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Status of Packaging Materials for Frozen Foods and Analysis of Temperature Changes inside Packaging Materials during Frozen Process (냉동식품용 포장재 현황 및 냉동 과정 중 포장재 내부 온도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Seungwoo;Kwon, Sangwoo;Park, Su-il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed various packaging materials and types for frozen foods and the effects of packaging materials on temperature changes during frozen process. Pouches with different film thickness were prepared and placed in an IQF freezer, then the temperature inside pouches measured using a deep thermometer. The most common types of primary packaging for frozen foods in the market was plastic pouches with polyethylene or polyamide/polyethylene multilayer materials. The temperature change inside of packaging was delayed with film thickness increased. As the size of packaged food increased, the temperature change inside the food was slowed down. In addition, the pouches with air inside took more time to reach $-30^{\circ}C$ compared to pouches with less air during frozen process. This study provides information on packaging materials and types for frozen foods and preliminary data of temperature change by different types of packaging.

Utilization of frozen foods in directly managed middle school meal services in Daegu (대구지역 직영 중학교급식의 냉동가공식품 사용실태에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Mi-Ja;Lee, Jeong-In
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2011
  • Methods: This study was performed to estimate the use of frozen convenience food in middle schools located in the Daegu district. Objectives: These schools have directly managed school meal services. The subjects for this study were 145 students and 66 dieticians. The study involved a survey on food preference and quantity satisfaction of the students and the frequency of use of frozen convenience food in the daily menu. Results: As the result, 50.0% of the students were not satisfied with the meat and poultry quantity from school meals(felt small), and 25.0% of students were not satisfied with vegetables(felt much). The majority of students (50.7%) who were not satisfied with vegetables said they were dissatisfied with the school food because of the taste. On the other hand, 36.6% said they were dissatisfied because they dislike vegetables in general. As for the use and frequency rate of frozen convenience food, the survey results were revealed in the order of dumpling 58.3% > processed meat 50.0% > chicken 50.0% > frozen marine food 40.4% > cuttlefish 30.3% > miscellaneous 26.3% > vegetable & potatoes 14.4%. It was found that many schools employing more than five workers did not use flour-based frozen foods in their menu. As for the use of the frozen processed food, many schools which had an average food cost of more than 1,700 Won were found to use frozen foods more than once a month. In addition, chicken was not used often at the schools whose average food cost was less than 1,500 Won while many schools, whose average food items cost was more than 1,500 Won, incorporated chicken into the menu once a month. Processed flour food [hot dog] was used often by schools whose average food cost was between 1,500 Won and 1,600 Won. As for the actual conditions of using frozen convenience food, there was a significant difference in the use of chicken in relation with the number of food service recipients. As a result, the use of frozen convenience food has been shown to be related with food cost, number of food preparers, and the number of school students.

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Freezing Behaviors of Frozen Foods Determined by $^1H$ NMR and DSC

  • Lee, Su-Yong;Moon, Se-Hun;Shim, Jae-Yong;Kim, Yong-Ro
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.102-105
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    • 2008
  • The freezing patterns of commercial frozen foods were characterized by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ($^1H$ NMR) relaxometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The liquid-like components like unfrozen water were investigated as a function of temperature (10 to $-40^{\circ}C$) and then compared with the unfrozen water content measured by DSC. The formation of ice crystals and the reduction of water in the foods during freezing were readily observed as a loss of the NMR signal intensity. The proton NMR relaxation measurement showed that the decreasing pattern of the liquid-like components varied depending on the samples even though they exhibited the same onset temperature of ice formation at around $0^{\circ}C$. When compared with the unfrozen water content obtained by the DSC, the NMR and DSC results could be closely correlated at the temperature above $-20^{\circ}C$. However, the distinct divergence in the values between 2 methods was observed with further decreasing temperatures probably due to the solid glass formation which was not detected by DSC.

Studies on Semisolid Infant Foods( ll ) - Storage Stability of The Home -Prepared Infant Foods - (반고체 이유보충식(離乳補充食)에 관한 연구(硏究) (II) -가정용(家庭用) Formula의 저장성(貯藏性)-)

  • Yoon, Suk-Kyong;Lee, Young-Chun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1985
  • The storage stability of the developed Formula of infant foods was investigated. The results are summarized as follows : When formula A and B were stored at room temperature and refrigeration temperature, there was no remarkable changes in consistency. In frozen state, formula A showed more stability in consistency than formula B and formula A could be stored for 6 months without problems due to retrogradation of starch. The heat treatment of both A and B resulted in the increase of a-value, while L-and b-value showed no such change. But from the 4th month at room temperature, and 5th to 6th month at refrigeration appeared an increase in a -value, hence the browning reaction, while frozen samples did not show noticeable changes in surface color. The heat treatment also caused an increase in POV on both formula. The extent of changes in POV during storage varied with storage temperatures and samples.

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Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enterococcus spp. Isolated From Commercial Frozen Foods (시판 냉동식품에서 분리한 장구균의 항생제 내성 양상)

  • Park, Sun-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Sig;Yoo, Young-A;Lee, Jae-Kyoo;Jung, Sung-Kook;Han, Ki-Young;Kim, Moo-Sang
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.122-128
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    • 2010
  • From April to December in 2009, microbial investigation is accomplished for 100 frozen foods asked to microbial control team that corresponds with total aerobic viable bacteria, coliform group, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolates are investigated. Average of total erobic viable bacteria numbers is $4.3{\times}10^4CFU/g$. Average of coliform group numbers is $4.3{\times}10^3CFU/g$. Average f Enterococcus spp. numbers is $1.8{\times}10^3CFU/g$. Escherichia coli from 100 frozen foods is not detected and detection ate is 0.0%. 22 Enterococcus spp. are isolated from 100 frozen foods. 12 of 22 Enterococcus spp. strains are identified as E. faecium. 7 of 22 Enterococcus spp. strains are identified as E. faecalis. 2 of 22 Enterococcus spp. trains are identified as E. gallinarum. 1 of 22 Enterococcus spp. strains is identified as E. hirae. Enterococcus spp. solates show a high resistance to erythromycin, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, chlorampenicol, penicillin and susceptibility to vancomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, strepomycin, linezolid. 15 of 22 Enterococcus spp. strains are multi-resistant and the most frequent multi-resistant pattern is erythromycin-rifampin for 6 Enterococcus spp. strains.

A Study on Purchase Patterns and Recognition of Processed Foods in Elementary. Middle and High School Meal Service Dietitians (초.중.고 학교급식에 따른 영양사의 가공식품 이용실태와 인지도 조사)

  • Rho, Jeong-Ok;Chong, Yu-Kyung;Jung, Su-Jin;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2007
  • The results of this study on Purchase Patterns and Recognition of Processed Foods of School Meal Service Dietitians of elementary, junior and senior high schools in Chonbuk and Deagu Area are as follows : First, the rate of single cooking of the schools surveyed is 100% in Deagu and 66.9% in Chonbuk, and Chonbuk has more small-meal service schools which caused a higher labor cost than Deagu, Secondly, schools in Deagu has purchased not completely processed vegetables and fish and shells than Chonbuk, and Chonbuk(66.9%) has served more Kim-chi products than Deagu(41.6%). Thirdly, nutritional effects and preference have been considered as school dietitians make plans for the menu. Fourthly, the opinions of the school dietitians about processed food are in the order of high sodium content, convenience and the use of preservative, and Chonbuk has responded positively to the articles of future oriented quality, cooking usage and variety while Deagu has thought of it as an economical. The expected effects from the use of processed foods are in the order of saving labor time and student preferences. Fifthly, meat products have been frequently used and more frozen meat products have been used in Deagu and senior high school than Chonbuk and elementary and junior high schools, last, preferences on processed food are in the order of frozen sea food, noodles. dried sea food, processed vegetable and fruit, dairy goods and others. Senior high school dietitians have preferred packed meat products and other frozen processed food more than elementary and junior high school dietitians. The rate of serving processed food had a different depending on the number of students. In this study, dietitians recognize the harmful effects of processed foods over the merits, which means that the rate of using processed food is low. The proper usage of processed foods is thought to improve the preference of students, to have cooking time shortened and to help manage the meal service sanitarily and efficiently. Therefore, companies producing processed foods should do their best to develop safety and health oriented foods to gain the credibility, and the government should make new regulations for people to purchase and obtain processed foods without any doubt.

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Study on Body Composition, Biochemical Parameters, and Consumption of Convenience Foods According to ${\beta}$-3 Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism in University Students (베타-3 아드레날린 수용체 유전자 다형성에 따른 대학생의 생화학 지표, 체성분과 편의식품 섭취실태에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Myoung-Soo;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.364-373
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the body composition, biochemical parameters, and consumption of convenience foods according to ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism in university students. A survey was conducted on a total of 486 students - 189 males and 297 females. Based on a self-reporting method, questionnaires were administered for over 20 minutes, and ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor and blood samples were also analyzed. The genotype frequencies of ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism were Trp/Trp homozygote (73.0%) and Trp/Arg heterozygote (27.0%) in male students. For the female students, the distribution of genotypes was Trp/Trp (71.0%) and Trp/Arg (29.0%). There were no differences according to biochemical parameters (ALT, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and hemoglobin) or body composition. Males with TT genotype frequently ate Ramyon (2.40${\pm}$0.52), Cup Ramyon (2.37${\pm}$0.39), Kimchi (2.23${\pm}$0.61), and frozen meat (2.00${\pm}$0.44), whereas males with TA genotype ate Fries (frozen food) (1.90${\pm}$0.79), Smoked meat (1.67${\pm}$0.81), and Canned fruit (1.64${\pm}$0.81). Females with TT genotype frequently ate Frozen fries (2.21${\pm}$0.35), Kimbab (2.12${\pm}$0.44), and Ramyon (1.85${\pm}$0.40), whereas females with TA genotype frequently ate Kimchi (1.73${\pm}$0.98), Fries (frozen food) (1.46${\pm}$0.26), and Cup Ramyon (1.30${\pm}$0.34). When questioned about satisfaction about body shape, 22.8 and 60.8% of those with TT genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively, whereas 18.0 and 63.9% of those with TA genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively. In conclusion, this study found no significant effects in terms of ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism, which suggests that health-promoting education needs to be developed so that university students appropriately recognize their bodies and control their weight in desirable ways. Therefore, it is necessary to educate individuals with TT genotype how to buy reasonable foods by understanding the interrelationship between convenience foods and health care and by checking the nutrition index labels on convenience foods. Thus, it is recommended that a health-promoting program be developed for the promotion of healthy lifestyles.

Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Frozen Foods (냉동식품에서 분리한 Yersinia enterocolitica의 특성)

  • Lim, Soon-Young;Yoon, Suk-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1336-1340
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    • 2000
  • Overall prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in frozen foods was 5.6% (35 cases of 624 samples). Seasonal variation of contamination was observed. Isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica from samples collected in the second half of the year was six times higher than those of the first half of the year. Serotype of the isolated Y. enterocolitica was mainly serotype O:5 (9 cases). However, 25 cases of 35 isolates could not be serotyped with antiserum used in this study. The biotype test showed that all isolates were non-pathogenic type 1A. The polymerase chain reaction test with ail gene specific primers also confirmed that pathogenic strains were not found in frozen food isolates.

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A Study on the Perception and Consumption Pattern of Convenience Foods by Korean College Students (한국 대학생의 편의식품에 대한 인지도, 이용 정도 분석 및 식행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Soo-Jae;Yoon, Hye-June;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Yang-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.227-239
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this stud was to investigate the degree of recognition as well as the consumption pattern of convenience food products, and related factors among 700 mixed Korean college students using written questionnaire. Students of Seoul region showed the significantly lowest rate of recognition at 36.7%. Results also showed that lifestyles have a significant effect on the degree of recognition of convenience foods. The consumption patterns of convenience foods goes as follows: used frequently-18.2%, once in awhile-73.9%, doesn't use-7.9%. The higher the recognition rate, the higher the consumption rate for convenience foods. When compared in terms of residence, students living at home used more refrigerated foods compared to students living outside of the home. Among the total students living outside of the home, students living on their own scored highest of convenience food consumption. In the case of female students living outside the home, respondents living alone and in dormitories scored the highest. Female students living in dormitories were mainly using refrigerated and canned foods, while those living alone consumed more kimbap and 'sa-bal-myun' in convenience stores. Korean college students mainly consumed frozen food, retort food, and kimbap in convenience stores. The college student that believes that 'You eat to satisfy hunger' significantly used more convenience food while those that marked 'maintain health' consumed the lowest showing a great difference between groups. Results showed that the lower the food habit score, the higher the usage score of convenience foods. The food habit score had a negative correlation with the usage of frozen foods, instant food, and convenience store food. When compared individually, packaged 'ramen' and 'sa-bal-myun' scored the highest points of usage. Frozen fried rice and pre-packaged rice scored the lowest points indicating Korean college students do not consider rice a convenience food. Convenience food consumed in convenience stores ranked the highest among places of consumption, compared to places like home or outdoors; showing that convenience foods were used by people with limited time constraints.

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Association Between the Frequency of Eating Non-home-prepared Meals and Women Infertility in the United States

  • Lee, Sohyae;Min, Jin-young;Kim, Hye-Jin;Min, Kyoung-bok
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether eating non-home-prepared meals (NHPM), including fast food, ready-to-eat foods, and frozen foods, was associated with self-reported infertility in the United States women. Methods: Data on diet and infertility from women aged 20-49 years who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed (n=2143). Dietary information, including the number and types of NHPM consumed, was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire, and infertility status was analyzed using the following question, "Have you ever attempted to become pregnant over a period of at least a year without becoming pregnant" Results: The frequency of NHPM consumption was positively associated with self-reported infertility after adjusting for confounding effects (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 5.38 of >1 vs. 0 NHPM/d). The odds of infertility were 2-3 times higher in women who consumed fast food than in those who did not consume fast food (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.15 to 6.48 of >1 vs. 0 times/d). Conclusions: The frequency and types of NHPM may be a factor contributing to infertility. Although our findings require confirmation, they suggest that eating out may be deleterious to women fecundity.