• Title, Summary, Keyword: four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg)

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The monitoring of some heavy metals in oriental mineral medicines (광물성 생약 중 중금속의 모니터링)

  • Han, Eunjung;Chung, Jaeyeon;Park, Kyungsu;Kang, Inho;Kang, Sinjung;Kim, Yunje
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.480-486
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    • 2008
  • This paper reports on the monitoring results of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in oriental mineral medicines. Levels of Pb, Cd and As were determined using the acid digestion method and ICP-MS. Hg levels were determined using the gold amalgamation method and Automatic mercury analyzer (AMA). The results indicated that, in the case of Pb, 25.81% (24 cases) of the samples were over MRL (5 mg/kg). Pb levels in Calamina, Pumex, and Cinnabaris exceeded MRL (5 mg/kg). In the case of Cd, 9.68% (17cases) of the samples were over MRL (0.3 mg/kg). Cd levels in Calamina, Pumex and Cinnabaris were exceeded MRL (0.3 mg/kg). In case of As, 24.73% (23 cases) of samples exceeded MRL (3 mg/kg). As levels in Calamina, Lithargyrum, Vermilionum, Cinnabaris and Chalcocitum exceeded MRL (3 mg/kg). In the case of Hg, it was shown that the 76.34% (78 cases) of the samples exceeded MRL (0.2 mg/kg). Hg levels in almost all the samples exceeded MRL (0.2 mg/kg). These results led us to recommend that the domestic commercial law to be legislated to ensure the quality estimation and safety of oriental mineral medicines.

Contents of Heavy Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu) and Risk Assessment in Commercial Cephalopods (유통 두족류의 중금속(Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu) 함량과 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Su-Un;Hwang, Young-Ok;Park, Ae-Sook;Park, Young-Ae;Ham, Hee-Jin;Choi, Sung-Min;Kim, Jung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.606-612
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate certain heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu) in 144 samples of cephalopods, to identify weekly heavy metal intakes and to evaluate potential health risks. The average concentrations in the arm, expressed in mg/kg, were: Hg 0.017 (less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 0.059), Pb 0.024 (less than the LOD to 0.092), Cd 0.030 (less than the LOD to 0.627) and Cu 2.536 (less than the LOD to 5.837). The average concentration in the internal organs, expressed in mg/kg, were: Hg 0.063 (from 0.008 to 0.543), Pb 0.579 (less than the LOD to 2.344), Cd 15.200 (from 0.654 to 75.29) and Cu 201.706 (from 2.412 to 856.4). Heavy metal concentrations were higher in the organs than in the arm. Of the four heavy metals, the ratio of internal organs to arm was highest for cadmium. The weekly intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd and Cu from Octopus minor were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.20% and 0.00%, respectively from the arm, and 1.0%, 0.96%, 92.28% and 0.05% from the internal organs as compared to PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intakes) established by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee for Food Safety Evaluation.

The Content of Heavy Metals in Manufactured Herbal Medicines (시중에 유통되는 한방생약제제의 중금속 함량)

  • Jung, Dae-Hwa;Park, Moon-Ki
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2008
  • This study is an endeavor to evaluate the safety of medicines from heavy metals, prescribed on the basis of herbal medicinal system and oriental medical prescription which are circulated much recently. For that, three globular types, four extract granular types and four liquid types of herbal medicine were bought to compare and analyze the content of heavy metals, such as As, Pb, Cd and Hg, which are harmful to human body. The concentration of Pb was found to be 0.552 ppm in Sachiltang, 2.552 ppm in Anjungjogiwhan and 1.735 ppm in Cheongsangbohwawhan in case of pill type herbal medicine, and liquid type herbal medicine, Maekmundongtang was 0.002 ppm, Galgeuntang was 0.003 ppm, Sangwhatang was 0.004 ppm, 20jeon Daebotang was 0.0185 ppm. And the concentration of Pb was found to be 0.322 ppm in Banhasasimtang, 0.47 ppm in Eungjosan, 0.29 ppm in Yukmijihwangtang, 0.64 ppm in Socheongryongtang in case of granular type. It was found that the liquid types herbal medicines were relatively safer than three pill types of, four granular types of and four liquid types herbal medicines were tested for concentration of heavy metals. It is considered that is required in the stage of raw material treatment, manufacturing and packaging because those herbal medicines are directly taken in and absorbed into human body through the final treatment process.

The State of Marine Pollution in the Waters adjacent to Shipyards in Korea - 3. Evaluation of the Pollution of Heavy Metals in Offshore Surface Sediments around Major Shipyards in Summer 2010

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.223-233
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    • 2015
  • In order to evaluate the pollution of heavy metals in offshore surface sediments around shipyards in Korea, surface sediment samples were collected at eleven stations around four major shipyards located in the southeastern coast of Korea in summer 2010 and nine kinds of heavy metals such as copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), lead(Pb), chrome(Cr), arsenic(As), mercury(Hg), iron(Fe) and aluminum(Al) in sediments were analyzed. The concentrations of Cu at all sampling stations were in the range of 47.10~414.96 mg/kg and exceeded TEL(Threshold Effects Level) 20.6 mg-Cu/kg of Korean marine environmental standards for offshore sediments and ERL(Effect Range-Low) 34.0 mg-Cu/kg. The concentrations of Cu at seven stations around four shipyards were 65.18~414.96 mg/kg and exceeded PEL(Probable Effects Level) 64.4 mg-Cu/kg of Korean marine environmental standards for offshore sediments. The concentration of Cu at one station around B-shipyard was 414.96 mg/kg and exceeded ERM(Effect Range-Median) 270.0 mg-Cu/kg. The concentrations of Zn at all stations were in the range of 135.09~388.79 mg/kg which exceeded ERL 150.0 mg-Zn/kg. The concentrations of Zn at seven stations around four shipyards were 157.57~388.79 mg/kg and exceeded PEL 157.0 mg-Zn/kg. The concentration of Zn at one station around B-shipyard was 388.79 mg/kg and was approaching ERM 410.0 mg-Zn/kg. The concentrations of Cd at all stations were in the range of 0.11~0.54 mg/kg and were below TEL 0.75 mg-Cd/kg and ERL 1.2 mg-Cd/kg. The concentrations of Pb at all stations were in the range of 18.04~105.62 mg/kg. The concentrations of Pb at two stations around B-shipyard were 73.87~105.62 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 44.0 mg-Pb/kg and ERL 46.7 mg-Pb/kg, and were below PEL 119.0 mg-Pb/kg and ERM 218.0 mg-Pb/kg. The concentrations of Cr at all stations were in the range of 51.26~85.39 mg/kg. The concentration of Cr at one station around B-shipyard was 85.39 mg/kg and exceeded ERL 81.0 mg-Cr/kg. The concentrations of As at all stations were in the range of 8.70~22.15 mg/kg which exceeded ERL 8.2 mg-As/kg and were below ERM 70.0 mg-As/kg. The concentrations of As at eight stations around A-shipyard, B-shipyard and D-shipyard were 14.93~22.15 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 14.5 mg-As/kg and were below PEL 75.5 mg-As/kg. The concentrations of Hg at all stations were in the range of 0.02~0.35 mg/kg. The concentrations of Hg at three stations around A-shipyard were 0.11~0.13 mg/kg which were almost equal to TEL 0.11 mg-Hg/kg. Those at two stations around B-shipyard were 0.27~0.35 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 0.11 mg-Hg/kg and ERL 0.15 mg-Hg/kg, and were below PEL 0.62 mg-Hg/kg and ERM 0.71 mg-Hg/kg. The concentrations of Fe and Al at all stations were in the range of 2.90 3.66 % and 3.12 6.80 %, respectively. These results imply that heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead, arsenic and mercury were likely to be transferred to marine environment from shipyards, especially from B-shipyard.

A Study On Heavy Metal Contamination in the Different Size Fractions of Deposited Road Particles(DRPs) (노면퇴적물의 입자 크기에 따른 중금속 오염에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Boo-Gil;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1171-1175
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    • 2006
  • Deposited road particles (DRPs) were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at four different roads in a city, Korea. The samples were collected using a roadway surface vacuum cleaning vehicle which was commonly used in collecting roadway surface particles. Six particle size ranges were analyzed separately for twelve heavy metal elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Hg). At all sampling sites, the high concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the <74um particle size range, which conventional roadway cleaning vehicles do not remove efficiently. The Pb concentration significantly increased with decreasing particle size of DRPs, and other toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Ni) also showed similar results. The heavy metal concentrations in the smaller size fraction of DRPs is important because they are contaminants that are preferentially transported by road runoff during rainfall.

Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Soil with the Blood and Urine of Residents around Abandoned Metal Mines (폐금속 광산지역 토양 중 중금속 농도와 주민의 혈액 및 요중 중금속 농도와의 관련성)

  • Jang, Bong-Ki;Park, Sang-Il;Kim, Nam-Soo;Jung, Kyung-Sick;Lee, Byung-Kook;Lee, Jong-Wha
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.348-357
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was conducted in order to examine the relationship between heavy metal concentrations in the soil and the level of heavy metals in the blood or urine of 216 local residents living near abandoned metal mines. Methods: Residents around abandoned metal mines were interviewed about their dietary habits, including seafood consumption, medical history, cigarette smoking, and drug history. Metal concentrations in the soil were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-7000, Shimadzu, Japan). Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents in the blood or urine were analyzed by GF-AAS (AA-6800, Shimadzu). Mercury (Hg) contents in the blood were determined by means of a mercury analyzer (SP-3DS, NIC). Arsenic (As) content in the soil and urine were measured by a HG-AAS (hydride vapor generation-atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Results: The heavy metal concentrations in the soil showed a log normal distribution and the geometric means of the four villages were 8.61 mg/kg for Pb, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 1.81 mg/kg for As and 0.035 mg/kg for Hg. The heavy metal levels of the 216 local residents showed a regular distribution for Pb, Cd, Hg in the blood and As in the urine. The arithmetic means were 3.37 ${\mu}g$/dl for Pb, 3.07 ${\mu}g$/l for Cd and 2.32 ${\mu}g$/l for Hg, 10.41 ${\mu}g$/l for As, respectively. Conclusions: As a result of multi-variate analysis for the affecting factors on the bodily heavy metal concentrations, gender and concentration in the soil (each, p<0.01) for blood lead levels; gender and smoking status (each, p<0.01) for blood cadmium levels; gender (p<0.01) for urine arsenic levels; gender, age and concentration in the soil (p<0.01) for blood mercury levels were shown to be the affecting factors.

Monitoring of some heavy metals in oriental animality medicines (동물성 생약에 함유되어 있는 몇 가지 중금속에 대한 실태 조사)

  • Baek, Sunyoung;Chung, Jaeyoen;Lee, Jihye;Park, Kyungsu;Kang, Inho;Kang, Sinjung;Kim, Yunje
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2009
  • Four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg) in 38 species (total 325 samples) of oriental animality medicines were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and automatic mercury analyzer (AMA). The detected concentration range of Pb, Cd, As was presented as $0.02{\mu}gkg^{-1}$ $(D.L){\sim}11.29mgkg^{-1}$, $0.01{\mu}gkg^{-1}$ $(D.L){\sim}2.50 mgkg^{-1}$, $0.12{\mu}gkg^{-1}$ $(D.L){\sim}5.27mgkg^{-1}$, respectively. In case of Hg, it the concentration range was $0.01{\sim}77.11mgkg^{-1}$ except one sample which exceeded detection limit. In all samples of Amydae Carapax and Gallnut, it was not detected over the maximum residue limits of metals. Pb is in charge of the greatest portion of contamination in 22 species of animality medicines, and in case of Hg, 54.46% of total samples were over the maximum residue limits. Therefore, environmental levels of Pb and Hg are needed to continue the researches and the studies for tracking pollution source are required.

Distribution and Pollution Status of Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment Around Goseong Bay, a Shellfish Farming Area, Korea (패류양식해역인 고성만 주변 표층 퇴적물의 유기물과 중금속 분포 및 오염현황)

  • Lee, Garam;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Hwang, Hyunjin;Park, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Chul;Kwon, Jung-No
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.699-709
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    • 2017
  • We measured the grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in order to understand the spatial distribution and pollution level of organic matter and metals in surface sediment around Goseong Bay, a shellfish farming area, Korea. The surface sediments were composed of finer sediments such as mud and clay. The concentration of TOC, TN, and heavy metals were much higher in the innermost bay than in the mouth and outside of bay. The spatial distribution of organic matter and heavy metals and C/N ratio (5-10) in sediment showed that the organic matter and heavy metals in sediment of the study region were significantly influenced by oceanic origin organic matter and anthropogenic sources, respectively. Based on the results of four assessment techniques (sediment quality guideline, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, ecological risk index), the sediments around the Goseong Bay were a little polluted for heavy metals and the high metal concentrations in the northern region of bay could adverse impact on benthic organisms in sediment. Thus, the systematic management plan for the improvement of water and sediment environment and the concentrated monitoring of pollutants for sustainable aquaculture and seafood safety around Goseong Bay are necessary in the future.

Analysis of Sediment Contamination Levels in the Giheung Reservoir (기흥저수지 퇴적물에 대한 오염도 분석)

  • Oh, Kyoung-Hee;Kim, Sung-Jin;Cho, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2018
  • In order to analyze the effects of sediment on the occurrence of algal bloom on the Giheung Reservoir, the contamination levels of sediments were evaluated. The concentrations of various organic compounds (ignition loss), as well as the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, As, Hg, Cd) were analyzed in the sediments taken at eighteen sites of the reservoir. The concentrations of ignition loss and total nitrogen tended to increase from upstream to downstream, and ranged from 4.38 to 12.93% and 2,153 to 4,723 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metals were in the order of Zn>Cr>Co>Ni>Pb>As>Hg, and the contamination level of the heavy metals was not high as a whole. The concentrations of the total phosphorus were in the range of 765 ~ 3,238 mg/kg, which exceeded the contamination level of the "Sediment Quality Assessment Guideline of River and Lake Sediment (Rule No. 2015-687 of the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea)" at two upstream sites, four downstream sites, and all downstream sites. These results indicated that the pollution level of the total phosphorus, which is the main factor related to algal bloom, was found to be serious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a countermeasure for sediment management in order to control the algal bloom which occurs periodically in the reservoir.

The State of Marine Pollution in the Waters adjacent to Shipyards in Korea - 2. Assessment of the Pollution of Heavy Metals in Seawater around Major Shipyards in Summer 2010 (국내 조선소 주변해역의 해양오염 현황 - 2. 2010년 하계 대형조선소 주변 해수의 중금속오염 평가)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2015
  • In order to elucidate the current state of marine pollution of heavy metals around major shipyards in Korea, seawater samples were collected at eleven sampling stations and four control stations around 4 major shipyards located in the southeastern coast of Korea in summer 2010, and 6 kinds of metals such as copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), iron(Fe), cadmium(Cd), lead(Pb) and mercury(Hg) in seawater samples were analyzed. The analyses of heavy metals in seawater showed that the mean Cu concentrations in seawater around 4 major shipyards were in the range of $0.817{\sim}1.638{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $20{\mu}g/L$ for the protection of human health(PHH) and of $3{\mu}g/L$ for short-term protection of marine ecosystem(SPME) but higher than Cu concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.75. The mean Zn concentrations were in the range of $0.228{\sim}0.567{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $100{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $34{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Zn concentration at control station by a factor of up to 5.91. The mean Fe concentrations were in the range of $3.332{\sim}7.410{\mu}g/L$ which were higher than Fe concentration at control station by a factor of up to 6.75. The mean Cd concentrations were in the range of $0.013{\sim}0.028{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $10{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $19{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Cd concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.33. The mean Pb concentrations were in the range of $0.007{\sim}0.126{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $50{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $7.6{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. The mean Hg concentrations were in the range of $0.002{\sim}0.004{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $0.5{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $1.8{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. Although the concentrations of metals such as Cu, Zn and Fe which were used in shipbuilding works were lower than Korean environmental standards for PHH and SPME, the fact that the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Fe at sampling stations around major shipyards were higher than those at control stations implies that the works in shipyards had some effects on marine water quality around shipyards. Therefore, marine environment management such as the prevention and control of the discharge of various pollutants from shipyards is required on national level.