• Title, Summary, Keyword: free fatty acid

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Esterification of High Concentration Free Fatty Acid in Rice Bran Oil (미강유 중 고농도 자유지방산의 에스테르화)

  • Shin, Yong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2008
  • Characteristics of the esterification reaction between free fatty acid in rice bran oil and methanol was investigated in the presence of catalysts, such as PTS(p-toluene sulfonic acid), Amberlyst 15 dry and SCX(silica gel based strong cation exchange resin). While reaction temperature was kept constant at $65^{\circ}C$, initial feed content of free fatty acid was varied from 100% to 1% by addition of pure free fatty acid which was previously made from rice bran oil. Also, the effect of mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid on the final conversion was examined. When esterification of pure free fatty acid was catalyzed by several acids, final conversions were increased in order of Amberlyst 15 dry, SCX and PTS. Using PTS catalyst, initially the reaction proceeded in homogeneous 2nd oder reaction mechanism. However, phase of reaction mixture changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous along the reaction time and then reaction rate was retarded by mass transfer resistance of methanol. Final conversion of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was depended on initial feed content of free fatty acid, and had maximum value at 30% of initial feed free fatty acid content for all kinds of catalysts used. And the final conversion was increased with mole ratio of methanol by the improvement of reaction rate. When initial feed free fatty acid content below 10% and the reaction was catalyzed by PTS, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was increased in the middle of reaction time by hydrolysis of triglyceride in reaction mixture. Also, if silica gel was added into the reaction mixture which had initial feed free fatty acid content below 50%, final conversion was increased by the adsorption of moisture produced. The SCX catalyst made the esterification reaction of free fatty acid to progress like in case of PTS catalyst. However, when initial feed free fatty acid content below 10%, concentration of free fatty acid in. reaction mixture was decreased monotonically and not increased in the middle of reaction time on the contrary to the case of PTS. Thus, SCX catalyst accomplished more high value of final conversion than PTS catalyst for the initial feed fatty acid content range from 50% to 5% In case of initial feed free fatty acid content of 1% and mole ratio of methanol was 2, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture increased over the initial feed free fatty acid content for all kind of catalysts used. Although SCX catalyst was added into reaction mixture which had 1% of initial feed fatty acid content, final conversion was hardly raised by mole ratio of methanol.

Free Fatty Acid Accumulation by Mesophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cold-Stored Milk

  • Coskun, Hayri;Ondul, Eda
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2004
  • This study was aimed to determine the accumulation of free fatty acid by mesophilic lactic acid bac-teria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1471, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 1000 and Lactobacillus casei 111) in cold-stored milk. According to the results, all cold-stored milks had higher acid degree val-ues than those of fresh milk. This phenomenon showed that a slight increase occurred in the accumulation of free fatty acids as a result of spontaneous lipolysis during cold storage. All lactic acid bacteria showed good performance in production of titratable acidity, which increased during fermentation of the milk (fresh and stored milks). Moreover, as the storage time was prolonged, more free fatty acid accumulation was obtained from the fermentation of the cold-stored milk by the investigated lactic acid bacteria. The control milk, which was without lactic acid bacteria, showed no change in the accumulation of free fatty acid during fermentation. From this result, it can be suggested that longer cold-storage time can induce higher free fatty acid accumulation in milk by lactic acid bacteria.

Influences of Free Fatty Acid on the Albumin Binding of Warfarin and Dansylsarcosine (Warfarin, Dansylsarcosine의 알부민결합에 미치는 유리지방산의 영향)

  • Bae, Jin-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 1994
  • There are some reports about the influences of free fatty acids on the albumin binding of drugs. But they were concerned to the limited free fatty acids, mostly of azapropazone-warfarin bidning site bound drugs and determination of dissociation and association constants by stopped flow technique. These data were not enough to make conculsions for the general tendency of free fatty acid to albumin binding. Therefore the influence of various saturated fatty acids of $C_{10{\sim}20}$, oleic acid and linoleic acid as unsaturated fatty acids to albumin binding of warfarin and dansylsarcosine were studied by equilibrium dialysis. The concentration of free drug was determined by spectrophotometer according to the molar ratios of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 between free fatty acid and albumin. There were significant increasing in the free durg concentration of warfarin and dansylsarcosine when the molar ratio for capric acid, lauric acid and palmitic acid was 4. The free warfarin concentration was increased significantly at a molar ratio of 4 between oleic acid and albumin. Therefore the albumin binding of durgs can be variated significantly by increased free fatty acid of diabetics and cause to the pharmacokinetic variation between healthy and diabetics.

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The Metabolites of a Marine Mollusk Mytilus edulis:- Isolation of Taurine and Compositions of Free Fatty Acids and Free Amino acids-

  • Cho, Yong-Jin;Son, Byeng-Wha;Choi, Hong-Dae
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 1995
  • The metabolites of marine mollusk Mytilus edulis were isolated and characterized, revealing the presence of the rare free fatty acids and proteinogenic amino acids together with a non-proteinogenic free amino acid, taurine. The free fatty acids in this organism were particularly interesting for the presence of both unusual n-6 acid [20:4 (n-6)] and triple bond containing acid (2,5-octadecadiynoic acid). In addition to the proteinogenic amino acids commonly found in proteins, non-proteinogenic free amino acid taurine was isolated and the structure was determined by its physicochemical properties. Recently taurine has been given much interest in the molecular level because of diverse biological activities and the medicinal properties. Furthermore, the result of the analyses of analyses of free amino acids showed that glycine, glutamic acid, serine and alanine, which were considered to be related to the taste of this organism, are predominantly present.

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Studies on the Lipid Components of Various Ginsengs 1. lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Free Lipids (각국 인삼의 지방질성분에 관한 연구 제1보, 유리 지방질중의 지방질 및 지방산 조성)

  • Choe, Gang-Ju;Kim, Man-Uk;Kim, Dong-Hun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.193-203
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    • 1985
  • Lipid and fatty acid compositions of the free lipids in Panax ginseng (Korea, Japan and China), Panax quinquefolium (America, Canada) and Panax notoginseng (China) were studied by means of silicic acid column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. Free lipid contents were 1.13 to 1.24% in panax ginseng and 0.87 to 1.18% in Panax quinquefolium and 0.39% in panax notoginseng. Neutral lipid fractions were 81.2 to 84.4%, while glycolipid fractions 8.01% to 14.47% and phospholipid fractions 3.49 to 5.74% in free lipid contents. The major components were triglycerides, free sterols, diglyceride, free fatty acids and sterol esters in neutral lipid fractions, sterol glucoside, monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified steryl glucoside in glycolipid fractions and phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatide, ethanolamine, phosphatidyl choline in phospholipid fractions. The contents and compositions of neutral lipids and glyclipids were some different among various ginsengs, whereas phospholipids showed relatively similar compositions in the contents. Seventeen fatty acids were analyzed in the four free lipid fractions from the various ginsengs and the main fatty acids were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid. It was found that the amounts of some fatty acids were different among the various ginsengs, but the fatty acid patterns of these ginsengs were on the whole similar.

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Effect of Controlled Atmosphere and Modified Atmosphere Storage on the Fatty Acid of Fresh and Red Ginseng (수삼의 CA 및 MA 저장이 홍삼의 지방산에 미치는 영향)

  • 전병선;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 1995
  • Fifteen free fatty acids including myristic acid were isolated and identified from red ginseng processed from CA and MA stored fresh ginseng. Linoleic acid (80%) and palmitic acid (10.5%) content were the major components accounting for more than 90% of the total free fatty acid. The contents of free and identified fatty acids were not greatly changed in all the treatments. Especially when preservative was treated, the change of free fatty acid was quite stable over the control. Each fraction of neutral, glyco- and phospholipid was constant in terms of quantities before and after the treatment. Key words Controlled atmosphere, modified atmosphere, fresh ginseng, red ginseng, fatty acid.

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The Effect of Alisma orientale Extract on Free Fatty Acid-induced Lipoapoptosis in HepG2 Cells (택사(澤瀉)가 유리지방산으로 유발된 HepG2 cell의 lipoapoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Lee, Jang-Hoon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.184-194
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the effect on lipoapoptosis of Alisma orientale extract against free fatty acid-induced cellular injury. Methods : HepG2 cells were used in an vitro model. HepG2 cells were treated with free fatty acids to generate a cellular model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Using this cellular model, the anti-apoptotic effect and reducing steatosis of Alisma orientale extract against free fatty acid-induced cellular injury was evaluated by measuring steatosis and apoptosis. Results : Alisma orientale extract significantly attenuated free fatty acid-induced intracellular steatosis. Alisma orientale extract inhibited free fatty acid-mediated activation of pJNK, PUMA, BAX, caspase-3, and -9, and apoptotic kinases that are correlated with NAFLD. Alisma orientale extract also promoted Bcl-2, a anti-apoptotic protein. Conclusions : From the above, the Alisma orientale extract decreased the hepatocyte steatosis and showed the hepatocelluar protective effect by the regulation of apoptosis-related protein. It proposes the possibility of Alisma orientale extract to the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in clinics.

Fish Oil Variation during Enzymatic Ethanolysis (어유의 효소적 에탄올화 반응 특성)

  • Shin, Sang-Kyu;Yoo, Hong-Suk;Pack, Hyun-Duk;Chun, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2006
  • Enzymatic ethanolysis of fish oil with immobilized lipase was investigated for reducing the free fatty acid contents and enhancing the function of fish oil. Ethanolysis reactions were carried out in erlenmeyer flask (25ml) containing a mixture of squid viscera oil and 99.9% ethanol using 1% (based on w/w squid viscera oil) immobilized lipase. The reaction mixtures were incubated at $50^{\circ}C$ and shaken at 100rpm. Ethanol was added into the mixture by stepwise addition method of Shinmada[9]. Measurement of free fatty acid molar amounts was studied by Acid Value. Tendency of oil variation during transesterification was studied by TLC method. Enzymatic ethanolysis composed diglyceride, monoglyceride and fatty acid ethyl ester with reducing free fatty acid contents. Also, selective ethanolysis by Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM mostly did not react at the sn-2 position of squid viscera oil. Lipozyme RM-IM was more suitable enzyme to reduce the free fatty acid contents by ethanolysis than Lipozyme TL-IM. Squid viscera oil was transformed into suitable properties (5 in Acid Value) for functional fish oil production.

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Effects of Cooking and Drying Methods on the Lipid Content and Neutral Lipid Composition of Shrimp (가열 및 건조방법이 새우의 지방질 함량과 중성지방질 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ku;Hawer, Woo-Derck S.;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1989
  • Effects of cooking and drying methods on the lipids content and neutral lipid component of shrimp, Metapenaeus joyneri, were investigated. Total lipid content of the fresh shrimp was 6.0%(dry basis), which was not changed significantly depending on the cooking and drying methods. Lipid of the fresh shrimp was composed of 36.8% of neutral lipids, 21.5% of glycolipids, and 41.7% of phospholipids. Freeze dried shrimp was substantially higher in neutral lipid contents but lower in glycolipid and phospholipid contents than hot air dried one. Main components of the neutral lipids were triglycerides, free sterols, free fatty acids and esterified sterols. Freeze dried shrimp contained higher triglycerides contents than hot air dried shrimp, whereas free fatty acids content in hot air dried shrimp was greater than that of freeze dried one due to the decomposition of triglycerides to free fatty acids during hot air drying. Major fatty acid composition of the total lipid were palmitoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and that of neutral lipid were palmitic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in fresh shrimp.

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Free amino acid, fatty acid composition and mineral content in dried alaska pollack and the changes of mineral content according to cooking time (북어의 아미노산, 지방산, 무기질 함량 및 조리시간별 무기질 함량 변화에 대하여)

  • 주은정
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 1985
  • This study designed not only to elucidate free amino acid, fatty acid composition and mineral content in dried alaska pollack but also to examine calcium, magnesium, poassium and sodium contents in its cooking broth according to each boiling time such as 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes. RESULTS : 1. Glutamic acid in dried alaska pollack was the most abundant free amino acid and was followed in order of aspartic acid, lysin, leucine and histidine. They composed of 50.95% of the total amino acid contents. 2. In dried alaska pollack the most abundant fatty acid was palmitic acid. Essential fatty acid content was 26.57% of the total fatty acid. 3. The calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents in dried alaska pollack showed 10.721 mg%, 9.235mg%, 4072.5mg% and 2299.8% respectively. The amount of magnesium and potassium in cooking broth arrived at the highest level when 20 minute boiling was undertaken and the quantities of magnesium and sodium were the highest when 30 minute boiling was made.

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