• Title, Summary, Keyword: fragmentation process

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Forest Fragmentation and its impacts : A review (산림파편화에 대한 국내·외 연구동향)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Song, Wonkyong;Lee, Dong-Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.149-162
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    • 2012
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation are ongoing major anthropogenic impacts on landscapes, which can strongly affect ecosystems, populations and species. The studies on forest fragmentation have been progressed, but the studies on definition of forest fragmentation and their synthetic trend in South Korea still leaves much to be desired. Therefore we set the definition of forest fragmentation and reviewed the related papers. We can give a definition that forest fragmentation is not only a process of spatial landscape transformation, but also a process of ecosystem change by it. The trend of studies on forest fragmentation divided into two fields, landscape and ecosystem changes. Forest fragmentation caused by land change altered the composition and configuration of forest patches. Most studies related on that analyzed the change using landscape index. The effects of forest fragmentation on ecosystem subdivided into three fields : biodiversity, edge effects, and invasive species, but the studies in South Korea is short. The study on relations between forest fragmentation and ecosystem change is necessary to face the Convention on Biological Diversity in South Korea. In addition, the fundamental studies on biodiversity is important to mitigate against forest fragmentation.

STOCHASTIC FRAGMENTATION AND SOME SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR SHATTERING TRANSITION

  • Jeon, In-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.543-558
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    • 2002
  • We investigate the fragmentation process developed by Kolmogorov and Filippov, which has been studied extensively by many physicists (independently for some time). One of the most interesting phenomena is the shattering (or disintegration of mass) transition which is considered a counterpart of the well known gelation phenomenon in the coagulation process. Though no masses are subtracted from the system during the break-up process, the total mass decreases in finite time. The occurrence of shattering transition is explained as due to the decomposition of the mass into an infinite number of particles of zero mass. It is known only that shattering phenomena occur for some special types of break-up rates. In this paper, by considering the n-particle system of stochastic fragmentation processes, we find general conditions of the rates which guarantee the occurrence of the shattering transition.

Vibrational Relaxation and Fragmentation in Icosahedral (Ar2+)Ar12 Clusters

  • Ree, Jongbaik;Kim, Yoo Hang;Shin, Hyung Kyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.2774-2780
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    • 2014
  • A dynamics study of relaxation and fragmentation of icosahedral argon cluster with a vibrationally excited $Ar_2^+$ (${\nu}$) is presented. Local translation is shown to be responsible for inducing energy flow from the embedded ion to host atoms and fragmentation of the cluster consisting of various low frequency modes. The total potential energy of $(Ar_2^+)Ar_{12}$ is formulated using a building-up procedure of host-guest and host-host interactions. The time dependence of ion-to-host energy transfer is found to be tri-exponential, with the short-time process of ~100 ps contributing most to the overall relaxation process. Relaxation timescales are weakly dependent on both temperature (50-300 K) and initial vibrational excitation (${\nu}$ = 1-4). Nearly 27% of host atoms in the cluster with $Ar_2^+$ (${\nu}$ = 1) fragment immediately after energy flow, the extent increasing to ~43% for ${\nu}$ = 4. The distribution of fragmentation products of $(Ar_2^+)Ar_{12}{\rightarrow}(Ar_2^+)Ar_n+(12-n)Ar$ are peaked around $(Ar_2^+)Ar_8$. The distribution of dissociation times reveals fragmentation from one hemisphere dominates that from the other. This effect is attributed to the initial fragmentation causing a sequential perturbation of adjacent atoms on the same icosahedral five-atom layer.

The Effect of UV-A and Reactive Oxygen Species on Glycosylation and Fragmentation of Calf Skin Collagen

  • Wan Goo Cho;Sang Jin Kang;Seong Don Hong;Quse Chae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.107-109
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    • 1993
  • Non-enzymatic glycosylation and fragmentation of collagen molecule were investigated by irradiating Ultraviolet A(UV-A) with or without scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of glucose. Non-enzymatic glycosylation was increased by UV-A at high concentration of glucose. It was reduced in the presence of the scavengers of superoxide radical and singlet oxygen, but not reduced in the presence of hydroxy radical scavenger. Fragmentation of collagen was increased by UV-A, but it was decreased in the presence of all ROS scavengers tested. Superoxide radical and singlet oxygen produced by autoxidation of glucose without UV-A may encounter the initial phase of glycosylation. Data presented here suggest that UV-A affects only on the fragmentation process, but all ROS except hydroxy radical act on both processes. It appears that hydroxy radical does not act on the glycosylation process.

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FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES AND STOCHASTIC SHATTERING TRANSITION

  • Jeon, In-Tae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.855-867
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    • 2005
  • Shattering or disintegration of mass is a well known phenomenon in fragmentation processes first introduced by Kol­mogorov and Filippop and extensively studied by many physicists. Though the mass is conserved in each break-up, the total mass decreases in finite time. We investigate this phenomenon in the n particle system. In this system, shattering can be interpreted such that, in uniformly bounded time on n, order n of mass is located in order o(n) of clusters. It turns out that the tagged particle processes associated with the systems are useful tools to analyze the phenomenon. For the newly defined stochastic shattering based on the above ideas, we derive far sharper conditions of fragmentation kernels which guarantee the occurrence of such a phenomenon than our previous work [9].

Inspection of the Fragmentation Pathway for Thiamethoxam

  • Son, Sunwoong;Kim, Byungjoo;Ahn, Soenghee
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.65-68
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    • 2017
  • Thiamethoxam is one of the main suspect in honeybee colony collapse disorder (CCD). Due to this reason, thiamethoxam including imidacloprid and clothianidin has been banned for two years in some Europe countries. The CCD phenomenon has also been reported in Korea. Regarding this issue and needs, a new project has started to develop the method for the quatitation of thiamethoxam using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In the process of optimization for the IDMS method with thiamethoxam and $thiamethoxam-d_3$, we observed that the fragment peaks did not correspond to the fragmentation pathway as published elsewhere. Here, we proposed a candidate fragmentation pathway. To validate the proposed fragmentation pathway, another isotope analogue, $thiamethoxam-d_4$, was introduced and the MS/MS spectra of both isotope analogues were compared. In addition, the MS/MS/MS spectra of thiamethoxam were inspected for more evidence of the candidate pathway. Those spectra indicated that the proposed fragmentation pathway could be used to assign the fragment peaks of thiamethoxam.

Crack initiation and fragmentation processes in pre-cracked rock-like materials

  • Lee, Jooeun;Hong, Jung-Wuk
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1047-1059
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    • 2018
  • This paper focuses on the cracking and fragmentation process in rock materials containing a pair of non-parallel flaws, which are through the specimen thickness, under vertical compression. Several numerical experiments are conducted with varying flaw arrangements that affect the initiation and tensile wing cracks, shear crack growth, and crack coalescing behaviors. To obtain realistic numerical results, a parallelized peridynamics formulation coupled with a finite element method, which is able to capture arbitrarily occurring cracks, is employed. From previous studies, crack initiation and propagation of tensile wing cracks, horsetail cracks, and anti-wing cracks are well understood along with the coalescence between two parallel flaws. In this study, the coalescence behaviors, their fragmentation sequences, and the role of an x-shaped shear band in rock material containing two non-parallel flaws are discussed in detail on the basis of simulation results strongly correlated with previous experimental results. Firstly, crack initiation and propagation of tensile wing cracks and shear cracks between non-parallel flaws are investigated in time-history and then sequential coalescing behavior is analyzed. Secondly, under the effect of varying inclination angles of two non-parallel flaws and overlapping ratios between a pair of non-parallel flaws, the cracking patterns including crack coalescence, fragmentation, and x-shaped shear band are investigated. These numerical results, which are in good agreement with reported physical test results, are expected to provide insightful information of the fracture mechanism of rock with non-parallel flaws.

A Numerical Study on the Rock Fragmentation by TBM Cutter Penetration (TBM 커터 관입에 의한 암석 파쇄의 수치해석적 연구)

  • 백승한;문현구
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.444-454
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    • 2003
  • Rock fragmentation technique by cutter penetration has widely been used in the mechanical tunnel excavation. Microcracks propagate and interact because of locally concentrated high stress induced by cutter penetration. which is caused by heterogeneity of rocks. In this study Weibull distribution function and degradation index are used to consider the strength heterogeneity of a rock and the degradation of rock properties after failure. Through the numerical analyses, it is shown that the lateral pressure has an important influence on the rock fragmentation. In the single cutter penetration, large chips are formed as lateral pressure increase. The cutter spacing is also an important factor that affects the rock fragmentation in the double cutter penetration. The fragmentation efficiency of the double cutter penetration is better when cutter spacing is 70 mm than 40 mm and 100 mm. From the results, it is expected that this study can be applied to a TBM tunnel design by understanding of chipping process and mechanism of rock due to cutter penetration.

Effect of Gleditsiae Spina on Proliferation of Transplanted-L1210 cells in Mice (조각자가 생쥐에 이식된 L1210 세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • 조선경;은재순;김대근;소준노;오찬호;송정모
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : Cellular death by apoptosis is an active process, depending on gene transcription and protein synthesis. It was reported that nitric oxide can induce apoptosis in several cancer cell-lines. We have previously observed that proliferation of Ll210 cells was inhibited by the administration of Gleditsiae Spina water extract (GE). In this present study, the mechanism of inhibitory action on the proliferation of L l210 cells was examined. Methods : The cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and DNA fragmentation was determined by a flow cytometry. Results : The administration of GE decreased proliferation of L1210 cells and enhanced DNA fragmentation in vivo system. DNA fragmentation of L1210 cells was enhanced by co-culture of peritoneal macrophages obtained from GE-administered mice in vitro and it was partly inhibited by L-NMMA, nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor. In addition, GE increased nitric oxide production from peritoneal macrophages of L1210-transplanted mice. Conclusions : These results suggest that the inhibitory action of GE on proliferation of transplanted-L1210 cells is partly caused by an induction of apoptosis via production of nitric oxide in macrophages.

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Comparison between Source-induced Dissociation and Collision-induced Dissociation of Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, and Oxytetracycline via Mass Spectrometry

  • Lee, Seung Ha;Choi, Dal Woong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2013
  • Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very powerful instrument that can be used to analyze a wide range of materials such as proteins, peptides, DNA, drugs, and polymers. The process typically involves either chemical or electron (impact) ionization of the analyte. The resulting charged species or fragment is subsequently identified by the detector. Usually, single mass uses source-induced dissociation (SID), whereas mass/mass uses collision-induced dissociation (CID) to analyze the chemical fragmentations Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. While CID is most effective for the analysis of pure substances, multiple-step MS is a powerful technique to get structural data. Analysis of veterinary drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and oxytetracycline serves to highlight the slight differences between SID and CID. For example, minor differences were observed between ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline via SID or CID. However, distinct fragmentation patterns were observed for ampicllin depending on the analysis method. Both SID and CID showed similar fragmentation spectra but different signal intensities for chloramphenicol. There are several factors that can influence the fragmentation spectra, such as the collision energy, major precursor ion, electrospray mode (positive or negative), and sample homogeneity. Therefore, one must select a fragmentation method on an empirical and case-by-case basis.