• Title, Summary, Keyword: free product

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SOME REDUCED FREE PRODUCTS OF ABELIAN C*

  • Heo, Jae-Seong;Kim, Jeong-Hee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.997-1000
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    • 2010
  • We prove that the reduced free product of $k\;{\times}\;k$ matrix algebras over abelian $C^*$-algebras is not the minimal tensor product of reduced free products of $k\;{\times}\;k$ matrix algebras over abelian $C^*$-algebras. It is shown that the reduced group $C^*$-algebra associated with a group having the property T of Kazhdan is not isomorphic to a reduced free product of abelian $C^*$-algebras or the minimal tensor product of such reduced free products. The infinite tensor product of reduced free products of abelian $C^*$-algebras is not isomorphic to the tensor product of a nuclear $C^*$-algebra and a reduced free product of abelian $C^*$-algebra. We discuss the freeness of free product $II_1$-factors and solidity of free product $II_1$-factors weaker than that of Ozawa. We show that the freeness in a free product is related to the existence of Cartan subalgebras in free product $II_1$-factors. Finally, we give a free product factor which is not solid in the weak sense.

On free product in $V(ZS_3)$

  • Shin, Hyunyong;Lyou, Ikseung;Dixon, Martrn R.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.637-643
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    • 1997
  • The group $V(ZS_3)$ of units of augmentation 1 in the integral group ring $ZS_3$ is characterized as the free product of $C_2$ and $S_3$, where $C_2$ is the cyclic group of order 2.

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FREE PROBABILITY THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION

  • Heo, Jaeseong
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2003
  • We prove a simplicity of the $C^*$-algebra generated by some $C^*$-subalgebra and a Haar unitary in a free product of finite von Neumann algebras. Some examples and questions are given.

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CONJUGACY SEPARABILITY OF CERTAIN FREE PRODUCT AMALGAMATING RETRACTS

  • Kim, Goan-Su
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.811-827
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    • 2000
  • We find some conditions to derive the conjugacy separability of the free product of conjugacy separable split extensions amalgamated along cyclic retracts. These conditions hold for any double coset separable groups and free-by-cyclic groups with nontrivial center. It was known that free-by-finite, polycyclic-by-finite, and fuchsian groups are double coset separable. Hence free products of those groups amalgamated along cyclic retracts are conjugacy separable.

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Product Category and Shopping Options of Logistic Service Quality

  • KIM, Ok;CHEON, Hongsik J.
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of interaction between product category (fresh vs. indulgent product) and shopping options (shipping charge and delivery time) on customer satisfaction and purchase intent in an e-commerce context. When ordering groceries online, consumers begin to allocate a larger share of their grocery budget toward product categories that generally contain healthier items at the expense of product categories that generally contain more indulgent products. Moreover, customers are extremely sensitive to shipping options such as shipping charges and delivery time. Therefore, this research investigates the issue at a more segmented level to focus on the impact that one dimension of logistics service quality - product category, shipping charge, and delivery time have on customer satisfaction and purchase intent. Research design, data, and methodology: To test the theoretically derived priori hypotheses concerning product category, shipping charges, delivery time, satisfaction, and purchase intent, this research presented a scenario-based experiment. Eight treatment groups were assigned by the method of product category (fresh produce vs. indulgent product), shipping charge (free vs. paid), and delivery time (one-day vs. two to three days). A total of 240 subjects were divided into groups and exposed to one of the eight scenarios. Participant's purchase intention was the dependent variable, and ANOVA and L-matrix were used to analyze for main and interactive effects between factors. Conclusions: Results indicated that in tests 1 and 2, free shipping and fast delivery time increased consumer satisfaction as well as purchase intent, and fast delivery moderated the impact of free shipping on consumer satisfaction and purchase intent. Test 3 showed that the effect of free shipping on consumer satisfaction and purchase intent moderated by fast delivery for indulgent products. In contrast, fast delivery for fresh products moderated the effect of paid shipping on consumer satisfaction and purchase intent. Consistent with this proposed mechanism, the relative importance of fresh produce versus indulgent products highlights the effect of shipping options on consumer satisfaction and purchase intent when ordering the target product in an e-commerce context. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

Meaning and Delightful Effect of Rewards in Online Shopping Malls -A Hand-written Letter and a Free Gift- (온라인 쇼핑몰에서 보상의 의미와 감동 효과 -손편지와 사은품-)

  • Park, Kyungae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.867-878
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effects on customer delight, satisfaction, and repurchase intention for two reward types by online shopping malls, a hand-written letter and a free gift. Two scenarios to manipulate the rewards provided by online shopping malls were developed. Study 1 revealed that the effects of a hand-written letter on delight and satisfaction were higher than those of a free gift; in addition, delight was more important than satisfaction for repurchase intention. Study 2 examined product quality that is the core function of online purchases by developing 4 scenarios that considered product quality and rewards. The result showed that high product quality caused delight and satisfaction while rewards did not. When product quality was considered, satisfaction influenced repurchase intention more than delight. The study implies that the core function of product quality is more important than rewards for customer delight, satisfaction, and repurchase in online shopping malls.

The Effect of Duty Free Shop Consumers' Store Benefits Sought and Fashion Merchandise Shopping Orientation on Store Satisfaction (면세점 이용 소비자의 점포 추구혜택 및 패션제품 쇼핑성향이 점포 만족도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jin;Ku, Yang-Suk
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.572-581
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of duty free shop consumers' store benefits sought and fashion merchandise shopping orientation on store satisfaction. Survey data were collected from questionnaires filled out by 194 domestic consumers who had purchase experience of fashion goods in duty free shops located in Korea. The data were analyzed by reliability analysis, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows: First, the store benefits sought was categorized into five factors such as pursuit of convenience, salesperson/atmosphere, promotion, product quality, and product fashionability/variety. The fashion merchandise shopping orientation was categorized into six factors such as pleasure orientation, pursuit of fashion, pursuit of brand, planned orientation, pursuit of confidence, and convenience orientation. The store satisfaction was categorized into six factors such as atmosphere/reputation of store, promotion, product fashionability/variety, convenience, price, and salesperson. Second, the store benefits sought, composed of pursuit of convenience, salesperson/atmosphere, promotion, product quality, and product fashionability/variety, had an effect on the store satisfaction. Third, the shopping orientation such as pleasure orientation, pursuit of fashion, pursuit of brand, and planned orientation, with the exception of pursuit of confidence and convenience orientation, had an effect on the store satisfaction.

Process Development for the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Food Protein: Effects of Pre-treatment and Post-treatments on Degree of Hydrolysis and Other Product Characteristics

  • Chae, Hee-Jeong;In, Man-Jin;Kim, Min-Hong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 1998
  • An enzymatic process was developed to produce protein hydrolysater form defatted soya protein. Various unit operations were tried, and the effects of pre- and post-treatments on the product characteristics such as degree of hydroylsis (DH), free amino acid content (%FAA) and average molecular weight (MW) were investigated. The use of acid washes showed no difference in %DH. Increasing pH during pre-cooking gave lower %DH. Alkaline cooking made too much insoluble protein, thus the protein yield was too small. A better hydrolysis with more acceptable taste was obtained when the combination of Neutrase/Alcalase/Flavourzyme was used in place of Alcalase/Flavourzyme combination; Untoasted defatted soya was more effective on the proteolysis than toasted one. The MW of the evaporated and spray dried product was higher than that of undried product, due to precipitation of low-solubility components. When ultrafiltration and the product concentration carried out the product separation by reverse osmosis, the solubility and the taste of the product were improved. The difference between enzyme hydrolysate and acid hydrolysate was significant in free amino acid composition, especially in tyrosine, phenylalanine, glutamine and asparagine.

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A study on the implementation of wave soldering process and the solder joint reliability of it using Sn-Cu-Ni lead-free solder (Sn-Cu-Ni계를 이용한 Pb-free wave Soldering의 공정 적용 및 신뢰성에 관한 연구)

  • 유충식;정종만;김진수;김미진
    • Proceedings of the International Microelectronics And Packaging Society Conference
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2001
  • Pb-free wave soldering process of AC Adapter was implemented by six sigma method using Sn-Cu-Ni type solder. The solder joint appearance, microstructural change, a lift-off phenomenon and reliability were evaluated through thermal shock teal. $(Cu,Ni)_6Sn_5$-type intermetallic compound of which thickness is about 5 micron was found at solder joint between Sn-Cu-Ni solder and copper land. After applying the thermal shock test of as-soldered product up to 750 cycles, no crack was found at the solder joint and the newly developed product was superior to conventions; one in terms of productivity and reliability.

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Topologically free actions and purely infinite $C^{*}$-crossed products

  • Jeong, Ja-A
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 1994
  • For a given $C^{*}$-dynamical system (A, G, .alpha.) with a G-simple $C^{*}$-algebra A (that is A has no proper .alpha.-invariant ideal) many authors have studied the simplicity of a $C^{*}$-crossed product A $x_{\alpha{r}}$ G. In [1] topological freeness of an action is shown to guarantee the simplicity of the reduced $C^{*}$-crossed product A $x_{\alpha{r}}$ G when A is G-simple. In this paper we investigate the pure infiniteness of a simple $C^{*}$-crossed product A $x_{\alpha}$ G of a purely infinite simple $C^{*}$-algebra A and a topologically free action .alpha. of a finite group G, and find a sufficient condition in terms of the action on the spectrum of the multiplier algebra M(A) of A. Showing this we also prove that some extension of a topologically free action is still topologically free.

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