• Title, Summary, Keyword: foot-binding

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A Formative Beauty of Chinese Foot-Binding Shoes and the Meaning of Chinese Costume History -Focused on Collection of Tianjin Huaxia Shoes Culture Museum- (중국 전족 신발의 조형미 및 복식사적 의의 -천진화하혜문화박물관(天津?夏鞋文化博物?) 소장품을 중심으로-)

  • Xu, Rui;Bae, Soojeong
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 2015
  • The history of foot-binding was once regarded as a unique practice accentuating the beauty of a woman and the culture of the costume, to be found nowhere except in China. This thesis makes it an aim to understand the culture of costume in China by analyzing the beauty of foot-binding, and its meanings associated with the historical background of the costume. The method of investigation was by both previous literature on the topic and case analysis. The shoes were analyzed by colors, patterns and decorations; selecting 70 pieces easily accessible in the Tianjin Huaxia Shoes Culture Museum. In terms of form, the general type was of the most frequent, followed by one with an elevated toe, mixed type, and one of the downward toe, sequentially. The color of foot-binding shoes were mostly vivid chromatic colors, while the achromatic ones like black and grey constituting significant portions. In view of the patterns, plants patterns were the most frequent, followed by the mixed patterns of mostly flowers with butterflies, bats, and birds desiring the prosperity of descendants. In view of the ornaments, embroidery was the most frequent, while the mixed shoes included tassels, sequins, applique, and shoes without ornaments were of distributions. The forms, colors, patterns and ornaments clearly associated with the wishes of artistic beauty, sexuality, and rise in women's social status may be in the hope of leading others to understand the costume culture embedded in the Chinese by providing important clues about them.

A Study on Repression of the Female Body as Expressed by Chinese Foot-binding and the Western Corset (전족과 코르셋에 표현된 몸의 억압에 대한 의미해석)

  • Jeong, Ki-Sung;Kim, Min-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.61 no.7
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    • pp.35-50
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    • 2011
  • In this study, repression of the body is defined as a restriction on natural developments or movements and a modification either temporarily or permanently of the human body in shape, color, texture and odor. In addition, it involves physical and (or) mental pain. Chinese foot-binding and the Western corset are extreme examples of female body's being repressed in the history of fashion. The analysis of this type of repression will be based on historical research and theoretical concepts such as Darwin's (1809-1882) survival condition, Freud's (1856-1939) renunciation of desire, Weil's (1909-1943) privilege, and Foucault's (1926-1984) L'Usage des Plaisirs(the use of pleasure). Chinese foot-binding symbolically represents ideal beauty, the distinction of an ethnic group, and a desire for improved social status in the struggle for political power. It also represents psychology and a esthetics of eroticism and fetishism that originate from a man's desire and his individual taste. Symbolically, the Western corset represents abundance and fecundity, obedience and devotion to religion, the sanctity of God and ideal beauty as defined by political power. It also represents psychology and aesthetics of eroticism and fetishism as man's desire and a fashion icon. In conclusion, Chinese foot-binding was pursuit of power in male ideology but Western corset was a power struggle between God and mankind.

Differential Regulation of the Caprine ${\beta}$-Lactoglobulin Gene Promoter in the Cultured Mammary HC11 Cells

  • Kim, Jae-Man
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 1997
  • The ${\beta}$-Lactoglobulin (BLG) gene expression is differentially regulated during development of the mammary tissues. Such differential regulation of the BLG gene expression can be reiterated in the cultured mammary HC11 cells. In the growing non-confluent HC11 cells, the BLG promoter activity was shown to be partially repressed by the upstream regulatory sequence. The repression was gradually diminished and switched to activation as the cells grew confluent. The differential regulation of the BLG promoter was controlled by the 5'-regulatory sequence located at the upstream of 205 bp. Electromobility shift assay showed that nuclear extract from HC11 cells differentially bound on the regulatory sequence, depending on the cell confluency, which was in accordance with the differential transcriptional activity. DNase I foot-print assay, however, revealed that all nuclear extracts presented the same foot-prints, regardless of confluency of HC11 cells. These results suggest that differential regulation BLG gene expression by the 5'-regulatory sequence may be accomplished by competitive and/or cooperative binding of differential regulatory factors on the same regulatory element.

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Plantar foot pressure distribution depending on ground conditions and shoe type (지반조건과 신발의 종류에 따른 족저압 분포)

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Lee, Hye-Yoon;Kim, Yeon-Deok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.2899-2905
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents is a study on the pressure distribution families low in response to ground conditions. Indoor shoes, outdoor shoes, working shoes, are four categories of shoes sports shoes, has been used in the present study, Concrete to target men in their 20s of 45people wearing the 260mm(Euro Code EU40), the experiments were carried out in the sand ground. Measurement of stress and pressure at the time of walking, Techstorm company Insole System the measured toe of the foot using, foot binding, was the metatarsal, the low pressure come from Fujoku four areas measured. Depending on the shoes and ground conditions findings, the results of this study represents the distribution of other stress and pressure, is expected to be useful in the development of a wearable shoe sand soil.

A Study on the Fetishism in Fashion (패션에 반영된 페티시즘연구)

  • 이의정
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.237-256
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    • 1997
  • Women's clothes which represent feminity was one of the female oppression polices in the society of phallocentric sexual order. Many women were eager to good-looking as a comouflage for inferiority of their own sex which was the theory of fashion of Freud. He insist that it's the driving force for women fashion. Thight-lacing corset high heel and foot-binding which was made for men's pleasure limited women's social activity and unfortunately recycled. Such clothes or shoes makes women belong to men's power but its also one of the self controls for women. The materialization and sex objects of women was due to fashion which encouraged by men. Many facts of fetish gradually emerged I fashion and fetishism itself is no more than sexual perversion or low class sex culture. This paper is focused on relationship between fetishism and fashion which approaching based the feminism. We investigated how human ambivalence which persuit both modesty and fetishism is manifested in clothes. We also compared modern fetish fashion with corset and shoes which are sterotypes of classic fetishism

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Identification of the Negative Regulatory Element on the Caprine $\beta$ Lactoglobulin Promoter (염소의 베타-락토글로불린 유전자 프로모터의 음성 조절 인자 규명)

  • 김재만;유명희
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.433-441
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    • 1995
  • Mammary tissue-specificity of the caprine $\beta$-lactoglobulin promoter appears to be secured by repression in non-expressing cells. In order to identify the mechanism of the negative regulation, the upstream promoter sequence of the caprine $\beta$-lactoglobulin gene was analyzed in detail. The repression was mediated by the upstream flanking sequence from -47O to -205. The sequence could repress the promoter activity of $\beta$-lactoglobulin in either orientation. The effect of the putative negative regulation element of caprine $\beta$-lactoglobulin on heterlogous promoters, however, varied: the promoter activity of herpes simplex virus thimidine kinase was either repressed or activated by the sequence depending on its orientation, while the SV4O early promoter was activated rather than repressed. The regulatory sequence involving the putative negative regulatory element was strongly shifted with the nuclear extract from non-mammary HeLa and CV-1 cells, while only weak shift was observed with that of mammary HC11 cells. Such correlation between repression and factor binding suggests that the protected regions in foot-printing assay may be the negative regulatory elements of $\beta$-lactoalobulin that serve tissue-specific repression.

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Production of monoclonal antibodies specific to the surface antigens of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (닭의 혈액내 단핵세포 표면항원 특이 단클론성 항체 생산)

  • Choi, Jun-Gu;Sung, Haan-Woo;Kim, Sun-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specifically reacting with chicken leukocyte surface antigens. Popliteal lymph node cells of BALB/c mice previously immunized through foot-pad with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of chickens separated by Ficoll-Histopaque method. They were fused with P3X63Ag14 mouse myeloma cells. A total of 34 hybridomas secreted antibodies specifically binding to the PBMC. According to the reactivity patterns with PBMC, the mAbs were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 mAbs (IIB3, IIB10, IIE10) specifically reacted with non-adherent lymphocytes but not with adherent cells which were mainly composed of thrombocytes and monocytes in PBMC culture. These mAbs were reactive with 25-59% of thymus cells and 42-64% of spleen cells of chickens. They did not show any significant reactivity with cells in the bursa of Fabricius, T-cell (MDCC-MSB1) and B-cell (LSCC-1104B1) lines. These results indicate that Group I mAbs specifically reacted with T-lymphocyte subpopulation. Monoclonal antibodies in Group II (IC6, IG2-2 and IID9) showed specific reactivity with monocytes but not with thrombocytes or non-adherent cells in PBMC culture. These mAbs, though not reacted with the chicken macrophage cell line, HD11, also bound to macrophages of the spleen and lung in immunohistochemical staining. Five mAbs in Group III showed characteristics of binding to lymphocytes and monocytes, but not to thrombocytes. Twenty-three mAbs in Group IV showed specific reactivity to lymphocytes, monocytes, and thrombocytes. Two mAbs (IC3 and IE9) in Group IV reacted with most of PBMC.

Analysis of protective genotype of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Asia1 vaccine (구제역 Asia1 백신의 방어 유전형 분석)

  • Lee, Yeo-Joo;Chu, Jia-Qi;Lee, Seo-Yong;Kim, Su-Mi;Lee, Kwang-Nyeong;Ko, Young-Joon;Lee, Hyang-Sim;Cho, In-Soo;Nam, Seok-Hyun;Park, Jong-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2011
  • Asia1/Shamir that has been recommended by World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is used as a vaccine strain, and is being prepared in many countries including Korea. Although it is assumed that vaccine strain Asia1/Shamir has a wide antigenicity, sufficient molecular biological analysis has not been accomplished yet. Complete genome sequence analysis showed that the region with the most severe variations was 1D region of structural protein-coding sequence; particularly amino acid 141~157 residues in 1D region RGD sites for binding to susceptible cells. In addition, five amino acids in 1D region were identified as characteristic sites that are different from other known Asia1 viruses. Asia1/Shamir strain was shown to be genetically similar to group VI that had occurred in the Middle East, but showed low level of genetic similarity to the group V viruses that had occurred in the Southeast Asia and China. It is considered that, if these viruses, group I and II including group V are introduced into Korea, care would be paid in case of inoculating the vaccine strain Shamir available in Korea.

Regulation of type-1 protein phosphatase in a model of metabolic arrest

  • Ramnanan, Christopher J.;Storey, Kenneth B.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.817-822
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    • 2009
  • Type-1 phosphatase (PP-1) was assessed in foot muscle (FM) and hepatopancreas (HP) of estivating (EST) Otala lactea. Snail PP-1 displayed several conserved traits, including sensitivity to inhibitors, substrate affinity, and reduction in size to a 39 kDa catalytic subunit (PP-1c). During EST, PP-1 activity in FM and HP crude extracts was reduced, though kinetics and protein levels of purified PP-1c isoforms were not altered. PP-1c protein levels increased and decreased in nuclear and glycogen-associated fractions, respectively, during EST. Gel filtration determined that a 257 kDa low $K_m$ PP-1$\alpha$ complex decreased during estivation whereas a 76 kDa high $K_m$ complex increased in EST. Western blotting confirmed that the 76 kDa protein consisted of PP-1$\alpha$ and nuclear inhibitor of PP-1 (NIPP-1). A suppression of PP-1 activity factors in the overall metabolic rate depression in estivating snails and the mechanism is mediated through altered cellular localization and interaction with binding partners.

A Effect of Nutrition Counseling for Improving Iron Status of Female College Students (여대생의 철분영양상태 개선을 위한 영양상담 효과)

  • 홍순명;김은영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.1158-1163
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this research is to measure nutrition counseling effects for improving iron status. The major components of the nutrition counseling were iron, MPF(Meat, Poultry, Fish) and vitamin C rich diet therapy, the provision of nutrient supplements and eatting attitude education. Fifteen female volun teers participated and the mean level for hemoglobin(Hgb), hematocrit(Hct), serum iron(S Fe), total iron binding capacity(TIBC), serum ferritin(SF) of subjects was 11.9±1.3g/dl, 37.0±2.7%, 57.7 ±33.9 g/dl, 409.1±56.2 g/dl, 8.6±3.5ng/ml, respectively. To evaluate the effect of iron status improvement by the nutrition couseling, 10 subjective symptoms, hematological indice and eating attitude were measured after implementation the nutrition counseling. Some subjective symptoms such as 'cold hands and foot', 'slow to recover', 'reduced concentrate', 'poor memory', 'inflammed inner mouth' were improved significantly. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume(MCV), mean cell hemoglobin(MCH) and mean cell hemo globin concentration(MCHC) were increased significantly. And eating attitude was improved significantly as well. It is suggested from the results that the nutrition counseling of this study can be effective to improve iron status.

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