• Title, Summary, Keyword: food safety

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Analysis of comparisons of eating-out, dietary lifestyles, and healthy dietary competencies among middle-aged consumers according to obesity status and gender for implications of consumer education (소비자교육을 위한 중년기 소비자의 성별, 비만도별 외식 행동, 식생활 라이프스타일 및 건강한 식생활역량의 차이 분석)

  • Park, Jong Ok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.60-72
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in eating-out, dietary life styles, and healthy dietary competencies among middle-aged consumers according to obesity status and gender for implications of consumer education. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2016 Food Consumption Behavior Survey, and 3,022 subjects (mail 1,388; female 1,634) who were middle-aged adults were investigated. Analysis of variance with $Scheff\acute{e}$ test, t-test, $x^2$-test, and factor analysis were performed using SPSS v.24. Results: Males showed less interest in diet than females. For both males and females, higher BMI degrees were associated with higher levels of interest in diet. For frequency, monthly average consumption expenditure, one-time cost for eating out, and drinking frequency, males showed higher levels than females. Especially for the male group, higher obesity status was associated with higher levels of eating out and drinking. Dietary lifestyles of males and females turned out to be very similar. For the male group, normal weight group was more likely to show 'health and high quality pursuit dietary life-style' than the other groups. For females, the normal weight group were more likely to show 'health and high quality pursuit dietary life-style' and 'safety pursuit dietary life-style' than the other groups. The level of 'healthy dietary competence' for females was found to be higher than that for males. For the female group, there were significant differences according to obesity status, and practice was more important than knowledge in determining a healthy dietary life. Conclusion: For dietary life-related education for obese middle-aged consumers, it is important to emphasize less eating-out and drinking and less overeating while eating-out based on the results that eating-out, drinking, and overeating in the obesity group were significantly higher than in the normal group. It is important to focus on the value of dietary life and diverse foods, based on the results that the obesity group was less likely to be have healthy dietary lifestyles and consume less diverse foods than the normal group.

Evaluation on Heavy Metal Contents in Agricultural Soils around Industrial Complexes in Korea (공단 인근 농경지 토양 중 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Chae, Mi-Jin;Kim, Yoo-Hak;Kong, Myung-Suk;Jung, Ha-il;Kim, Suk-Cheol;Kim, Myoung-Suk;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yang, Jae-E;Kim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Gi-In;Kim, Gwon-Rae;Jung, Goo-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Agricultural soils are vulnerable from contamination of heavy metal derived from industrial waste. Monitoring on heavy metals on agricultural soils around industrial complexes and evaluation on distributional state on the concentrations of heavy metals in soil have been carried out for problem assessment on soil condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: Soil samples of 1,200, were collected from sixty site of industrial complexes located Gyounggi, Chungbuk, Cheonbuk, and Gyoungnam provinces. Total concentration of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and As were analyzed. Heavy metal concentrations in most soil samples were below warning criteria, except 1 site of Pb, Ni, and As, separately. The comparison of mean values of heavy metal concentrations between soils around industrial complexes and paddy soils, showed similar levels of heavy metals, except Pb. The concentrations of lots of heavy metals were distributed between from warning criteria to one fifth level of warning criteria. However, in the case of Cu and Pb, more than 30% were distributed below one twenties level of warning criteria. These results were very similar with the distribution state of heavy metals in upland soils. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface soil and subsoil were similar among the heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes. CONCLUSION: The concentrations of heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes were distributed close to warning criteria. Long term and continous monitoring and evaluation on heavy metals in agricultural soils are required for food safety and sustainable soil management.

"The U.S. military uses ginseng?": The official entrance of ginseng to the U.S. dietary supplement market and the U. S. military's dietary supplement manual in the late 20th century ("미군의 인삼 복용?" : 20세기 말 인삼의 미국 식이보충제 시장 편입과 미군 매뉴얼)

  • Seok, Yeong-dal
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.1
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    • pp.93-109
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    • 2019
  • This study aims to look at the process of ginseng being removed from the Western pharmacopoeia in the 19th century, experiencing a crisis as an export product in the America in the 20th century, and eventually settling in the U.S. society and the military as a dietary supplement in the 21th century. In this process, the legislation of provided a bridgehead for ginseng and other botanical dietary supplements to enter the U.S. market. As a result, ginseng could be re-listed in the U.S. pharmacopoeia as a dietary supplement. However, this did not mean a complete soft landing of ginseng and other botanical dietary supplements in the America. The U.S. medical community, which has been afraid of the indiscriminate spread of botanical dietary supplements, has constantly raised "the risk-discourse" and expressed concerns over the use and abuse of botanical dietary supplements that have not been scientifically verified. This involved not only the fundamental problems caused by the lax verification process of , but also a new atmosphere in the U.S. where the public sought information about botanical dietary supplements rather than seeking professional clinicians related to their health. Against this situation, "the advocate-discourse" suggested by dietary supplement manufacturers and the people in charge of botanical products seemed rather relaxed. As consumers are taking this side, the advocates had only to stress that botanical dietary supplements have been used worldwide for a long time without any problems and were made from 'natural' materials. The fact that ginseng and other botanical dietary supplements were able to advance to the U.S. Military's dietary supplement manual, which is strict in controlling food, seems to have jumped on the bandwagon of this atmosphere in the U.S. Society. In the early U.S. dietary supplement manual reviewed in this paper, ginseng was the most detailed among many botanical dietary supplements. Although there are some 'safety concerns' that still exist in the civilian society, but there are also certainly good scientific explanations for the efficacy and references to the popularity and influence of ginseng in the American society. Given this, the U.S. society and military's interest in ginseng as a dietary supplement seem quite high.

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NEW ANTIDEPRESSANTS IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY (소아청소년정신과영역의 새로운 항우울제)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.12-25
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    • 2003
  • Objectives:As increasing number of new antidepressants have been being introduced in clinical practice, pharmacological understanding has been broadened. These changes mandate new information and theories to be incorporated into the treatment process of children with depressive disorders. In light of newly coming knowledge, this review intended to recapitulate the characteristics of new antidepressants and to consider the pivotal issues to develope guidelines for the treatment of depression in childhood and adolescence. Methods:Searching the Pub-Med online database for the articles with the key words of 'new', 'antidepressants' and 'children' ninety-seven headings of review articles were obtained. The author selected the articles of pertinent subjects in terms of either treatment guideline or psychopharmacology of new antidepressants. When required, articles about the clinical effectiveness of individual antidepressants were separatedly searched. In addition, the safety information of new antidepressants was acquired by browsing the official sites of the United States Food and Drugs Administration and Department of Health and Human Services. Results:1) For the clinical course, treatment phase, and treatment outcome, the reviews or treatment guidelines adopted the information from adult treatment guidelines. 2) Systematic and critical reviews unambiguously concluded that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) excelled tricyclic antidepressants( TCAs) for both efficacy and side effect profiles, and were recommend for the first-line choice for the treatment of children with depressive disorders. 3) New antidepressants generally lacked treatment experiences and randomized controlled clinical trials. 4) SSRIs and other new antidepressants, when used together, might result in pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic drug-to-drug interaction. 5) The difference of the clinical effectiveness of antidepressants between children and adults should be addressed from developmental aspects, which required further evidence. Conclusion:Treatment guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of childhood and adolescence depression could be constructed on the basis of clinical trial findings and practical experiences. Treatment guidelines are to best serve as the frame of reference for a clinician to make reasonable decisions for a particular therapeutic situation. In order to fulfill this role, guidelines should be updated as soon as new research data become available.

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Research status of the development of genetically modified papaya (Carica papaya L.) and its biosafety assessment (GM 파파야 개발 및 생물안전성 평가 연구 동향)

  • Kim, Ho Bang;Lee, Yi;Kim, Chang-Gi
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.171-182
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    • 2018
  • Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the crops widely planted in tropical and subtropical areas. The papaya fruit has low calories and are plentiful in vitamins A and C and in minerals. A major problem in papaya production is a plant disease caused by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The first PRSV-resistant GM papaya expressing a PRSV coat protein gene was developed by USA scientists in 1992. The first commercial GM papaya cultivars derived from the event was approved by the US government in 1997. Development of transgenic papayas has been focused on vaccine production and limited agricultural traits, including insect and pathogen resistance, long shelf life, and aluminum and herbicide tolerance. Approximately 17 countries, including the USA and China, produced transgenic papayas and/or commercialized them, which provoked studies on biosafety assessment and development of GM-detection technologies. For the biosafety assessment of potential effects on human health, effects of long-term feeding to model animals have been studied in terms of toxicity and allergenicity. Studies on environmental safety assessment include influence on soil-microbial biodiversity and transfer to soil bacteria of GM selection markers. Many countries, such as Korea, the European Union, and Japan, that have strict regulations for GM crops have serious concerns about unintended introduction of GM cultivars and food commodities using unauthorized GM crops. Transgene- and/or GM event-specific molecular markers and technologies for genomics-based detection of unauthorized GM papaya have been developed and have resulted in the robust detection of GM papayas.

Evaluation of Water Quality Characteristics on Tributaries of Dongjin River Watershed (동진강 유역내 하천의 특성별 영향평가)

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Kim, Won-Il;Kim, Jin-Ho;Kim, Seon-Jong;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Eom, Ki-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2002
  • Irrigation water quality along Donjin river watershed was monitored to find a possible pollutant, for maintaining water quality to achieve food safety through water quality preservation of river. As a pollution indicators, such as Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Total Nitrogen(T-N), and Total Phosphate(T-P) in Dongjin river were examined from May to November in 2001. The results were as follows : The BOD level of Dongjin river ranged from 2.84 to 6.45 mg/L, which would be in a II$\sim$IV grade of the potable water criteria by Ministry of Environment. Averaged BOD level of downstream DJ6(After Jeongupcheon confluence) was 4.07 mg/L. The average COD level of Dongjin river ranged from 11.20 to 32.96 mg/L. COD level of DJ6 rapidly increased rapidly after the junction of Dongjin river and Jungupcheon because it showed the latter had relatively high pollution level. T-N content were significantly high in all sites of Dongjin river ranged through 4.16 to 5.84 mg/L. T-P examined high concentration than another thing point by 0.19 mg/L after Jeongupcheon confluence as BOD and COD. COD of main stream was expressed high concentration to dry season after rainy season. In case of T-P, pollution degree of dry season before rainy season appeared and examined that quality of water was worsened go by dry season after rainy season. The water quality of Dongjin river was deteriorated with inflow of Jungupcheon polluted by municipal and industrial sites near Jungup city.

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues on Dried Agricultural Products (건조채소류의 잔류농약 실태 조사)

  • Gang, Gyungri;Mun, Sujin;Kim, Gwang-Gon;Yang, Yongshik;Lee, Semi;Choi, Euna;Ha, Dongryong;Kim, Eunsun;Cho, Baesik
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2017
  • The study was conducted for safety evaluation of 208 kinds of residue pesticides on 200 dried agricultural products, which are distributed in Gwangju. The method of monitoring was the second of Multi Class Pesticide Multi-residue Methods in Korean Food Code, and GC-ECD, GC-NPD, GC-MSD, and LC-MS/MS were used as evaluation equipment to analyze. The residue level in pesticides were 15.5% (31 of 200 samples) and 4 samples exceeded MRLs. 4.5 mg/kg of pyraclostrobin (MRL; 3.0 mg/kg) was detected in red pepper, 1.49 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (MRL; 0.13 mg/kg) in daikon leaves, 38.26 mg/kg of pyridalyl (MRL; 0.25 mg/kg) in pepper leaves, 0.98 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (MRL; 0.05 mg/kg), respectively. Pesticides were found on the 15 samples among the 21 samples of red pepper which is a fruit vegetable, and this resulted in high detection rate of 71%. In addition, pesticides were detected on chwinamul, shitake, siler divaricata, daikon leaves and others within MRLs. The frequent detected kinds of pesticides were insecticide (47.6%), fungicide (33.3%), acaricide (14.3%), nematicide (4.8%) in the order named, and pesticides were methoxyfenozide > pyraclostrobin > azoxystrobin, chlorantraniprole > novaluron, trifloxystrobin in frequent order.

Current Status and Perspective and Future Task in Korea of Crop Genetic Transformation (작물형질전환의 현황과 한국내의 발전전망 및 과제)

  • Harn, Chee-Hark
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.171-184
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    • 2006
  • According to ISAAA report, the global area of genetically modified (GM) crops increased more than 50 fold during the ten-year period from 1996 to 2005 with a sustained double-digit growth rate of 10%. This biotechnology adoption is one of the highest rates of technology adoption in agriculture history and this phenomenon indicates that the industrial value of the GM crops is highly perspective. In addition, the year 2010, 60% of cereal seeds in the global market would be GM or biotechnology related seeds so that the GM crop regards as the second green revolution that could provide a huge impact to food and agriculture. Nevertheless, there has not been any GM variety ever successfully commercialized in Korea and even none of the GM crops has ever been approved for safety testing by risk assessment. This seems that Korean agriculture industry might be indeed lost in the war of future seed market. However, lots of evidence show that Korean scientists have established advanced technologies and protocols to develop GM crops for last 20 years. Actually there have been many cases of successful transformation of crops that were previously known very difficult in transforming. Therefore, Korean agbiotechnology arena firmly holds an infrastructure for developing GM crops with a superior technology. Then what were the problems? Why has even a single GM crop not been commercialized in Korea? The tardiness shown by business in adopting the GM crop is caused by many factors: academical weakness, poor research funding, short knowledge of risk assessment, public concern, no successful experience, lack of professional leaders on GM variety development, lack of systems toward industrialization and inappropriate target transgenes from the beginning. In order to catch up in the race for the new green industry, each one of us in private sectors alongside academia and national research institutes needs to focus altogether on what can be done best in terms of choosing crops, investing fund and establishing a road map for commercialization of GM crops.

The Listing Procedure for Plant Strengtheners in Germany (독일의 식물강화제 목록공시 제도)

  • Lee, Sang-Beom;Lee, Hyo-Won;Choi, Kyeong-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.277-278
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    • 2009
  • 독일 연방작물보호법(PflSchG-Gesetz zum Schutz der Kulturpflanzen, 1986.9. 15 제정)은 식물강화제(한국의 친환경유기농자재와 동일)에 대한 정의를 3가지로 대별하여 명시하고 연방농림생물학청(BBA)에 신고를 의무화하도록 개정(1998.7. 27)하여 법률적인 근거를 마련하였다. 정부조직 개편으로 인하여 2002년 11월 1일부터 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청(BVL)에서 유기농자재 등록 허가 업무를 주관하고 있다. 식물강화제는 작물보호법에 의하여 허가되는 농약, 생장촉진제, 작물보조제 및 비료관리법(Dungemittelgesetz)에 의한 식물영양제, 식물보조제, 작물재배 배양토 및 토양개량제 등과는 차별화하여 명시하고 있다. 식물강화제는 독일 작물보호법(PflSchG-Gesetz zum Schutz der Kulturpflanzen; Plant Protection Act) 제1장 제2조 10항에 의거하여 (1)유해생물에 대한 저항력을 높여주는 물질, (2)비기생성 피해에 대하여 식물을 보호해 주는 물질, (3)재배작물 이외의 잘려진 관상식물에 사용되는 물질로 정의하고 있다. 이러한 법률적 정의의 요지는 인간과 동물의 건강 및 자연계에 해로운 영향이 없으면서 식물체에 유해한 생물에 대하여 저항성만을 높여주는 물질을 말하며, 기상 및 환경공해 등에 의한 장해도 유해생물에 의한 것과 동일하게 간주되며 이에 대한 저항성을 높여 주는 물질도 포함시키고 있다. 식물강화제는 원칙적으로 유해생물 방제에 직접적으로 작용시키기 위한 이용목적으로 사용할 수 없으며, 단지 작물의 저항성을 높이는 경우에 한하여야 사용된다. 식물강화제의 등록 허가신청은 생산자, 판매업자 또는 수입업자가 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청(BVL)에 신청하여야 한다. 이렇게 신청된 식물강화제는 작물보호법 제2조에 의거하여 이루어진다. 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청의 작물보호제의 관리부서는 특별한 문제가 없는 한 4개월 이내에 등록을 허가하고 목록을 홈페이지에 목록을 공시한다. 목록공시는 통상적으로 매월 초순에 1회 게시된다. 허가 등록 절차는 맨처음 서류가 접수되면 구비서류가 완전한지 여부를 검토하여 신청서류에 문제가 없으면 4부를 복사하여 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청(BVL, Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety), 환경청(UBA, Federal Environment Agency), 연방농림생물학청(BBA, Federal Biogical Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry) 및 위해성평가연구소(BfR, Fedral Institute for Risk Assessment)에 우편으로 해당부서에 발송한다. 4개 기관이 검토한 내용이 서로 상이한 판단을 하였을 경우 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청은 등록 허가결정을 하기 전에 "전문가위원회"를 개최하여 의견을 청취한다. 전문위원회는 연방농림생물청, 환경부, 위해성평가연구소 연구원 등 작물, 독성 및 환경보호 전문가 25인으로 구성되어있다. 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청의 작물보호 제2부서(식물강화제 검토부서)는 전문위원과 검토기관의 의견을 종합하여 자체적으로 등록 허가 여부를 결정하여 제품 신청자에게 결정 내용을 통보함으로서 등록절차가 마무리 된다. 독일의 식물강화제, 즉 유기농자재는 국가에서 허가한 제품에 한하여 유기농업연구소(FiBL)에서 허용목록 책자를 만들어 유기농업단체 제공하면 단체에 따라 사용가능 유기농자재 제품을 다시 선별하여 회원에게 알려준다. 2009년 11월 30일 현재 독일의 연방소비자보호 및 식품안전청(BVL)에서 허가 공시한 식물강화제는 490개 제품에 이르고 있다.

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Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptor-suspected Pesticide Residues in Greenhouse Soils and Evaluation of Their Leachability to Groundwater (시설재배 토양 중 내분비계장애 추정농약의 잔류 모니터링 및 지하수 용탈 가능성)

  • Noh, Hyun-Ho;Lee, Kwang-Hun;Lee, Jae-Yun;Park, Hyo-Kyung;Lee, Eun-Young;Hong, Su-Myung;Park, Young-Soon;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.441-452
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to survey the residual characteristics of endocrine disruptor (ED)-suspected pesticides in greenhouse soils and assess their leachabilites to groundwater. Greenhouse soils were collected from 40 sites of greenhouse in 2008 in Korea. Sixteen ED-suspected pesticides which had been using in Korea, such as alachlor, benomyl, carbaryl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, dicofol, endosulfan, fenvalerate, malathion, mancozeb, metribuzin, metiram, methomyl, parathion, trifluralin, and vinclozolin, in the soils, were analyzed by chromatographic methods using GLC-ECD and HPLC-DAD/FLD. Limits of detection (LODs) of the test pesticides ranged from 0.0004 to 0.005 mg/kg. Recoveries of the target pesticides from soil ranged from 72.69 to 115.28%. Four pesticides including cypermethrin were detected in the range of from 0.001 to 2.019 mg/kg, representing that their detection rate from greenhouse soils was 37.5%. The highest detection rate was observed from endosulfan which was detected from 16 site soils of the total samples, indicating that endosulfan is persistent in soil because of its very low mobility and high adsorption characteristics in soil. Based on the groundwater ubiquity scores (GUSs) of the pesticides detected from greenhouse soils, most of them have little possibilities of groundwater contamination except the fungicide vinclozolin with some leaching potential because of high water solubility and very low soil adsorption property.