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Retail Distribution Temperature and Quality Status of Fried-Frozen Korean Meat Ball Products (조리냉동 완자제품의 유통온도 및 품질 현황)

  • Yun, Sung-Hee;Yoon, Jae-Young;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.657-662
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    • 1996
  • In order to investigate the quality status of fried-frozen Korean meat ball products during retail distribution, VBN value, TBA value, pH and metmyoglobin ratio were determined for 117 samples collected in Seoul area during the period of May to September, 1995. Most samples maintained relatively good quality, but one sample of a company showed $32.5mg%$ of VBN value and 0.65mg/kg of TBA value which indicate the early stage of spoilage. Correlation coefficient between metmyoglobin ratio and TBA value was highly significant. Samples closer to shelf-life limit tended to show higher VBN value, TBA value, metmyoglobin ratio and pH. Out of the surveyed samples, 35% were on retail shelves of temperature above $-14^{\circ}C$, while only 18% were being sold at temperature below $-18^{\circ}C$. It is concluded that prepared frozen foods should be stored at the recommended temperature of $-18^{\circ}C$.

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Consumption of Edible Oil Food Service Institutions in Inchon (인천지역 집단급식소의 식용유 소비실태)

  • Hong, Mi-Ye;Choe, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1998
  • Consumption of edible oil at food service institutions in Inchon was surveyed to provide basic data for continuous education of dietitians. Manufacturing industry was the major food service institution(78.8%) in Inchon followed by schools, hospitals and social welfare service centers. Most dietitians were at the age of twenties and college graduates with professional careers of 1-5 years. Oil was purchased on the basis of its quality within 1-3% of total food costs four times a month. Proper frying temperature was determined by dropping salt or food coating materials into the oil. Soybean oil was the most frequently used and commercial frying mix powder and flour and eggs in water were the most common food coating materials. Fish and commercial frozen foods were the most frequently used materials for frying. Fried foods were stored with covers in a basket and consumed within 30 minutes after cooking. Frying oils were used one more time after filtering and color was the index for determination of re-use.

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Studies on Semisolid Infant Foods (III)-Rheological Properties of the Products- (반고체 이유보충식에 관한 연구 (III)-생물학적 조사-)

  • 이영춘
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.3-15
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    • 1986
  • This study was intended to investigate the rheological properties of the development formula of infant foods and the results are summarized as follow ; 1) Consistency of starch solutions measured by Brabender Anylograph and Brookfield viscometer showed that waxy rice and riece with malt had lower consistency and more rheological stability.The flow type of tested raw materials and formula was found to ? pseudoplastic, as judged by n-value of 0.332 -0.692, and no yield value. 2) The influenced of temperature on consistency could be accounted for by the equation, In (n) = K(1/T) + const. this relationship indicated that consistency of tested sample increased as temperature decreased. The consistency of waxy rice, rice with malt and formula A were less affected by the temperature change. 3) Infant foods with malt(formula A ) ad with waxy rice maintained better freeze-thaw stability in terms of consistency and starch aggregation indicating that this infant food could be stored for a long term in the freezer section of the home refrigeratory without adverse effect on the product quality. 4) From the above experiments, it would necessarily follow that infant food can be easily made at home the food-stuffs generally available around us, and that the easiest and safest way to store them lies in making them into semisolid state, and in keeping them in frozen state.

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Probiotics와Prebiotics 유래기능성식품

  • Lee, Myeong-Gi
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2002
  • 장내 균총 개선을 위하여 조합시킨 prebiotics와 probiotics는 최고의 건강 증진을 제공할 잠재성을 갖지만, 알맞은 균주선발이 필수적이다. 기능성 식품시장은 연간 15∼20% 성장하고 있고, 그 산업은 33백만 달러의 값어치가 있다(Hilliam, 2000). 기능성 식품은 nutraceuticals, designer foods, medicinal foods, therapeutic foods,superfoods, foodiceuticals와 medifoods로 알려져 있고 그 정의는 전통적인 영양소개념을 넘어선 건강증진 성분을 함유한 식품이라고 할 수 있다(Berner와 O'Donnell,1998). 식품은 phytochemicals, bioactive peptides, $\omega$-3 불포화 지방산, 그리고probiotics 또는 기능성을 갖게 되는 prebiotics의 부가에 의하여 변형될 수 있다(Berner와 O'Donnell, 1998)(표 1). 장관에서 살수 없는 균을 함유한 요구르트의 경우와 같은 다양한 발효 낙농식품 제조에 젖산균을 사용한 이래, 오늘날에는 발효식품에Lactobacillus acidophilus와 bifidobacteria 같은 probiotic 균을 사용하는 경향이다. Probiotic 식품은 살아 있는 미생물을 함유한 식품이고, 그 미생물은 충분한 양이살아 있는 상태로 장 속에 공급되었을 때에 미생물 균총을 개선하여 소비자 건강을 증진시키는 것이라고 할 수 있다(Fuller, 1992). 전통적으로, probiotics는 요구르트와 기타 발효식품에 사용되어 왔지만, 최근에는 드링크, 알약형, 캡슐형, 동결건조물과 같은 형태로도 공급되고 있다. 오늘날, 전세계에 sour cream, buttermilk, 요구르트, 분유와 frozen desserts 같은 식품에 bifidus acidophilus를 함유한 제품이 70개를 넘고 있으며, 일본에서만도 probiotic 미생물을 함유한 형태의 우유제품이 53종류 이상 개발되어 있다. Probiotics는 유럽에서도 매우 인기가 있지만, 주로 요구르트에 한정되어 사용되고 있다(Hilliam, 2000).

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A Survey of the Temperature Control of Refrigerators and Freezers in Retail Food Shops (식품판매업소의 냉장.냉동 진열대의 온도 관리 조사연구)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 2002
  • The number of food establishments selling raw and convenience foods are increasing in Korea, and people enjoy purchasing and eating foods at these shops. However, there are only a few reports on the temperature control of the refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops. This study was performed to investigate the temperature control of refrigerators and freezers in retail food shops in Daegu. The survey was carried out from July 20 to August 30 in 2001. The trained surveyors visited the twenty retail food shops (four department stores, eight marts/supermarkets and eight convenience stores) in the 8 major areas of Daegu and inspected the temperature control of 48 refrigerators for dairy products, fruits & vegetables, and rolled rice & sandwiches, and 52 freezers for ice cream & sherbet, frozen food, and frozen fish. The percentage of the refrigerators, and freezers with unsafe temperatures higher than the recommended safe temperature (10℃ for refrigerators, and -18℃ for freezers) was 42%; 45.8% in refrigerators; 38.5% in freezers. On an average, the bigger the size of the shop, the better than the other freezers. On the other hand, the temperature control of refrigerator for fruits & vegetables was the worst because they were usually open. Actual temperatures in the refrigerators and freezers were found to be significantly higher than the reading on the thermometers attached to the refrigerators and freezers(p<0.05). These results indicate that temperature control of refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops should be monitored several times each day, and should have strict inspection. There should be more detailed legal standard and specification for temperature control of refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops to prevent foodborne illness from unsafely stored food.

Partial Freezing as a Means of Keeping Quality of Sea Foods 1. Keeping Quality of Baked Mackerel Muscle during Partially Frozen Storage (빙결점동결에 의한 수산식품의 품질보존에 관한 연구 1. 빙결점동결 저장 중의 구운 고등어의 품질변화)

  • Lee, Eung Ho;Kim, Jeong Gyun;Ha, Jae Ho;Oh, Kwang Soo;Cha, Yong-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.62-65
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    • 1983
  • As a new practical method for preserving freshness of fish, partially frozen storage has been reported to be useful in terms of K-value, TBA value, sensory evaluation etc. In order to develop a storage procedure to be used in place of cooled or frozen storage for the preservation of precooked fish food, partial freezing for up to two to three weeks was examined using baked mackerel. The criteria for evaluation were made according to the changes in volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, viable bacterial number, pH, color difference and sensory evaluation in fish muscle. The changes in TBA value of baked muscle during storage at $-3^{\circ}C$ differed slightly from those obserbed during cooled ($5^{\circ}C$) and frozen storage ($-20^{\circ}C$). Partial frozen storage ($-3^{\circ}C$) was effective in prolong an induction period of lipid oxidation during early storage. VBN of baked muscle tends to increase slowly while pH value was decrease during storage and there was no observed significant differences among three different storage condition. Viable bacterial number of the baked mackerel muscle stored at $-3^{\circ}C$ showed significantly less than that stored at $5^{\circ}C$, and similar to that stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ (the levels of $10^2/g$). Judging from the results of sensory evaluation and experimental data, partial frozen storage at $-3^{\circ}C$ seems to be effective as means of short-period preserving baked mackerel.

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Processing Conditions and Quality Stability of Precooked Frozen Fish Foods during Frozen Storage - I. Processing Conditions and Quality Stability of Mackerel Steak during Frozen Storage - (어육동결조리식품(魚肉凍結調理食品)의 가공조건(加工條件) 및 품질(品質) 안전성(安全性)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 제 1 보 : 고등어 Steak 가공조건(加工條件) 및 동결저장중(凍結貯藏中)의 품질안전성(品質安全性) -)

  • Lee, Eung-Ho;Jeon, Joong-Kyun;Cho, Soon-Yeong;Cha, Yong-Jun;Jung, Soo-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.324-329
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    • 1982
  • Processing conditions of fish steaks and the effect of soybean protein on quality during frozen storage were investigated. Added to the fish meat were 1.0% of table salt, 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate, 0.2% of polyphosphate, 0.2% of monosodium glutamate, 2.0% of sugar, 0.2% of red pepper powder, 0.2% of white pepper powder, 0.2% of garlic powder and 0.2% of nutmeg. The mixture was minced with stone mortar and then stored at $-3^{\circ}\;to\;-5^{\circ}C$ for two days prior to frozen storage. The beneficial effects of adding soybean protein(5%) to the fish steaks were the control of color change, free drip, oxidative rancidity and in texture that exhibited the improvement of quality. The quality of frozen mackerel steaks, by sensory evaluation, was not inferior to that of hamburger on the market.

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Effects of Water or Brine Immersion Thawing Combined with Ultrasound on Quality Attributes of Frozen Pork Loin

  • Hong, Geun-Pyo;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2014
  • This study explored the effects of water or brine (2% NaCl, w/v) immersion thawing combined with ultrasound treatment (40 kHz, 150 W) on the quality characteristics of pork. Ultrasound treatment of pork was conducted in two cold media (at $4^{\circ}C$), water and 2% (w/v) brine, respectively. Because the ultrasound treatment caused temperature increase in the media from $4^{\circ}C$ to $16^{\circ}C$, the qualities of pork thawed by ultrasound were compared with those thawed by immersion either in water or brine where the temperature was being maintained at either $4^{\circ}C$ (low temperature control) or $17^{\circ}C$ (high temperature control). The ultrasound treatment resulted in rapid thawing of pork where the thawing rate was similar to those thawed in the $17^{\circ}C$ media. For quality characteristics, ultrasound-treated pork in brine had an advantage of less cooking losses when comparing to the control. In particular, ultrasound treatment in brine exhibited the lowest shear force (or highest tenderness) among the freezing/thawing treatments. Although the ultrasound processing in brine caused discoloration of the pork, this thawing technique had potential to be applied as a commercial thawing technology for frozen foods.

A study on eating out and snack intake of elementary school students living in Jeonbuk province (전라북도 일부 초등학생의 외식 및 간식섭취 실태조사)

  • Beak, Young-Mi;Jung, Su-Jin;Beak, Hyang-Im;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 2007
  • This research investigated the eating out and snack intakes situation of five hundred eighty five $5^{th}\;and\;6^{th}$ graders living in the city and rural parts of Jeonbuk province. The results of this study are as followed: Nuclear families in urban area and rural community are 84.5% and 64.7% respectively. On the other hand, extended families are 7.9% in urban area and 18% in rural communities. Out of all the households, 34.3% (urban: 37.2%, rural community: 31.5%) answered they like to eat out. Over 50.3% preferred eating Korean style food and the reason was 'the taste': urban (71.4%) and rural community (67.8%). People living in urban communities seemed to eat out more frequently than rural places and $3{\sim}4$ times a month was the average. Usually people seemed to eat out during the weekends and in the evening time 84.3% (after 7:00 p.m.). Based on each family's living standard, people answered 'we hardly ever eat out' for those in the lower class (59.1%), the middle class said once or twice a week (47.1%), and the upper class (35.7%). It was obvious that people in the middle and upper class tend to eat out more frequently than those in the lower class. The most common period of time which snacks were taken was after school (38.5%), on the way back from educational institute (35.0%) and the choices of snacks which they purchased were frozen sweets (56.4%)chips & cookies (25.2%) beverages (9.9%) Fast foods (4.6%) and fried foods (3.9%) in order. Urban children seem to eat more frozen sweets and rural children ate more chips & cookies. Also, amount of snacks between meals showed a higher percentage to those who had more pocket money, The type of snacks were fruits (37.1%) chips and cookies et cetera (19.2%) instant foods (12.8%) dairy products (11.1%) confectionary (10.3%) fried foods (5.1%) in order. The result shows that urban children eat out more frequently than those in rural areas, Eating around 7:00 p.m. was most common and the middle and upper class tend to eat out more frequently than those in the lower class, Also, snacks were most often bought before and after school. After 10:00 p.m frozen goods and chips were the most preferred choice. Specially, the reason for eating fast foods was because of the pleasing taste. From this study, it is clear that eating out and having snacks became pervasive into our lives in both urban and rural areas. Hereafter, an appropriate eating habit should be correctly educated to elementary students by spoken words and textbooks in a curriculum. In reality, snacks are classified as being the leading factor of obesity. Therefore more products containing balanced nutrition should newly develop rather than snacks with high fat content.

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Assessment of Microbiological Quality for Raw Materials and Cooked Foods in Elementary School Food Establishment (초등학교에 공급되는 급식용 식재료 및 조리식품의 미생물학적 품질평가)

  • Shin, Weon-Sun;Hong, Wan-Soo;Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.379-389
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of raw and cooked foods served in the elementary school food service. Raw and cooked food samples were collected from 11 selected elementary schools in both June to July and September to October of 2005. Petrifilm plates were used to determine (in duplicate) total aerobic colony counts (PAC), Enterobacteriaceae (PE), coliform counts (PCC), and E. coli counts (PEC). Heavy contamination of Enterobacteriaceae (from 0.08 to 7.40 log CFU/g) and total coliform (0.50 to 6.52 log CFU/g) were observed in raw materials and cooked foods. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected in the sample of currant tomato (3.70 log CFU/g), sesame leaf (3.59 log CFU/g), dropwort (0.20 log CFU/g), crown daisy (3.15 log CFU/g), parsley (3.00 log CFU/g), peeled green onion (1.74 log CFU/g), frozen pork (0.65 log CFU/g), frozen beef (0.20 or 1.50 log CFU/g), chicken (1.78 log CFU/g), and young radish leaf seasoned with soybean paste (1.24 log CFU/g). Multiplex PCR system was used to determine the food-borne pathogens: Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), E. coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Shigella spp., B. cereus was detected in 19 samples of raw materials and 8 samples of cooked foods. With regard to quantitative analysis, B. cereus counts exceeded 5.46, 3.48 and 1.79 log CFU/g in sesame leaf, peeled green onion and seasoned mungbean jelly, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on 2 samples of frozen beefs, and its biochemical characteristics of one beef sample was confirmed with API 20E kit (93.7%). L. monocytogenes was detected in fried rice paper dumpling, but the presumptive colonies were not detected onto the conventional plate. C. jejuni was detected in peeled & washed onion.