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Nutrients and Antioxidative Activities of Metasequoia glyptostroboides (메타세콰이어나무 열매와 잎의 영양성분 및 항산화 활성)

  • Bae, Young-Il;Lee, Ju-Won;Ha, Tae Jung;Hwang, Seung-Ha;Shin, Chang-Sik;Jeong, Chang-Ho;Kim, Il-Hun;Shim, Ki-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2013
  • The nutrients and antioxidative activities of fruits and leaves from Metasequoia glyptostroboides were investigated to provide basic data for the future development of functional foods. The nitrogen-free extract contents of fruit and leaves were 69.04% and 50.47%, respectively. Total phenolic content was higher in leaves (21.75 mg/GAE g) compared to the fruit (19.95 mg/GAE g). The mineral components of fruit and leaves mainly consisted of calcium (2,136.08 and 304.85 mg/100 g, respectively), potassium (1,355.53 and 1,144.04 mg/100 g, respectively), and phosphorous (426.30 and 350.50 mg/100 g, respectively). In terms of amino acid composition, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, and leucine were relatively high, but methionine and cystine were low. The hot water extract from leaves was a more potent free radical-scavenger and had higher reducing activities than extracts from fruit. Thus, phenolics of M. glyptostroboides leaves can be utilized as an effective functional food substance for its natural antioxidant properties.

Risk Factor Analysis for Preventing Foodborne Illness in Restaurants and the Development of Food Safety Training Materials (레스토랑 식중독 예방을 위한 위해 요소 규명 및 위생교육 매체 개발)

  • Park, Sung-Hee;Noh, Jae-Min;Chang, Hye-Ja;Kang, Young-Jae;Kwak, Tong-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.589-600
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    • 2007
  • Recently, with the rapid expansion of the franchise restaurants, ensuring food safety has become essential for restaurant growth. Consequently, the need for food safety training and related material is in increasing demand. In this study, we identified potentially hazardous risk factors for ensuring food safety in restaurants through a food safety monitoring tool, and developed training materials for restaurant employees based on the results. The surveyed restaurants, consisting of 6 Korean restaurants and 1 Japanese restaurant were located in Seoul. Their average check was 15,500 won, ranging from 9,000 to 23,000 won. The range of their total space was 297.5 to $1322.4m^2$, and the amount of kitchen space per total area ranged from 4.4 to 30 percent. The mean score for food safety management performance was 57 out of 100 points, with a range of 51 to 73 points. For risk factor analysis, the most frequently cited sanitary violations involved the handwashing methods/handwashing facilities supplies (7.5%), receiving activities (7.5%), checking and recording of frozen/refrigerated foods temperature (0%), holding foods off the floor (0%), washing of fruits and vegetables (42%), planning and supervising facility cleaning and maintaining programs of facilities (50%), pest control (13%), and toilet equipped/cleaned (13%). Base on these results, the main points that were addressed in the hygiene training of restaurant employees included 4 principles and 8 concepts. The four principles consisted of personal hygiene, prevention of food contamination, time/temperature control, and refrigerator storage. The eight concepts included: (1) personal hygiene and cleanliness with proper handwashing, (2) approved food source and receiving management (3) refrigerator and freezer control, (4) storage management, (5) labeling, (6) prevention of food contamination, (7) cooking and reheating control, and (8) cleaning, sanitation, and plumbing control. Finally, a hygiene training manual and poster leaflets were developed as a food safety training materials for restaurants employees.

Investigation of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior for Analyzing Food Safety Risk Factors in the Elderly (노인들의 식품안전 위험요인 규명을 위한 식품위생 지식, 태도, 행동 조사)

  • Choi, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Yoon-Jin;Lee, Eun-Sil;Lee, Hye-Sang;Chang, Hye-Ja;Lee, Kyung-Eun;Yi, Na-Young;Kwak, Tong-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.746-756
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate food safety knowledge, food safety attitudes, and handling behavior in the elderly. The survey was conducted on 358 individuals over 65 years old in urban and rural areas. Data were analyzed with descriptive analysis and ${\chi}^2$ test analysis of variance using SPSS. From the results on elderly's food safety knowledge, the item 'tangerines should be washed before eating' was correctly answered by urban subjects (75.4%) than rural subjects (49.7%). 'Is it okay to cook meat left on the sink since afternoon in the evening' showed the lowest correct answer rate in both urban (23.1%) and rural (31.9%) subjects. For the item related to food keeping, 'Bacterial cells do not multiply in Samgyetang when it is kept in a refrigerator right after boiling thoroughly', 58.5% of urban and 54.6% of rural elderly answered correctly. Most elderly people showed a tendency to think that boiled foods might be safe to eat. Secondly, for food safety attitudes, urban elderly had more proper attitude regarding the item, 'Namul is very tasty only when mixed with bare hands' (disagree rate 34.9%) than rural elderly (P<0.05)'. On the other hand, rural elderly had more positive attitudes regarding the store principle "first in, first out" compared to urban elderly (P<0.001). Thirdly, regarding food safety behaviors, only 67.9% of urban and 58.7% of rural elderly responded that they washed their hands right after answering the telephone while cooking. Exactly 33.8% of urban and 39.6% of rural older people replied 'defrost meat on top of sink or table' as the defrost method for frozen foods, showing that elderly did not recognize the risk of foodborne illness during improper defrosting at room temperature.

Investigation of Food Safety Attitude, Knowledge, and Behavior in College Students in Gyeonggi Region (경기도 지역 대학생의 식품 안전성에 대한 태도와 지식 및 행동 분석)

  • Kim, Ji-Myung;Hong, Seung-Hee
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.438-446
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate food safety awareness, knowledge, and behavior in college students, to provide basic data for the increase in food safety awareness. Data were collected from 252 college students in Gyeonggi region, using a self-administered questionnaire. In results of concern about food safety, subjects responded 3.48 of 5.00 and have knowledge about food safety education revealing significantly higher awareness and concern than subjects without knowledge about food safety education. Food safety awareness of distributed food was 2.55, considered unsafe. Among reasons in perceiving food as unsafe, 62.3% of subjects expressed distrust about safety relative food production. As for risk factors relative to food safety, subjects responded that the highest risk factor was food additives (2.35), followed by heavy metal (2.38) and endocrine disrupters (2.38). Correlation analysis resulting in risk factors for food had positive correlation with each other, heavy metal revealed highest correlation with pesticide residue (r = 0.674), than with endocrine disrupters (r = 0.672). Also, genetically modified food revealed high correlation with radiation irradiated food. Regression analysis demonstrated that concern about food safety significantly influenced pro-actively engaging in food safety education. Meanwhile, 63.5% of subjects correctly responded to food safety knowledge items. The item 'the heavy metals are contaminated the most, in the roots of vegetables' revealed the lowest correct answer rate (38.1%). In food safety behavior, the item 'always wash hands before handling food and meal's revealed 3.85, and subjects with awareness and concern about food safety education, responded in significantly higher numbers than subject without awareness and concern about food safety. The most neglected concern was relative to frozen food thawed at room temperature. Together, students recognize that distributed foods are unsafe, and students with awareness and concern about food safety education showed higher knowledge compared to without awareness and concern experience about food safety eduction. So, systematic education using accurate and objective data is required to reduce anxiety and raise the level of awareness and concern about food safety.

Studies on Processing and Keeping Quality of Retort Pouched Foods (5) Preparation and Keeping Quality of Retort Pouched Seasoned Ark Shell (레토르트파우치 식품의 가공 및 품질안정성에 관한 연구 (5) 레토르트파우치 조미피조개제품의 제조 및 품질안정성)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;OH Kwang-Soo;AHN Chang-Bum;LEE Tae-Hun;CHUNG Young-Hoon;SHIN Keun-Jin;KIM Woo-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 1986
  • For the purpose of obtaining basic data which can be applied to processing of retort pouched shellfishes, retort pouched seasoned ark shell, Anadara broughtonii, was prepared. The frozen ark shell was thawed and seasoned with a mixed seasoning powder prepared with $10.0\%$ of sorbitol, $2.0\%$ of table salt and $0.5\%$ of monosodium glutamate at $5^{\circ}C$ for 10 hours, and then dried at $45^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours. The dried seasoned ark shell was coated with $1.0\%$ sodium alginate solution, dried with cola air blast for 2 hours and then vacuum-packed in the laminated plastic film bag (polyester/casted polypropylene= $12{\mu}m/70{\mu}m,\;15{\times}16cm$), and finally sterilized up to Fo=6.0 in hot water circulating retort at $121^{\circ}C$ for 10 minutes. The major fatty acids of raw ark shell and retort pouched seasoned ark shell products were 16:0, 20:5, 22:6, 18:0 and 18:3, and predominant free amino acids of those were lysine, arginine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and leucine. In nucleotides and its related compounds of raw ark shell and retort pouched seasoned ark shell products, the most abundant one was AMP, and total extract-N of those was chiefly consisted of free amino acids, betaine and nucleotide and its related compounds. During the processing procedure such as drying and sterilization, unsaturated fatty acids slightly decreased while saturated fatty acids increased, and total extract-N content decreased about a half. From the results of chemical and microbial experiments during storage, it was concluded that the products could be preserved in a good condition for 100 days at room temperature, and their duality could be improved by the coating treatment of sodium alginate solution.

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Survey on Korean Food Preference of College Students in Seoul - Focused on Side Dishes - (서울지역 남녀 대학생의 한식 선호도 조사 (II) - 부식을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Hee-Ok;Kim, Jung-Yoon;Lee, Jung-Sug
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.707-713
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the side dishes preference of Korean food with 403 college students (197 males and 206 females) in Seoul using questionnaires. Regarding preference of soups, it was shown that male students liked $s{\breve{o}}ll{\breve{o}}ngt'$ang and beef soup and female students liked soybean paste soup. Male students had higher preferences for $s{\breve{o}}ll{\breve{o}}ngt'$ang, beef soup, dried pollack soup, and kimchi soup than female students (p<0.05). Both male and female students had the highest preferences for kimchi pot stew and soft-tofu pot stew, but the lowest preferences for fermented soybeans pot stew and frozen pollack pot stew (p<0.05). Stewed beef with soy sauce was preferred the most by both of them but female students had lower preferences for stewed bean with soy sauce and stewed pepper with soy sauce than male students (p<0.05). For the preference of panbroiled foods, stir-fried with marinated anchovy was disliked by both of them but stir-fried with marinated pork was shown to have high preference in male students and stir-fried with marinated kimchi was high in female students (p<0.05). Besides, roasted ribs, cucumber salad, and korean cabbage kimchi were preferred the most by both of them. But male students had higher preferences for roasted eel, grilled todok, roots of broad bellflower salad, mustard leaf kimchi, and white cabbage kimchi than female students (p<0.05).

Freezing Time Prediction of Foods by Multiple Regression Analysis (다중회귀분석에 의한 식품의 동결시간 예측)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woong;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Park, Noh-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Young-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 1998
  • To develop simple and accurate analytical method for freezing time prediction of beef and tylose under various freezing conditions, freezing time (Y) was regressed against the reciprocal $(X_3)$ of difference of initial freezing point and freezing medium temperature, reciprocal $(X_4)$ of surface heat transfer coefficient, the initial temperature $(X_1)$ and thickness $(X_2)$ of samples which should cover most situations arising in frozen food industry. As results of the multiple regression analysis, equations were obtained as follows. $Y_{tylose}=3.45X_1+7642.84X_2+4642.67X_3+2946.89X_4-431.33\;(R^2=0.9568)$ and $Y_{beef}=0.68X_1+7568.98X_2+2430.78X_3+3293.26X_4-299.00\;(R^2=0.9897)$. These equations offered better results than Plank, Nagaoka and Pham's models, shown in satisfactory agreement with models of Cleland & Earle and Hung & Thompson when were compared to previous models, and the accuracy of its was very high as average absolute difference of about 10% in the difference between the fitted and experimental results. Also, thermal diffusivities of beef and tylose were measured as $4.43{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ and $4.39{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ at $6{\sim}7^{\circ}C$, $2.42{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ and $3.32{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ at $-10{\sim}-12^{\circ}C$. Initial freezing points of beef and tylose were $-1.2^{\circ}C\;and\;-0.6^{\circ}C$, respectively. Surface heat transfer coefficients were estimated $20.57\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with no-packing, $16.11\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with wrap packing and $13.07\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with Al-foil packing, and the cooling rate of immersion freezing method was about 10 times faster than that of air blast freezing method.

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Effect of Cryoprotectants on Quality Properties of Chicken Breast Surimi Manufactured by pH Adjustment (냉동변성방지제 조건에 따른 닭가슴살 수리미의 저장특성)

  • Jin, S.K.;Kim, I.S.;Choi, Y.J.;Park, G.B.;Yang, H.S.;Kim, B.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of pH adjustment and the addition of cryoprotectants on the storage properties of chicken breast surimi. Surimi as a control was prepared with Alaska pollack by two times of washing treatment and addition of cryoprotectants(4% sugar, 5% sorbitol and 0.3% polyphosphate). Three types of surimi were manufactured by different cryoprotectant conditions(T1: 5% sorbitol+0.3% polyphosphate, T2: 4% sugar+5% sorbitol+0.3% polyphosphate, T3: 2% salt+4% sugar+5% sorbitol+0.3% polyphosphate) and frozen after adjusting the surimi to pH 11.0. The amino acid and saturated fatty acid composition were significantly higher in the control. EAA(essential amino acid), FAA(amino acid in relation to flavor), SAAA(amino acid in relation to saccarinity) and FRAA (fragrant amino acid) were significantly higher in the control. The TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and VBN(volatile basic nitrogen) were increased with storage times. TBARS and VBN values were significantly higher in the control and T3 than the other treatments. The VBN was significantly higher in control and T3 than other surimi samples. Chicken breast surimi adjusted to pH 11.0 had higher in microorganisms than the control, and T1 sample had the highest total plate count. Sensory evaluations were significantly higher in the control and T3 than the other samples. Especially, the overall acceptability of T3 was similar to the control.

Correlation between Sleep Quality and Snack Intake in Third Year Middle and High School Students in the Gwangju Area (광주지역 일부 여자 중·고등학교 3학년 학생의 수면의 질과 간식섭취량의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Hyo Bok;Park, Yang Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.212-222
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    • 2013
  • We studied the eating habits and sleeping patterns of 682 middle and high school students in their third year in Gwangju. According to the body mass index (BMI) of the subjects, obesity (over weight) was significantly higher in the third graders of high school students ($20.8{\pm}4.0$, 32.9%) than middle school students ($19.4{\pm}3.8$, 14.2%) (p<0.001). In addition, 71.1% of high school students experienced a lack of sleep compared to 48.8% of middle school students (p<0.001). There was a difference between good and bad sleepers in the number of times they ate snacks and the quantity of their snacks. Good sleepers had more fruit and dairy products (e.g. fruit juice 2~4 times (p<0.05), milk 2~4 times (p<0.001), apples 2~4 times, strawberries 2~4 times (p<0.01), and bananas 2~4 times a week), while bad sleepers consumed more beverages, frozen desserts, flour-based foods, fast food, bread, and rice cake. Bad sleepers clearly consumed snacks more frequently. From analyzing the correlations between sleep quality and snack intake, eating fruits 2~4 times a week (30 g~200 g/once) and drinking dairy products 2~4 times a week (120 mL~400 mL/once) appears to promote better sleeping habits.

Nutritional Chemical Composition in the Different Parts of Artemisia argyi H. (섬애쑥(Artemisia argyi H.)의 부위별 영양화학성분)

  • Ha, Gi-Jeong;Lee, Yong-Ho;Kim, Nak-Ku;Shon, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Jeong, Hee-Rok;Heo, Ho-Jin;Jeong, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.155-164
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    • 2012
  • The chemical components in different parts of Artemisia argyi was investigated to provide industrial possibilities as functional foods The analysis result of proximate composition in leaves, stems and roots of Artenisia argyi was substantially as follows. The crude protein contents were 19.87, 6.14 and 5.68%, the crude lipid contents were 4.56, 1.30 and 1.20%, the crude fiber contents were 16.80, 29.70 and 29.45%, respectively. The major mineral components in Artemisia argyi were potassium, calcium and magnesium. Contents of potassium and calcium in leaves were 4,270.24 and 617.64 mg/100 g, respectively, they were more than double the contents of root. Sucrose and glucose as main free sugars were detected in the leaves and roots. However, glucose and fructose were identified in the stem. Total amino acids showed 17 amino acids. Contents of total amino acid in the leaves was the highest as 4,864.11mg/100g, and the stems and roots showed 1,953.99 and 1,601.73mg/100g, respectively. The major amino acids in the leaves and stems were proline(963.91 and 407.52mg/100g) and aspartic acid(577.38 and 299.17mg/100g), respectively. Glutamic acid(206.34mg/100g) and arginine(193.23mg/100g) were main amino acids in the roots. The major fatty acids in all parts were linoleic acid($C_{18:2}$), behenic acid($C_{22:0}$), and palmitic acid($C_{16:0}$). Eupatilin(35.0mg/100g) and jaceosidin (107.63mg/100g) as physiological compounds contents were higher in leaves than other parts.