• Title, Summary, Keyword: frying drying

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Physical drying and frying characteristics of kimbugaks made by a pasting & garnishing machine (풀칠·고명기로 제조된 김부각의 물리적 건조 및 튀김 특성)

  • Yoo, Soo-Nam;Choi, Yeong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.439-446
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    • 2015
  • Kimbugak is one of Korea's traditional snacks made of laver. This study was conducted to investigate the physical drying and frying characteristics of kimbugaks made by a pasting & garnishing machine. The drying and frying characteristics should be analyzed to develop a continuous operation system for manufacturing kimbugak because kimbugak has a high moisture content after pasting process. Materials for pasting and garnishing on laver were rice gruel and sesame. The aluminum shelf with square hole was selected as a drying shelf. The recommended size of the square hole type was $1.5mm{\times}1.5mm$ because characteristics of deformation and easy separation from the shelf were excellent at the hole size. The drying time of 2 hours was also recommended with the drying temperature of $70^{\circ}C$ based on the test results such as dried condition (good), moisture conten t (3.7%), deformation (12.1 mm), and shrinkage rate (19.8%). As the frying conditions for dried kimbugaks, recommended oil temperature and frying time were $170^{\circ}C$, 15 seconds, respectively when corn oil was used. In the case of frying for undried kimbugaks, recommended oil temperature and frying time were $210^{\circ}C$, 2 - 3 minutes, respectively for improvement of work efficiency.

Experimental Study on Gangjung and Sanja (II) - Textural Change in Gangjung and Sanja by Drying and frying Method - (강정과 산자류 제조에 관한 실험조리적 연구 (II) - 건조와 튀기는 과정에 따른 강정과 산자의 질감에 대하여 -)

  • 김태홍
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 1982
  • Based on the selected controlled receipe, drying and frying processes were varied inculding time and temperature. According to the panel test and measurement with a texturometer on the products of different drying and frying conditions, the highly acceptable best product was the one prepared as follows. It was placed in the oven at $45^{\circ}C$ for 5 minutes and then at $23^{\circ}C$for 15 minutes. After turning upside down, this drying step was repeatedly continued for 5 hours. It was also dipped into oil at $14^{\circ}C$ for 1 minute, soaked in oil at $120^{\circ}C$for 2 minutes and then fried in oil at $190^{\circ}C$for 2 minutes. The studies using a texturometer showed the products with high acceptability in the panel test had brittleness of 1.3-2cm and number of peaks 4-6. The optimum drying times is considered as 3 hours since there was no significant difference among the products of 3 to 5 hours drying time.

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Quality Characteristics of Sasambeong according to Processing Conditions (사삼병의 제조조건에 따른 품질특성)

  • Yoo, Seon-Mi;Go, Yun-A;Hwang, In Guk;Hwang, Young;Kim, Jin-Suk;Park, Sung-Jin;Choi, Byung-Kon;Seo, Sang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.1081-1085
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed in order to determine the processing conditions (pre-drying at room temperature for 0 or 30 min, frying at $160^{\circ}C$ for 1 min or at $180^{\circ}C$ for 40 sec, and soaking for 0~24 h) of Sasambeong recorded in the "Sumunsasul". The Sasambeong was evaluated for crude lipid content, hardness, Hunter's color values, and sensory characteristics. After pre-drying at room temperature for 30 min, the crude lipid contents and hardness of Sasambeong were significantly increased. In addition, the crude lipid content and hardness of Sasambeong did not differ significantly according to the frying conditions. After pre-drying, the sensory characteristics of Sasambeong showed more improvement. The crude lipid content, hardness, Hunter's color values, and sensory characteristics of Sasambeong, which were prepared according to different soaking times (0, 6, 12, or 24 hr) were investigated. As soaking time increased, the crude lipid content and hardness of Sasambeong decreased with a range of 25.43~24.31% and 525.90~388.98 g, respectively. The sensory characteristics of Sasambeong showed no significant difference according to the soaking time. Overall, we think that the best processing conditions of Sasambeong were pre-drying at room temperature for 30 min and then frying at $160^{\circ}C$ for 1 min.

The Drying of Plasticized Pasta (가소화(可塑化)된 파스타의 건조(乾燥))

  • Schwartzberg, Henry G.;Kim, Kong-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 1981
  • Cooked spaghetti soaked in 10%, 20%, and 40% aqueous glycerine solutions for ten minutes absorbed sufficient glycerine to plasticize that spaghetti during and after subsequent drying. The plasticizing action of the glycerine prevented fissuring(checking) and surface corrugation of the spaghetti at elevated drying temperature and large wet-bulb dry-bulb temperature difference. The drying temperature and the wet-bulb dry-bulb differences up to which such protection was provided as the glycerine soak concentration increased. Despite the reduction in drying rate, the drying time required to produce spaghetti with a water activity of 0.65 (the level normally required for stability) decreased as glycerine content increased. At high frying temperatures glycerine addition increased the extent of browning and shortened the period required to induce detectale browning, but in all instances browning started well after the product $a_w$ reached the 0.65 value required for the completion of drying. Because glycerine addition reduced drying times at any given set of drying conditions and permitted the use of higher drying temperatures, relatively low levels of glycerine addition (e.g. 0.15 kg glycerine/kg dry spagetti) can shorten spagnetti drying times by roughly 80% and perhaps by as much as 93%.

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Effect of Dextrin on Sorption Characteristics and Quality of Vacuum Frying Dried Carrot (감압유탕 건조당근의 흡습특성 및 품질에 미치는 덱스트린의 영향)

  • Rhee, Chul;Cho, Seung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 1991
  • The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of dextrin on vacuum frying dried carrots. The concentrations of dextrin solution were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and the criteria for quality evaluation were sorption characteristics, rehydration power, color and crispness differences. The sorption characteristics were evaluated by Peleg's equation. Rehydration, color and crispness were determined by rehydration percentage, colorimetry and sensory evaluation, respectively. The dextrin pretreatment of carrot resulted in the reduction of adsorption rate and the equilibrium moisture content of dried carrot at various range of relative humidities, and the adsorption rate of samples pretreated with aqueous dextrin solution at different temperatures($4^{\circ}C,\;20^{\circ}C,\;30^{\circ}C$) were in the following decreasing order : control>10% dextrin>20% dextrin>30% dextrin. As the concentration of dextrin solution and ambient temperature increased, BET monomolecular layer moisture content decreased significantly. In addition, as the concentration of dextrin solution increased, the crispness intensity increased and the color of sample treated with 20% dextrin solution was similar to that of raw carrot.

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Drying Rate and Physicochemical Characteristics of Dried Ginseng Root at Different Temperature (열풍건조온도에 따른 수삼건조속도 및 건조수삼의 이화학적 특성)

  • 하대철;이종원;도재호;박채규;류기형
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.741-746
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    • 2004
  • Drying of raw ginseng root down to 35% moisture content required for extrusion process. There were two kinds of pre-treatments of raw ginseng root which were chopping and whole-root ginseng before frying at 80, 100 and 12$0^{\circ}C$. Drying rate and physicochemical properties of dried ginseng were evaluated to determine optimum drying temperature for extrusion process. Drying time at 8$0^{\circ}C$ to decrease to 35% moisture was 6.5 hr and ginsenoside content in dried ginseng at 8$0^{\circ}C$ was lower than that of dried ginseng at 100 and 12$0^{\circ}C$. Drying time at 100 and 12$0^{\circ}C$ to decrease to 35% moisture was 5.5 and 3.5 hr and redness of dried ginseng powder was 5.20 and 7.23 respectively. Browness and redness of dried ginseng extract from 75% ethylene were significantly increased with the increase in drying temperature. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1 and total saponin were also increased with the increase in drying temperature from 8$0^{\circ}C$ to 10$0^{\circ}C$, however, those were not significantly different with drying temperature at 100 and 12$0^{\circ}C$. Drying temperature for extrusion process can be optimal at 10$0^{\circ}C$.

THE TASTE COMPOUNDS OF BROILED DRIED SEA MUSSELS (배건담치의 정미성분에 관한 연구)

  • RYU Byeong-Ho;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.65-83
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    • 1978
  • This study was attempted to evaluate the taste of broiled-dried sea mussel which is a traditional dried Sea food in Korea. The contents of such compounds as free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds, TMAO, betaine, and nonvolatile organic acids were analysed. From the results of analysis of nucleotides, the contents of AMP and ADP in broiled-dried Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis appeared higher than other nucleotides and tended to increase slightly after cooking, drying, and storage which might be due to both their stability and the addition of degradation of nucleic acids during cooking. In the free amino acid composition of fresh samples abundant amino were taurine, glycine, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, arginine, threonine, tyrosine, lysine and valine in order. Such amino acids as histidine, leucine, methionine and isoleucine were poor and both proline and phenylalanine were merely trace. The free amino acid composition in the extract of Mytilus corucus and Mytilus edulis after broil-drying was not changed. These amino acids, taurine, glycine, feline, glutamic acid, alanine and arginine were abundant in dried samples as well as in the fresh. The total free amino acid was greatly reduced after cooking and drying ranging from $76.3\%$ to $79.7\%$ loss to that of tile fresh. The content of betaine shelved the same tendency as in total free amino acid while TMA slightly increased relating to TMAO decrease during broil-frying. Such nonvolatile organic acids as succinic, lactic, malic and fumaric acid were abundant in both fresh and broiled-dried samples whereas oxalic and pyruvic acid were poor. It is found that the taste compounds of broiled-dried Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis were composed of amino acids as glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, arginine, and betaine, TMAO, ADP, AMP, and organic acids such as succinic acid, lactic acid, malic acid and fumaric acid. No significant differences in the taste compounds between male and female as well as between Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis was not observed.

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Studies on the Drying Methods of Gangjung Pellets (강정 반데기 건조방법에 관한 연구)

  • 이승아;김창순;김혁일
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a drying method of Gangjung. a traditional Korean snack, thus to reduce the drying time and to improve the quality of Gangjung. Two drying methods, hot air drying and far infrared ray drying were used by changing conditions such as air velocity(0.4, 1.2, 1.6 m/s), temperature(40, 50, 60$\^{C}$), and aging. Optimal moisture content of dried Gangjung pellet was 17% which was proper for frying. Cracks appeared on the surface of Gangjung pellet at lower levels of moisture content. Far infrared ray drying saved drying time about 20%. Both hot air drying and far infrared ray drying at 0.4 m/s of air velocity tended to show better quality of Gangjung than those dried at higher air velocities. The expansion volume and texture of Gangjung drying at 40$\^{C}$ was better than other temperature conditions, regardless of drying methods. Quality of Gangjung, dried at single stage without aging, was superior to those dried at double stage including aging process. Moreover, single stage drying save the drying time at least 24 hr. Gangjung dried at high temperature became hard and less brittle in sensory evaluation. In image analysis, air cell distribution in inner structure of Gangjung became uniform and fine as drying temperature decreased to 40$\^{C}$. Overall, Gangjung made of Gangjung pellet by the use of far infrared ray drying at 40$\^{C}$ without aging, showed the best quality in terms of physical and sensory properties.

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A Study on the Ideal Preparation Procedure of Apricot Seed Oil (행인유의 채유방법에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kyung-Yol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 1989
  • In order to modelize the pretreatment procedure of the cyanide-free apricot seed oil, the conditions of crushing, frying, drying and steaming were investigated. Hydrogen cyanide was formed in the crushed seed at wide temperature range of $5{\sim}70^{\circ}C$, and the highest formation temperature was $40^{\circ}C$. The cyanide content in the crushed seeds incubated 5 and $40^{\circ}C$ for 96 hours was 200 and $780{\mu}g/g$ respectively, however the cyanide contained small amount in the non-crushed seeds. Consequently, emulsin inactivaton procedure was required for the preparation of cyanide-free oil. Steaming for 15 min. was the most desirable pretreatment procedure for the cyanide-free apricot seed oil. But oil production from the steamed seeds was lower than those from frying.

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A Study for Drying of Sewage Sludge through Immersion Frying Using Used Oil (폐유를 이용한 하수슬러지 유중 건조 연구)

  • Shin, Mi-Soo;Kim, Hey-Suk;Hong, Ji-Eun;Jang, Dong-Soon;Ohm, Tae-In
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.694-699
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    • 2008
  • Considering the severe regulation associated with sludge treatment such as direct landfill and ocean dumping, there is no doubt in that an advanced study for the proper treatment of sludge is urgently needed in near feature. As one of viable method for sludge treatment, fry-drying of sludge by waste oil has been investigated in this study. The fundamental mechanism of this drying method lies in the phenomenon of rapid moisture escape in the sludge pore toward oil media. This is caused by the severe pressure gradient formed by the rapid oil heating between sludge and oil. As part of research effort of fry-drying using waste oil, a series of basic study has been made experimentally to obtain typical drying curves as function of important parameters such as drying temperature, drying time, oil type and geometrical shape of sludge formed. Based on this study, a number of useful conclusion can be drawn as following. The fry-drying method by oil immersion was found quite effective in the removal efficiency of sludge moisture, in general, the moisture content decreases significantly after 10 minutes and the whole moisture content was less than 5% after 14 minutes regardless of the drying temperature. The increase of oil temperature up to 140$^{\circ}C$ favors significantly for the removal of moisture but there was no visible difference above 140$^{\circ}C$. As expected, the decrease of diameter in sludge was efficient in drying due to the increased surface area per unit volume. Further, the effect of oil property by the change of oil type was noted. To be specific, for the case of engine oil the efficiency was found to be remarkably delayed in moisture evaporation compared with that of vegetable oil due to the increased viscosity of engine oil. It produced a result of increasing the evaporation of moisture largely relatively high in the drying temperature over 140$^{\circ}C$ compared with the drying temperature 120$^{\circ}C$ drying temperature as the drying time passed. Accordingly, the drying temperature is considered desirable as keeping over 140$^{\circ}C$ regardless of a sort of used oil.