• Title, Summary, Keyword: frozen tofu

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Effects of Cryoprotectants on the Textural Changes of Whole-coagulated Soybean Curd (Tofu) during Frozen Storage (비압착 냉동저장 두부의 조직감 변화에 미치는 항냉동제의 효과)

  • Chung, Sun-Hwa;Choi, Won-Seok;Son, Hye-Sook;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.957-963
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    • 1999
  • Effects of cryoprotectants on protein denaturation of soybean curd, tofu, during frozen storage were examined. A whole-coagulated non-press tofu was prepared by adding 2% of isolated soybean protein to soy milk in order to prevent loss of added cryoprotectants. The cryoprotectants added were glocose, glycerol, sorbitol, propylene glycol, and tripolyphosphate. The texture characteristics of soybean curds before and after frozen storage were measured by sensory evaluation and Texture analyzer, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Glucose, glycerol, sorbitol, and sodium tripolyphosphate were effective as single cryoprotectant, and the mixtures of glucose and sodium tripolyphosphate, and sorbitol and propylene glycol were also effective in minimizing textural change during freezing. Overall, the mixture of cryoprotectants were more effective than single cryoprotectant. According to the RSM, the maximum effect of cryoprotectants in minimizing textural changes during freezing was obtained with the mixture of 2.1% glucose, 6.7% glycerol, 2.1% sorbitol, 0.4% propylene glycol, and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. However, considering the sensory acceptability, the optimum use of cryoprotectants in frozen tofu was 1% glucose, 2% glycerol, 1% sorbitol, 0.2% propylene glycol, and 0.5% sodium tripolyphosphate.

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The Comparative Study of Curinary of Tofu of the World (세계 두부 조리의 문화)

  • 한복진
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.536-553
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    • 1998
  • Korea supposed the place of origin of soybean. Although it is speculated that it was edible in the era of the Three Kingdoms(A.D. 5-9C), there is no documentary evidence. The first record about the edibility of tofu was written down in the Goryeo dynasty, and there was several documents that tofu was exported to China and Japan in the Chosun dynasty due to excellent manufacture skills for tofu. Tofu has been a good source of protein as a food for the common people, though there were not many traditional kinds. Especially, tofu has been an important vegetarian foodstuff in a Buddist temple, and has been used for vegetable soup and skewered greens necessary for the sacrificial rites of the humbler class as well as of the royal court. We frequently made sliced raw tofu and fried tofu, and it was used for broil, stew, and casserole as well as stuffing. In addition, tofu and its bean-curd dregs were applied of making soy. In China it is assumed that tofu has been eatable since the time of the Han(AD. 1C). Chinese tofu and its products are various and generally 20 different varieties are used. There are many dishes applied of tofu. salted and plain tofu were used as Chinese appetizer dishes. Plain, salted, skinned or deep-fried tofu was stir-fried in an hot oiled pan with vegetables, meats and fishes. Additionally, there are a variety of tofu dishes utilized stewing, frying, steaming, and soup cookeries. Tofu first appeared in the era of the Nara(8C) of Japan and was come into wide use in the era of the Aedo(Tokyo). In Japan tofu and its products are various and introduced in Shojin cookeries prevalent in the Buddist temples. It is especially noticeable that frozen or skinned tofu was used for these. Japanese tofu cooking is more delicate than Korean and Chinese ones, and Japanese people do not use oil. Instead, they in general utilize steaming and broiling cookeries. In the western countries the history of tofu edibility is short. However, their practical application of tofu in the dietary life is very positive.

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Study on Major Korean Protein Sources Before and After Freeze Drying Processing (한국인 주요 단백질 급원식품 10종에 대한 동결건조 전후의 특성 연구)

  • Son, Yang-Ju;Choi, Soo-Young;Lee, Keum-Yang;Huang, Ying;Yoo, Kyung-Mi;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.64-75
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    • 2014
  • Freeze-drying process was used for 10 major protein foods referred by the Korea Health Statistics 2011 as follows; chicken, pork, beef, eggs, tofu, squid, soybean, mackerel, anchovy, and pollack/frozen pollack. Boiled samples and re-hydrated samples after freeze-drying were prepared for analysis. The weight variation, the chromaticity, the mechanical texture and sensory properties by eight trained panelists were measured. In the ratio of re-hydration, the anchovy showed the highest value(89.40%), followed by eggs, and squid showed the lowest value(35.51%). Changes of Hunter color value were observed among all samples. For rates on changes of hardness, every sample was increased except for eggs(p<.05). Among the 9 samples, except for eggs, chicken showed the lowest rate of increase in hardness(125.44%) while squid showed the highest rate of increase in hardness(1335.1%). Except for eggs and pork, eight samples represented differences in sensory properties, especially in juiciness and tenderness(p<.05). As a result, we found that egg is the most suitable for freeze-drying among 10 protein sources followed by pork and chicken.

The Survey on the Practice of Ancestral Service Food in Chuncheon Area (춘천지역 주부들의 제례음식 준비에 관한 연구)

  • 김은실;함승시
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.235-246
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    • 2001
  • The survey on the practice of the memorial ceremonial food in Chuncheon area showed it varied according to social position of officiator, location(inland or seaside town) , and personal condition. The study included the foods prepared for the memorial services on the memorial day. New Year's Day and Chusok. 1. 40.4% of the subjects were in the thirties at their age, 46.6% were high school graduates, 57.3% were the first daughter-in-law, 40.4% had no religion, 30.9% were working at public administration and earned less than 1 to 1,5 million won monthly. 2. 71.7% of the subjects who replied that the ancestor worship service had to be kept were Buddhists. 55.4% of them were high school graduates, and 58.8% of them ran independent businesses. They learned how to practice the ancestor worship service from their mother before marriage or from their parents-in-law after marriage. 3. The older the officiators, the better they wanted to keep the traditional format of the service, but the Christians and Catholics wanted to change the format to western style in the future. 4. 92.7% of them served cooked milled rice. They prepared the soup in the order of beef soup, radish soup and dried Alaskan pollack soup. 5. Among cooked vegetable dishes, bracken was used the most and balloonflower root, mung bean sprout and spinach followed. Among jeon(pan-fried foods). frozen Alaskan pollack was used the most and buckwheat, mung bean and meatball followed. 6. They served san-juk(beef kebab) mostly on the ceremony. Among the grilled foods, tofu was the favorite, and croaker followed. 7. Among the fried foods. squid was the favorite, and sweet-potato and shrimp followed. Among the dried foods. they used in the order of dried Alaskan pollack, dried beef and squid. 8. Among the rice cake and traditional confectionery, they used in the order of Yak-sik(sweet rice cake), Gang-jeong(fried glutinous rice cookie), Jeol-pyun and In-jeol-mee. Among a beverage, they served Sik-hye(fermented rice drink) mostly. 9. Among fruits, apples. jujube, chestnut and dried persimmon were served. Aong a liquor, Cheongju was served mostly. 10. Soy sauce, salt and salted fermented fish were served, too.

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Survey on Korean Food Preference of College Students in Seoul - Focused on Side Dishes - (서울지역 남녀 대학생의 한식 선호도 조사 (II) - 부식을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Hee-Ok;Kim, Jung-Yoon;Lee, Jung-Sug
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.707-713
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the side dishes preference of Korean food with 403 college students (197 males and 206 females) in Seoul using questionnaires. Regarding preference of soups, it was shown that male students liked $s{\breve{o}}ll{\breve{o}}ngt'$ang and beef soup and female students liked soybean paste soup. Male students had higher preferences for $s{\breve{o}}ll{\breve{o}}ngt'$ang, beef soup, dried pollack soup, and kimchi soup than female students (p<0.05). Both male and female students had the highest preferences for kimchi pot stew and soft-tofu pot stew, but the lowest preferences for fermented soybeans pot stew and frozen pollack pot stew (p<0.05). Stewed beef with soy sauce was preferred the most by both of them but female students had lower preferences for stewed bean with soy sauce and stewed pepper with soy sauce than male students (p<0.05). For the preference of panbroiled foods, stir-fried with marinated anchovy was disliked by both of them but stir-fried with marinated pork was shown to have high preference in male students and stir-fried with marinated kimchi was high in female students (p<0.05). Besides, roasted ribs, cucumber salad, and korean cabbage kimchi were preferred the most by both of them. But male students had higher preferences for roasted eel, grilled todok, roots of broad bellflower salad, mustard leaf kimchi, and white cabbage kimchi than female students (p<0.05).

Survey on Storage Temperature of Domestic Major Chilled Foods in Refrigerator (우리나라 주요 냉장판매식품의 보관온도 실태 조사)

  • Lee, Yu-Si;Ha, Ji-Hyoung;Park, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Sook-Yeon;Choi, Youn-Ju;Lee, Dong-Ho;Park, Sun-Hee;Moon, Eun-Sook;Ryu, Kyung;Shin, Hyoung-Soo;Ha, Sang-Do
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.304-308
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    • 2008
  • We investigated temperature management for refrigerated foods in large discount markets, department stores, and convenience stores. Eleven stores in the Seoul area were used to examine temperature maintenance for frozen and refrigerated foods, including soybean curds (tofu), fish surimi, mook, wet noodles, kimbab, and salads. The surficial and central temperatures of foods in a refrigerator and a freezer were examined. While the difference between the highest ($7.5^{\circ}C$) and the lowest ($6.4^{\circ}C$) temperature spaces in a refrigerator was $1.1^{\circ}C$, the corresponding difference between the highest ($8.9^{\circ}C$) and lowest ($7.5^{\circ}C$) food surface temperatures was $1.4^{\circ}C$. The average temperatures of both chilled food surfaces and refrigerator spaces were $7^{\circ}C$ (max. $22.9^{\circ}C$) and 8.2 degrees C (in. $-0.4^{\circ}C$), respectively. The temperatures of chilled food surfaces were $6.1{\times}10.6^{\circ}C$ for soybean curds, $6{\sim}12.3^{\circ}C$ for fish paste, $2.3{\times}18.2^{\circ}C$ for kimbab, $4.6{\times}12.2^{\circ}C$ for salads, $3.4{\times}12.6^{\circ}C$ for wet noodles, and $7.1{\times}19^{\circ}C$ for mook. Our results indicate that chilled foods require careful management for storage at temperatures below $10^{\circ}C$ with careful recording of the warmest area of the refrigerator.