• Title, Summary, Keyword: fumigation

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Biodeterioration of Cultural Property and Fumigation (문화재의 생물열화 방제-훈증처리를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Ho-Bong
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 1992
  • A great numbers of cultural properties destroyed though attack by insect pests and microorganisms. Biodeterioration damage is particularly serious in this country because many cultural propertiese are made of organic materials. Recently, there are various countermeasures of biodeterioration or alternative methods are reported, such as Gamma Radiation, Micro-wave Irridation, Freezing, Inert Atmosphere (Oxygen-less atmosphere), and Environmental Control. However its practical application are limited and some difficulties for treatment of large objects. Fumigation is one of the most useful and effective methods of control biodeterioration because it gives less damage of cultural properties but rapidly eradicate infesting organisms at one action. This paper evaluated selected fumigants and fumigation methods with emphasis on the following paragraph:1) Effectiveness of selected fumigants on insects and microbes involved inbiodeterioration.2) Physical and chemical characters of selected fumigants.3) Less toxic new alternative fumigant and its mixtures.4) Inert atmosphere (Oxygen-less atmosphere)5) Methods of fumigation : Sealed fumigation, Covered fumigation and Vacuum fumigation (Reduced-pressure fumigation)

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Systematic Review of Herbal Medicine Fumigation Treatment for Mycotic Vaginitis (Candida Vaginitis) (진균성 질염의 한약 훈증 치료에 대한 체계적 문헌 고찰)

  • Park, Kyung-Dug;Bae, Ju-Eun;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.20-32
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness of fumigation treatment, provide a clinical basis for fumigation therapy, and develop treatment protocols through consideration of treatment methods and herbal medicines. Methods: We searched for randomized controlled clinical trials using fumigation treatment on mycotic vaginitis in 8 electronic databases such as EMBASE, Pubmed, and CNKI. The results of the studies were analyzed and the risk of bias was assessed by using Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis was performed to reveal the effectiveness of fumigation compared to control treatments. Results: We finally selected 5 studies among 54 articles according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. In all selected studies, herbal fumigation was more effective than any control treatment and all the studies were statistically significant. Conclusions: The study provides a basis for applying fumigation treatment to patients with mycotic vaginitis and helps developing a treatment protocol of caring patients of mycotic vaginitis. But the limitation of this study is that the number of studies included is small and quantitative synthesis of all results has not been achieved.

Mechanical Properties of PVB 3D Printed Output Fumigated with Ethanol (에탄올 훈증처리한 3D 프린팅 PVB 출력물의 기계적 특성)

  • Kang, Eun-Young;Lim, Ji-Ho;Choi, Seunggon;Mun, Jong Wook;Lee, Yu Kyung;Lee, Sun Kon;Jeong, Dae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2020
  • FDM 3D printing structures have rough surfaces and require post-treatment to improve the properties. Fumigation is a representative technique for removing surface unevenness. Surface treatment by fumigation proceeds by dissolving the surface of the protruding structure using a vaporized solvent. In this study, 3D printed PVB outputs are surface-treated with ethyl-alcohol fumigation. As the fumigation time increases, the surface flattens as ethanol dissolves the mountains on the surface of PVB and the surface valleys are filled with dissolved PVB. Through the fumigation process, the mechanical strength tends to decrease, and deformation rate increases. Ethanol vapor permeates into PVB, widening the distance between chains and resulting in weak bonding strength between chains. In order to confirm the effect of fumigation only, an annealing process is performed at 80 ℃ for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 50 minutes and the results of the fumigation are compared.

Assessment of Methylbromide Exposure Levels in Fumigation Workers on Import and Export Plant (수출입식물 훈증 작업자의 브롬화메틸 노출수준 평가)

  • Jeong, Jee Yeon;Yi, Gwang-Yong;Cho, Sook-Ja;Park, Seung-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Methyl bromide is a highly toxic substance that can cause systemic poisoning, neurotoxicity, pulmonary edema. Methyl bromide is a widespread fumigation agent used for import and export quarantine, but there is little data on exposure assessment of workers participating in such fumigation. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the exposure level of methyl bromide among workers and the concentration distribution of methyl bromide in the workplace during fumigation. Methods: For this study, one wood tent and one container fumigation area in Pusan, and one wood tent fumigation area in Incheon were investigated over three months from June 2001. Results: Methyl bromide exposure levels for container fumigation workers were from undetected to 1.86 ppm and from undetected to 2.28 ppm for tent fumigation workers as an 8 hr TWA. After opening the container door, the methyl bromide concentration in the container decreased rapidly over time, but the concentration remained over 1 ppm even after about one hour. The concentrations around the tent during its removal were highly affected by wind, but were detected in a range from undetected to 11.97 ppm. Conclusions: This study confirmed that both container and tent fumigation caused workers to exceed the exposure limit of 1 ppm as an 8 hour TWA. In particular, it could be confirmed that a situation exists in which the worker may be exposed to high concentrations of methyl bromide when opening the container or removing the tent due to the nature of the work. Therefore, it is very important to improve working methods and to wear appropriate personal protective equipment.

A Study on the Effects of Fumigation on Excavated Costumes (출토복식유물에 대한 훈증소독의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 채옥자;박성실;안춘순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.668-677
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    • 2004
  • This study examines the effects and influences of fumigation on the antimicrobial treatment of excavated dresses in two different museum settings using chemical composite of Methyl Bromide and Ethylene Oxide. The microbial test indicated that the prewashed samples contained Micrococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and some unidentified fungi and that the total number of microbes decreased after washing. While it was observed that most germs were removed immediately after fumigation, Bacillus was still found and its number even increased. After 5 months, the number of microbes found in Museum A was smaller than Museum B, which shows that Museum A equipped with better environment control facility was superior to Museum. B in terms of exhibition and preservation of dresses against organic damages. In addition, the result indicates that fumigation is an effective measure against the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, considering that the number of microorganisms decreased after fumigation. The color of test sample showed immediate change after fumigation but color difference became stabilized and decreased with the passage of time. The test samples from both museums showed similar patterns.

Effect of Soil Fumigation and Maize Cultivation on Reduction of Replant Failure in Ginseng (토양 훈증 및 녹비작물 재배가 인삼의 연작장해 경감에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sung Woo;Lee, Seung Ho;Seo, Moon Won;Jang, In Bok;Jang, In Bae;Yu, Jin;Moon, Ji Won;Suh, Soo Jung
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.248-253
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    • 2018
  • Background: Dazomet are widely used as soil fumigant to solve soilborne problems, and the degradation intermediates are toxic to nematodes, fungi, bacteria, insects and weeds. Methods and Results: The effects of cultivation of green manure crop, maize before and after soil fumigation on the control of ginseng root rot disease were compared using soil where 6-years-old ginseng was harvested. Fumigant (dazomet) were used for soil fumigation in May and September, respectively. Maize was grown for soil management before and after soil fumigation. After May fumigation, the sowing date of maize was delayed by 15 days and thus its dry weight was decreased significantly. Maize cultivation after May fumigation increased pH but decreased EC, $NO_3$, $P_2O_5$, and K significantly. Maize cultivation after May fumigation decreased fungi population and the ratio of fungi and bacteria. Growth of 2-years-old ginseng was improved and the incidence of ginseng root rot was significantly decreased by maize cultivation after May fumigation. After harvesting 2-years-old ginseng, the population of Cylindrocarpon destructans was not different between treatment of May and September, but Fusarium solani showed a significant increase in September fumigation after maize cultivation. Conclusions: Maize cultivation after soil fumigation was effective in inhibiting ginseng root rot by the amendment of mineral composition and microorganism in fumigated soil.

Marketing of cleaned fresh ginseng and pre-packaging fumigation of 2-phenylethyl alcohol on ginseng storability (세척인삼 유통 현황과 포장전 2-phenylethyl Alcohol 훈증이 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sun-Ik;Sung, Bong-Jae;Kim, Hyeon-Ho;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2011
  • The potential factors for quality loss of cleaned fresh ginseng and technology to be associated with the improvement of marketability through pre-packaging fumigation were examined. Major microorganisms isolated from fresh ginseng included Botrytis cinerea, and Erwinia sp. Others such as Cylindrocarpon sp., Fusarium spp., Pennicilium spp., Bacillus spp. were also found at relatively low frequency. The bacterial density of vacuum packaged fresh ginseng rapidly increased during simulated marketing. Little correlation between bacterial growth and package swelling was found. In order to improve packaging method of fresh ginseng, pre-packaging treatment of 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PE, 100 uL/L, 4 hr) was examined. The fumigation treatment effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria density and also effective on keeping firmness of ginseng root, especially in cortical portion. The internal gas compositions of plastic container packaged for ginseng were approximately ranged between 6 to 8% $O_2$and 3 to 4% $CO_2$. The $O_2$ level of fumigation treatment was lower than control whereas $CO_2$ level was higher. The upsurge of ethylene evolution I day after simulated marketing was found only in fumigation treatment but it returned to ordinary level at day 2. The sucrose content of 2-PE treatment was significantly reduced at 5 days after simulated marketing but reducing sugars like glucose and fructose remained at higher level. The difference in sugar levels was reduced after 10 days of simulated marketing. The decay of fresh ginseng began at the lateral or fine root, which is weak to physical damage, in general. The epidermis was more damaged. Plastic container packaging with PE fumigation could be an alternative to vacuum packaging, which allows an aerobic environment and prevents anaerobic respiration. Further study of pre-package fumigation is required to improve technology of fresh ginseng marketing.

Effect of Fumigation on the Strength of Excavated Costumes (훈증처리가 출토복식유물의 강도 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 채옥자;박성실;안춘순
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.591-598
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    • 2004
  • This study examines the effects and influences of fumigation using chemical composite of Methyl Bromide and Ethylene Oxide on the change of strength of excavated dresses. The fabric strength immediately after washing and fumigation increased slightly, but it decreased greatly as the time progressed. The strength of the test sample from Museum A showed a steady decrease with time, while that of Museum B decreased rapidly 5 months later. Compared with the non-fumigated sample, fumigated sample was greater in strength regardless of the time progression, and the strength of sample kept in the exhibit hall was greater than that kept in the storage room. The strength of the fumigated sample was almost same regardless of the three different time periods, before washing, after washing and immediately after fumigation, and it decreased steadily with time, whereas the non-fumigated sample became much weaker in its strength in 10 months after washing. Even 5 months later, the fumigated sample was about as strong as immediately after fumigation, but the strength dropped to a great extent 10 months later.

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Systematic Review of Fumigation Therapy for Atrophic Vaginitis (위축성 질염의 좌훈 치료 연구에 관한 체계적 문헌 고찰)

  • Baek, Seon-Eun;Jang, Sae-Byul;Choi, Kyung-Hee;Yoo, Jeong-Eun
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.92-101
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to overview and evaluate the effectiveness of fumigation treatment for women with atrophic vaginitis. Methods: We searched articles from Pubmed, Chinese Academic Journals (CAJ) and Oasis online databases. Searching keywords were ‘fumigation’, ‘atrophic vaginitis’, ‘vaginitis’, ‘阴道炎’, ‘膣炎’, ‘老年性 阴道炎’, ‘坐熏’, ‘熏洗’, ‘熏浴’, ‘좌훈요법’, ‘질염’, ‘위축성질염’. After searching the articles, we performed quality assessment using Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool. Results: Among the 142 articles were searched, 5 randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were finally selected. All of 5 studies showed that fumigation treatment has significant effect on atrophic vaginitis in terms of the effectiveness rate, but 3 studies were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our systematic review found encouraging but limited evidence of fumigation therapy for atrophic vaginitis. We recommend clinical trials which obtain stronger evidence without the demerits of trial design.

Effects of Fumigation at Pre-exportation Stage on the Quality of Cut Rose (수출전 훈증처리가 절화장미의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Ki-Cheol;Byoun, Hye-Jin;Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Lim, Ki-Byung;Kim, Young-Il
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.366-369
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    • 1998
  • To lesson economical loss induced by fumigation in importing country when cut roses are exported, effects of several fumigation temperature, treatments of cut stems (dry or wet), methyl bromide (MB) concentrations, and fumigation periods on the quality of cut roses were investigated. According to results, the most important factor affecting the quality of cut rose was found to be fumigation temperature. When fumigated at $5^{\circ}C$, cut roses showed no chemical damages, e.g., tip burn or bent neck, and maintained their quality for the same duration as that of control, regardless of MB concentrations or treatments of cut stems. However, phytotoxicity by MB increased and vase life of cut rose was shortened as fumigation temperature increased. Timing of fumigation also appeared to be an important factor affecting the quality of cut roses of which phytotoxicity by MB was not observed and thier vase life was not shortened, even if MB was treated up to $40g{\cdot}m^{-3}$, when cut roses were fumigated at $5^{\circ}C$ on the day of harvesting. On the other hand, the degree of damage of cut flowers by fumigation methods or MB concentraions was not consistent with changes in fumigation temperature.

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