• Title, Summary, Keyword: frozen time approach

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New analysis of nonlinear system with time varying parameter

  • Lee, Seon-Ho;Lim, Jong-Tae
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.231-235
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    • 1995
  • In this paper, the frozen time approach is used to analyze the nonlinear system with time varying parameter. Using the extended linearization, we propose two analytical methods that compute an upper bound of the Euclidean norm of the difference between state variable and equilibrium point of the given system. The propertise of the two methods are discussed with simple examples.

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A Frozen Time Receding Horizon Control for a Linear Discrete Time-Varying System (선형 이산 시변시스템을 위한 고정시간 이동구간 제어)

  • Oh, Myung-Hwan;Oh, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2010
  • In the case of a linear time-varying system, it is difficult to apply the conventional stability conditions of RHC (Receding Horizon Control) to real physical systems because of computational complexity comes from time-varying system and backward Riccati equation. Therefore, in this study, a frozen time RHC for a linear discrete time-varying system is proposed. Since the proposed control law is obtained by time-invariant Riccati equation solved by forward iterations at each control time, its stability can be ensured by matrix inequality condition and the stability condition based on horizon for a time-invariant system, and they can be applied to real physical systems effectively in comparison with the conventional RHC.

Eigenstructure Assignment for Linear Time-Varying Systems: a Differential Sylvester Equation Approach (미분 Sylvester 방정식을 이용한 선형 시변 시스템의 고유구조 지정기법)

  • 최재원;이호철
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.5 no.7
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    • pp.777-786
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    • 1999
  • This work is concerned with the assignment of the desired eigenstructure for linear time-varying systems such as missiles, rockets, fighters, etc. Despite its well-known limitations, gain scheduling control appeared to be the focus of the research efforts. Scheduling of frozen-time, frozen-state controller for fast time-varying dynamics is known to be mathematically fallacious, and practically hazardous. Therefore, recent research efforts are being directed towards applying time-varying controllers. In this paper, ⅰ) we introduce a differential algebraic eigenvalue theory for linear time-varying systems, and ⅱ) we also propose an eigenstructure assignment scheme for linear time-varying systems via the differential Sylvester equation based upon the newly developed notions. The whole design procedure of the proposed eigenstructure assignment scheme is very systematic, and the scheme could be used to determine the stability of linear time-varying systems easily as well as provides a new horizon of designing controllers for the linear time-varying systems. The presented method is illustrated by a numerical example.

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A Experimental and Numerical Studies of Thermal Flow Motion in a Geothermal Chamber (동결챔버내의 열 흐름에 관한 실험 및 수치해석적 연구)

  • 송원근;김영진;이형일
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2003
  • Numerical and experimental studies were conducted on the temperature distribution of a buried steel pipe and surrounding granite frozen soils in the closed system. The relationship between unfrozen water content and temperatures was analysed by laboratory test. The thermal conductivity measurements were made to compare the results with a formula presented by Lachenbruch. A steel container model that consists of a freezing chamber and a buried circular steel pipe was built for the laboratory temperature measurements. The time temperature records were measured experimentally, and those records were compared with numerical results obtained from FEM analysis in order to verify the feasibility. The latent heat effect on the granite frozen soils in the numerical study was considered.

Dynamical Cluster Approximation Plus Semiclassical Approximation Study for a Mott Insulator and d-Wave Pairing

  • Kim, SungKun;Lee, Hunpyo
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.70 no.12
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    • pp.1049-1053
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    • 2017
  • Via a dynamical cluster approximation with $N_c=4$ in combination with a semiclassical approximation (DCA+SCA), we study the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model. We obtain a plaquette antiferromagnetic (AF) Mott insulator, a plaquette AF ordered metal, a pseudogap (or d-wave superconductor) and a paramagnetic metal by tuning the doping concentration. These features are similar to the behaviors observed in copper-oxide superconductors and are in qualitative agreement with the results calculated by the cluster dynamical mean field theory with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CDMFT+CTQMC) approach. The results of our DCA+SCA differ from those of the CDMFT+CTQMC approach in that the d-wave superconducting order parameters are shown even in the high doped region, unlike the results of the CDMFT+CTQMC approach. We think that the strong plaquette AF orderings in the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) with $N_c=4$ suppress superconducting states with increasing doping up to strongly doped region, because frozen dynamical fluctuations in a semiclassical approximation (SCA) approach are unable to destroy those orderings. Our calculation with short-range spatial fluctuations is initial research, because the SCA can manage long-range spatial fluctuations in feasible computational times beyond the CDMFT+CTQMC tool. We believe that our future DCA+SCA calculations should supply information on the fully momentum-resolved physical properties, which could be compared with the results measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments.

The Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Position and Bologna Experience

  • Marco, Luca Di;Pantaleo, Antonio;Leone, Alessandro;Murana, Giacomo;Bartolomeo, Roberto Di;Pacini, Davide
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Complex lesions of the thoracic aorta are traditionally treated in 2 surgical steps with the elephant trunk technique. A relatively new approach is the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique, which potentially allows combined lesions of the thoracic aorta to be treated in a 1-stage procedure combining endovascular treatment with conventional surgery using a hybrid prosthesis. These are very complex and time-consuming operations, and good results can be obtained only if appropriate strategies for myocardial, cerebral, and visceral protection are adopted. However, the FET technique is associated with a non-negligible incidence of spinal cord injury, due to the extensive coverage of the descending aorta with the excessive sacrifice of intercostal arteries. The indications for the FET technique include chronic thoracic aortic dissection, acute or chronic type B dissection when endovascular treatment is contraindicated, chronic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and chronic aneurysm of the distal arch. The F ET technique is also indicated in acute type A aortic dissection, especially when the tear is localized in the aortic arch; in cases of distal malperfusion; and in young patients. In light of the great interest in the FET technique, the Vascular Domain of the European Association for cardio-thoracic Surgery published a position paper reporting the current knowledge and the state of the art of the FET technique. Herein, we describe the surgical techniques involved in the FET technique and we report our experience with the F ET technique for the treatment of complex aortic disease of the thoracic aorta.

Effect of Cryodiluents, Cryoprotectants, Pre-freezing Method and Total Time Required for Freezing on Post-thaw Viability of Boar Spermatozoa (돼지정자의 동결융해 후 활력 및 생존성에 대한 보존액, 동해보호제, 예비동결 및 동결처리시간의 영향)

  • 이장희;김인철
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 1999
  • Boar semen can be frozen successfully. However, there is a large variability in the extent of damage boar semen samples experiences during cryopreservation. This experiment was undertaken to find out factors that affect a post-thaw viability of boar spermatozoa. For this purpose, cryodiluents(BF5, LEY, Soejima and M-Soejima), cryoprotectants(glycerol. ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol), pre-freezing method(dryice-pellet, dryice-straw and L$N_2$vapour-st-raw) and total time required for freezing(2. 5, and 7 h) were compared as a factors. To investigate quality of semen during freezing process, motility(%), normal apical ridges(%, NAR), and proportion of living sperm(%) by flow cytometic analysis were assessed after collection, cooled, pre-frozen and post-thawing. Post-thaw motility of semen diluted with M-Soejima was 52.0%, respectively. When heparin, caffeine or heparin+caffeine was added to 2nd cryodiluent of M-Soejima during freezing process, the highest motility after thawing was shown at the addition of caffeine (2mM), with 61.7$\pm$2.9% of motility. M-Soejima with heparin or caffeine was significantly higher than that of controI(p<0.05). The result using glycerol(Gly), ethylene glycol(EG), propylene glycol(PG), and their mixture (Gly+EG and Gly+PG) as cryoprotectants, the highest motility was shown at the mixture treatment with Gly plus PG. However, the highest proportion of live spermatozoa was shown at Gly+EG, there was no significantly difference among treatments(p>0.05). When semen was pre-frozen with three manners(dryice-pellet, dryice-straw, and L$N_2$ vapor-straw), motility(%) of post-thaw spermatozoa was the highest in the L$N_2$ vapor-straw pre-freezing method of M-Soejima cryodiluent with 57.5% of motility, For a simple, economical and timesaving approach to freezing boar semen, total time required for freezing were 2, 5, and 7 hours, post-thaw motility were 43.8, 45.0 and 38.8%, NAR were 19.5, 22.7 and 28.5%, and viability were 20.8, 19.9 and 22.1%, respectively. This data suggests that boar semen diluted with M-Soejima cryodiluent contained caffeine, using mixture of glycerol and propylene glycol or ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants, frozen with 2 hours, can be taken better motility, NAR, and proportion of live spermatozoa.

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Performance of the Cold Latent Storage System (냉열잠열축열조의 성능해석)

  • Yoon, Ho Sik;Ro, Sung Tack
    • The Magazine of the Society of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.456-465
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    • 1988
  • The performance of the cold latent heat storage is investigated by experiment and by a simplified analytic approach. The heat storage tank has eight horizontal circular tubes and one path of refrigerant evaporating tube. The phase change material in the heat storage tank is water which is frozen by evaporating refrigerant of refrigeration system and melts by the warm air in the heat storage tank. In the experiment, the performance has been studied by the various conditions including the initial water temperature on solidification and flow rate and temperature of air. The rate of recovered heat has been simulated by a simplified model and the results shows a good agreement. In solidification process, initial water temperature causes time delay corresponding to the sensible heat and it is found that the shape of evaporator is important. In melting process, the recovered heat rate from the heat storage tank is proportional to $Re^{0.8}(T_{bi}-T_f)$ of air where $T_{bi}$ and $T_f$ indicate temperatures of inlet air and phase change, respectively. And the deminishing rate of the recovered heat is higher for the higher heat rate.

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A Study on Separation of Thermolabile and Thermostable Pectinesterase from Valencia Orange (Valencia 오렌지에서 내열성 및 비내열성 Pectinesterase 분리 정제)

  • Hou, Won-Nyoung;M.R., Marshall
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 1995
  • Pectinesterase(PE) has been definitively established as the causative agent for clarification of citrus juice and gelation of frozen concentrates. This enzyme is present in multiple forms in citrus fruit. Although representing a minor fraction of the total PE activity, thermostable pectinesterase(TSPE) accounts for the severe time/temperature processing treatment required to inactivate PE. This study was undertaken to separate and purify thermolabile pectinesterase(TLPE) and TSPE from the crude PE extracts of Valencia orange rag-pulp powder. The approach taken was to carry out the three kind of chromatographies of CM-Sephadex C-50, Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B and CM-Biogel A to the unheated crude PE or the heated crude PE. All of them used could increase the purity of PEs and, specially, Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B chromatography could separate crude PE as the mixture of PEs into two forms of TLPE and TSPE. The purified TLPE had specific activity of 1,005 units/mg, yield of 13.6% and purification of 35 fold, while the TSPE separated from the unheated crude PE showed specific activity of 3,115 units/mg, yield of 1.5% and purification of 100.5 fold, and another TSPE from the heated crude PE was found to be specific activity of 1,803 units/mg, yield of 15.4% and purification of 140 fold.

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Detection of PIK3CA Gene Mutations with HRM Analysis and Association with IGFBP-5 Expression Levels in Breast Cancer

  • Dirican, Ebubekir;Kaya, Zehra;Gullu, Gokce;Peker, Irem;Ozmen, Tolga;Gulluoglu, Bahadir M.;Kaya, Handan;Ozer, Ayse;Akkiprik, Mustafa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9327-9333
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway mutations are associated with cancer and phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene mutations have been observed in 25-45% of breast cancer samples. Insulin growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) can show different effects on apoptosis, cell motility and survival in breast cancer. We here aimed to determine the association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 expressions for the first time in breast cancer patients. Frozen tumor samples from 101 Turkish breast cancer patients were analyzed with high resolution melting (HRM) for PIK3CA mutations (exon 9 and exon 20) and 37 HRM positive tumor samples were analyzed by DNA sequencing, mutations being found in 31. PIK3CA exon 9 mutations (Q546R, E542Q, E545K, E542K and E545D) were found in 10 tumor samples, exon 20 mutations (H1047L, H1047R, T1025T and G1049R) in 21, where only 1 tumor sample had two exon 20 mutations (T1025T and H1047R). Moreover, we detected one sample with both exon 9 (E542Q) and exon 20 (H1047R) mutations. 35% of the tumor samples with high IGFBP-5 mRNA expression and 29.4% of the tumor samples with low IGFBP-5 mRNA expression had PIK3CA mutations (p=0.9924). This is the first study of PIK3CA mutation screening results in Turkish breast cancer population using HRM analysis. This approach appears to be a very effective and reliable screening method for the PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutation detection. Further analysis with a greater number of samples is needed to clarify association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 mRNA expression, and also clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.