, PCR, and RT-PCR. In addition, recent food safety analytical techniques used in food industry should be shifted paradigm by developing multi-component simultaneous analytical method, low cost with high efficient analytical method, and eco-friendly method.

Raising Public Recognition of Climate Change Adaptation to Ensure Food Safety

  • Cho, Sun-Duk;Lee, Hwa Jung;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2013
  • Recent changes in the global climate environment have resulted in a wide variety of climate-related disasters, including floods, tidal waves, forest fires, droughts, etc. In addition, global warming raises the risk of food poisoning, which may increase the spread of infectious diseases and alter their structure. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to provide accurate and persuasive information to consumers so that they can be fully informed of climate change and alter their behavior accordingly. Therefore, the intention of this study was to develop posters and contents for image production related to climate change and food safety. The posters are focused on consumers with headings such as "Climate Change Threatening Food Safety", "Earth getting warmer, your dining table is at risk", "Warning signs ahead for the globe", and more. Five poster drafts were selected initially, and a survey was carried out amongst 1,087 people regarding their preferences, with the most preferred design chosen. The images related to climate change and food safety defined climate change, how it relates to food safety, the risks it poses to the food industry, and lastly, how the public can respond in the future. Therefore, to further communicate the importance of food safety to consumers, the development, education, and promotion of these contents should be performed to provide safety information to consumers in the future.

Potential for Dependence on Lisdexamfetamine - In vivo and In vitro Aspects

  • Yun, Jaesuk;Lee, Kwang-Wook;Eom, Jang-Hyeon;Kim, Young-Hoon;Shin, Jisoon;Han, Kyoungmoon;Park, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Hyung Soo;Cha, Hye Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.659-664
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    • 2017
  • Although lisdexamfetamine is used as a recreational drug, little research exists regarding its potential for dependence or its precise mechanisms of action. This study aims to evaluate the psychoactivity and dependence profile of lisdexamfetamine using conditioned place preference and self-administration paradigms in rodents. Additionally, biochemical techniques are used to assess alterations in the dopamine levels in striatal synaptosomes following administration of lisdexamfetamine. Lisdexamfetamine increased both conditioned place preference and self-administration. Moreover, after administration of the lisdexamfetamine, dopamine levels in the striatal synaptosomes were significantly increased. Although some modifications should be made to the analytical methods, performing high performance liquid chromatography studies on synaptosomes can aid in predicting dependence liability when studying new psychoactive substances in the future. Collectively, lisdexamfetamine has potential for dependence possible via dopaminergic pathway.

Bosentan and Rifampin Interactions Modulate Influx Transporter and Cytochrome P450 Expression and Activities in Primary Human Hepatocytes

  • Han, Kyoung-Moon;Ahn, Sun-Young;Seo, Hyewon;Yun, Jaesuk;Cha, Hye Jin;Shin, Ji-Soon;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Hyungsoo;Park, Hye-kyung;Lee, Yong-Moon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 2017
  • The incidence of polypharmacy-which can result in drug-drug interactions-has increased in recent years. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are important polypharmacy modulators. In this study, the effects of bosentan and rifampin on the expression and activities of organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 2C9 and CYP3A4 were investigated in vitro. HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes overexpressing the target genes were treated with bosentan and various concentrations of rifampin, which decreased the uptake activities of OATP transporters in a dose-dependent manner. In primary human hepatocytes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 gene expression and activities decreased upon treatment with $20{\mu}M$ $bosentan+200{\mu}M$ rifampin. Rifampin also reduced gene expression of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporter, and inhibited bosentan influx in human hepatocytes at increasing concentrations. These results confirm rifampin- and bosentan-induced interactions between OATP transporters and CYP450.

A Study on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Food Safety in the Elementary School Students (어린이의 식품안전에 대한 관심도와 행동평가)

  • Kim, Jung-Hoan;Yoo, Taek-Yong
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.249-261
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the children's knowledge, attitudes and practices of food safety. A total of 355 data were collected from elementary school students. The concern of food safety was moderate in 5 point Likert scale and relatively high correlated with food safety knowledge(r=0.571) and education(r=0.534). The experience and knowledge of terminology on food safety were estimated. The level of food safety was classified into 5 groups and the consideration of food purchase was classified into 3 groups by factor analysis. A few children were aware of the food safety knowledge and could hardly understood English terminology. And the food safety practices were surveyed, and most of children checked with expiration dates and packaging conditions of food. Personal hygiene practice of children was significantly affected by gender, self hygiene evaluation and the knowledge level of food safety. Providing more food safety information affects personal hygiene and the practices of food purchase, so educational programs on food safety for children were required.

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Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

  • Park, Sung-Hee;Kwak, Tong-Kyung;Chang, Hye-Ja
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2010
  • This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed.

Analysis of the Effects of an Educational Program regarding Food Safety for Children (아동의 식품 안전 교육 프로그램에 대한 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Mee-Ra;Jeon, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Hyo-Chung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an educational program regarding food safety for children. The data were collected from the results of a self-administered questionnaire that was given to 510 6th grade elementary school students in the Youngnam region who had undergone a food safety education program. The results of this study were as follows. First, the educational need for food safety was high in each food safety category, with the educational need for prevention against foodborne illness being the highest of the 10 categories. On the basis of the study results, educational materials were developed which targeted personal hygiene, food labeling, food purchase, food washing, food storage, cooking, foodborne illness prevention, food additives, endocrine disruptors, and illegal foods. Additionally, about 37% of the respondents aswered that they preferred the food safety education to be conducted at home. Second, the food safety education significantly improved the levels of knowledge and behavior of children toward food safety. These results imply that food safety education that addresses the concerns of children and their parents' is needed to improve the level of knowledge and behavior toward food safety.

The Safety of Food Developed by Gene Manipulation (유전자 재조합 식품의 안전성)

  • 최원상
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.216-225
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    • 1999
  • Safety of present food has been accepted on the basis of extensive use experience for a long time. Many food resources have been developed by traditional techniques without any significant adverse impacts on the safety of food. Recently recombinant DNA techniques are being used to develop new food resources. These techniques enable developers to make specific genetic modifications in food resources that introduce substances that could not be introduced by traditional methods. With these techniques food resources are being to resist pests and disease, to tolerate herbicides, and to have improved characteristics for food preservation and nutritional contents. Because the properties of an organism results from interaction between biochemical pathways controlled by many genes, the genes conferring these traits usually encode directly responsible proteins for the new trait as well as proteins that indirectly modify carbohydrates or lipids in food. Therefore, this kind of food is regarded as new food that has not been existed before, and the safety of the food developed by recombinant DNA techniques should be evaluated upon scientific basis. In this paper, the issues upon safety of the food developed by gene manipulation are diseased in terms of composional changes that can be introduced, potential food safety harzards that might arise, present status of safety regulations in various countries and international organizations, and suggestions for the safety regulation in Korea.

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